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Troy, because no vestiges were dif- fic. They feaft separately on pilav, coverable when Alexander founded and retire at an early hour, when the second city, whilst they admit the the ceremony is concluded. latter fact equally unauthorised by “ The succession of five tumuli, preicnt appearances.

under the distant horizon, tends “ From this spot we had a most more than any other proof to ascer. interesting prospect independent of tain the Trojan war. About an its local history; the magic of hour and a balf from Bournà-bashi, which, and its effets on the inind, on an easy eminence facing the west, are beautifully defcribed by: Lucan. We discovered vestiges of an ancient The left skreen is a low ridge of city. On the right are standing se. hills; the middle distance is the ven granite pillars several feet high, great area, upon which the Greeks but it rather appears that they are were encamped ; beyoud was the not placed in their original order. fceve of many of the great events of On the other side, we saw a smail the war; and the offskip and skirt- block of marble with an inscription, ing line were compoled of the pro- a few inches above the ground, montory of Tenedos, Belaiktepe, which being dug up, we found to Sigèum, the village of Koum-kalch, be of the date of the Roman empe. down to tbe water edge, and a broad rors, and too much mutilated to be winding reach of the Hellespont, decyphered fatisfactorily. into which the opposite headland - From the detail of topographie and castle were brought forward cal notices given by Honier, and with considerable effect. The sea from a comparison of the circumthen spreads very widely, and the stances he mentions, the strongest view is closed by the blue moun- assurances will follow not only of tains of Imbros. The length and the existence, but the locality of extent of this island have been ex- Troy. To in lift that the poem tremely mistaken, as scarcely a map should be historically exact, would is extant which describes it above be to make no allowance for the li

half its real fize. We rode about berty of a poet. That it is topogra. .' half an hour over heathy ground, phically so, an examination of the

niuch elevated, to Halyleli, near present face of the country will amr the village of Thimbrik-keuy, and ply prove, and it is equally an obat the instant of our pafling a ject of classical curiosity, whether Turkish wedding was celebrating Troy existed or not, since the fable, among the villagers; the bufiness if such it must be, is invariably &c. is summary. The parents of both commodated to the scene of action. parties, or the bridegroom for him. “With respectful deference to a self, settle the contract, which im. name so long esteemed in the repubplies what dower he thall give the lic of letters as that of Mr. Bryant, bride. This arrangement made, the I humbly but totally diffent from bridegroom afsembles his friends; his scepticisin on this subject. For they mount horses, and are accom- it is not to the tasteless system of panied by music, such as a very Le Boflu in his Essay on the Epic, rude hautboy, or pipe, and a drum, who has preceded Mr. Bryant in a can make. The bride is demanded, similar hypotheGs, that the opinion and has likewise a cavalcade of her of many ages, and the fatisfaction of female relatives, when they return ocular inspection, can be readily home animated with the same mu. conceded. To establish a convictioa on the mind, that the tale of Troy space of a mile, the first object on divine, is a mere invention, may re- the brow is a stony billock, which quire yet more than the moit la. Chevalier, with no apparent realon,

It has borious learning can lead to conjec- calls the tomb of Hector. ture, and could it avail, we might

been opened and examined, but we lose in the pleasures of the imaginas could not learn the result. tion, as much as we could gain by “ There are others covered with truth, could bis arguments establish grass, appropriated likewileto Troit, and lament with the enthusiast jan herves. Upon this area and the in Horace,

intermediate ground froin the vil

lage there is undoubtedly space -demplus per vim mentis gratifimus enough for such a city as Troy is error,

described to have been. The level

falls abruptly on the south, with a “ As the setting fun was more precipitate cliff, into a very deep rabrilliant than for many days past, vine, forming a mural rock as comthe village of Bounàr-balhi opened pact and reg ilar as the remaining upon us very pleasantly from the walls of Constantinople, now almost ford of the Simoeis, which we pafl- covered at its base by the stream and ed within a furlong of the chiftlik sands of the Simoeis, for the length of Hadji Mehmet Aghà, the pre- of forty or fifty yards, and completsent proprietor of a domain produc. ing a fortification, rendered impreging near goool. sterling per annum, pable by nature, which will account and including little less space, and for a ten years' siege, and the super. the identical ground of the king- lative epithet of walls constructed dom of old Prian. His house is by the gods themselves. Mr. Wood mean, but many columns were discovered no place, amongst Ida disperfed about it, which had been correspondent to that description ; collected from the faces of adjacent and Mr. Bryant would seek' for it cities.

(did he purpose an actualinipection) "From the village the lrill rises only in his favourite Egypt. This rapidly, and foon becomes an inlu- division of rifted rock from the lated mountain. In the front of the groupe of forest mountains, of which house, at a small distance, is the first Ida is composed on the east and source of the Scamander, which is north sides, does not exceed a huns said, by M. Chevalier, to be the hot dred and fifty yards, and is scarcely Spring, upon which he grounds the farther asunder at the top, linking strongest proof of his hypothefis re. as perpendicularly as an artificial fpe ting the locality of the city of channel. The face of the ground Troy. It is at least tepid; and the exhibits nothing worthy reinark; aghà told us that in the winter bulhes and huge unhewn stones on. months, especially during frol, it ly are to be seen. The whole view was hot, and smoked. Homer must of the plain of Troy, from the height be allowed the privilege of a hot said to have been the citadel, is of spring, and a river fuil to the brink, uninterruptedextent, with the wind. if they happen once within the year. ing Simoeis, and the grand horizon. The lofty wall of Troy and the 'talline marked by Jejek Tepee and Scæan gate intersected the modern the Sigean promontory, and turning village of Bournà-bashi.

to the left, by the two in the illand 6 Ascending the hill, thickly ·of Tenedos. We then returned to Atrewn with loose stones for the the chiftlik, and bade adieu to the

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hospitable aghà, who potressed, in a Miletus, upon which Mr.Wood has great degree, that trait of a true rested his opinion that Troy was fi. mufulman, urbanity to strangers. tuated so much higher amongst the

“ For several hours we traced with hills of Ida, seems to be ill founded; the utmost attention the course of for the Simoeis has, at no season, the Scamander from the cold or see either the fize or declension from its cond fource, which is a collection of source that the Cäytter and Meander small springs, through tlie morass, are known to have. The foil exhi. where for home miles it is positively bits no marks of volcanic fire, nor hid, till we reached the new canal, can it be reasonably prefumed, from and jaw plainly the ancient bed. any present appearance, that the face The banks of this river, where ex- of the country could have been posed, are verdant and beautiful, changed by an earthquake, upon and watered to the brink. M. Che which circumstar.ce as presupposed valier's topography and general another hypothesis is built. Of all idea, after a fair inveftigation, we the proofs aduced by M.Chevalier, acknowledged to be ingenious and the tumuli, so connected with the plausible.

Rhætean and Sigean promontories, “ We then fixed ourselves at and the outpolts of the Grecian Giawr-keuy, or cape Janissary, a camp, are the most satisfactory.

poor village confisting entirely of The site is likewise confirmed by "Greeks, the site of the far-famed Si. four others, which, to whatever he

gæum, which has likewise the same roes they may be conjecturally attri. of Yeni-cheyr. It is fingular that buted, with no additional weight to Greeks Mould still occupy that an- the argument, give a certain degree cient station.

of internal evidence, and ascertain " From this eminence we looked the scene of great military transac. over the plain, the whole scope of tions, or vicinity to a large city. In which we cominanded ; its broadest those rude and primæval ages, hediaineter may be five or fix, and its rocs had no other momuments, nor longest twelve miles, to Atchè-keuycould any more lasting have been It is naturally verdant and fertile, devised. and now very generally cultivated,

Ingens excepting near the marth, which • Aggeritur tumulo tellus.' occupies a fifth part. Homer gives

Virg. En.l. iii. v. 62, 63. frequent evidence of his having personally visited and examined this « We found the bas relief, and celebrated spot, of which he fome- the celebrated Sigean inscription, times enters into minute descrip. written with the letters invented by tions. The rivers are particularly Cadmus, and the lines written al. characterised. Simoeis has broad ternately backward and forward a sands, with a sudden and rapid cur- mode of the higheit antiquity, and rent ; Scamander is transparent, and used likewise for the buws of Solon, regularly full, within a narrow chan- according to Suidas. M. Choiseul's nel, and so they continue to be till attempt to remove it fanctioned by their junction, before they reach the firhmåns, and the interest of Hassan sea. Whatever change the former Palhà, could not prevail against the may have çccasioned in the present ancient prejudices of the villagers. appearance of the plain, the analo. It is accurately described by Chithul, gy taken from those of Ephesus and Shuckford, and Chandler, and is


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now placed at the door of a low that towards the centre of the hut, consecrated as a chapel. The "monument two large stones were letters are nearly worn out, having found leaning at an angle one a. been so long used as a bench to fit “gainst the other, and forming a on, Advancing some furlongs over kind of tent, under which was prethe promontory, we saw the barrow i fently discovered a linall statue of (beshic tepee) called the tomb of " Minerva feated in a chariot with Antilochus by Strabo. On the other • four horses, and an urn of metal side of the village under the brow filled with alhes, charcoal, and huof the hill, crowned by half a dozen man bones. This urn, now in the windmills, near the sea, are two ( poffeffion of le compte Choiseul, is smaller tumuli, generally supposed "encircled in sculpture with a vine to be those, one of which is attribut. • branch, from which are suspended ed by the ancient geographers to bunches of grapes, done with exthe illustrious friends Achilles and quisite art.' Two pages of learn. Patroclus, and the other to Peneleus ed commentary succeed this asserthe Bæotian. Since the opening tion, which introduces a curious hy. and discoveries, made in the former, pothesis respecting early Grecian by order of the French embassador, sculpture. M. le compte de Choiseul Gouffer, "From information gained from in 1787, some dervishes have built the only person present at the opentheir convent against it, and placed ing of the barrow, whose simple dea clay cabin on the top. They now tail the favour of a friend enables use the barrow as a cemetery. me to subjoin *, it is probable that "M. Chevalier has informed us, nothing was found which could

juftify EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM THE DARDANELLES. • I had a very interesting conversation with the son of the late French consul, Sig. • Solomon Ghormezano, relative to the opening of the tomb of Achilles, near the Sigean • promontory. He said that he had been employed by count Choiseul Gouffier to exá• mine the tumulus and to search for remains, and that he worked at it by night, deceiv•ing the agbà and people with the hopes of discovering a spring of water, fo necessary

to the inhabitants of Yeni-cheyr. Two months elapred in this work, as no other • person fuperintended. He frequently wished to decline it in despair, but was directed

to perfevere. Ac length he discovered the place where the reliques were depofited. • He immediately collected the whole, and communicated his success to his employer, (filling a large cheft with what he had found. Mr. Choiseul enjoined him to bring • them to him, and not to truft them out of his fight; but he repaid his trouble with " thanks only. He was induced to referve several small specimens, which he oblig. • ingly shewed and explained to us, as Mr. Choiseul was no longer formidable.

• 1 fubjoin a list of them. "]. Pieces of burned bones. 2. Pieces of a inetal vafe. I inquired particularly Poncerning the vase, and in what Atate it was originally found. He replied, that is 'was broken, and had had a small ornament only, round the cim; but ihat enough • remained to determine the shape, and that it was of confiderable fize. What I saw wa: • so entirely destroyed with ruft, that no poflible conjeéture could be formed from it. z.

Charcoal, made of vine branches. 4. A piece of mortar and stone, which appeared . to have passed through fire. 5. A piece of metal of a triangular shape. 6. Pieces of

very fine pottery, well painted, with wreaths of flowers of a dark olive colour. Ils * observed that fome of the pieces of pottery seemed to have composed large vales, bé. ' fide which were several small cups, some of which were entirc, and refeinbled Etrufe 'can ware. It might have been a funeral ceremony to haye emptied these to the me'mory of the deceased, and then to have placed them in the comb,

* He delivered likewise to Mr. Choiseul a fragment of brass about a foot and a half

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justify such an account. Extreme "horses' seem to prove that the age, and the preffure of the ground, Troad continues to be the land of had crumbled into atoms of ruft all invention. If Pococke's opinion be the metallic substances. The urn, just, that Belhic tepee, on the Sio or vase, M. Fauval, aningenious ain gean ridge, on account of being tift now residing at Athens, receive more conspicuous at sea, was the ed from M. Choiseul in its decayed true fepulchre of Achilles and Pa. itate, and made a model from it, troclus, and the two on the shore which has been exhibited to several those of Antilochus and another he connoisseurs, as much to their sur ro,Cheveilier's account is description prise as satisfaction; and “the god instead of truth." • dess with her chariot and four

State of the People and of CIVILIZATION in SCOTLAND, at the latter

End of the 14th, and at the Beginning of the 15th CENTURY.

[From the First Volume of PINKERTON's HISTORY of SCOTLAND,

under the House of STUART.]

6 W H ETHER education, cli- racter, is an important problem,

W mate, or goveroment, pro- discussed by many able writers, but duce most effect on national cha- hitherto not sufficiently resolved. It

long, and in the middle, being the thickeft part, about the circumference of a quart • bottle, and weighing seven or eight pounds. It was, ar firft, called the hilt of a • sword, but afterward Mr. Choiseul declared it to be the ftatue of a man with a lion (under each foot.

67. A small piece of a transparent substance, belonging, as he said, to a kind of tube worked and closed at one end. It may not be easy to conjecture for what use this was • intended. From his description of it, I collect, that it was about a foot long and • two inches in diameter, ornamented with branches in chared or embossed work, and of

so transparent a nature, that objects might be clearly seen through it. It had receive • ed but light injury, having only a small fracture at the upper end.

• He then acquainted us with the different ftrata of earth he had dug through in opening the tomb. On the outside was a kind of sea (and, the same as that near it; then yellowish foil, solid but light; coloured earths, black and yellow, each Aratum • being two feet deep, with large ftones. On the foundation of the barrow apparently 6 was a large flab, extending, as he supposed, over the whole, as wherever he dug be « ftill found it. In the middle was a hole twelve feet square, around which was raised a • wall three feet high, which was the sepulchre containing the reliques. By the weight

of the earth all was presled together, which accounts for the confused and broken state

in which the things were discovered. On the outside of this stone was ftrewed a quan<tity of lime, and then of charcoal, fupposed to be the ashes of the funeral pile.

. When the barrows were closed up, count Choiseul placed a sheet of lead on the bottom inscribed “Ouvrage fait par le compte de Choiseul Gouffier l'an 1987"!!! Mr. Cheválier's ignorance of modern Greek led him into a curious mistake. The two contiguous barrows are called “dthèo tepè,' the two tombs. Mr. Chevalier hearing this name from the villagers, immediately conjectures away with his · Anos Tee' and puzzles himself with mythology. • October, 1795.


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