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colour, the ingredienos of which are two ounces and feven drams of well combined with each oth ir, wool. The foap was of a good coria and which is very soluble in water, fistence, and, when cold, weighed It has an animal smell, which, fourteen ounces. however, the cloths get rid of, by "6. In proportion as the wool is being washed, and exposed to the diffolved in the ley, the folvent air.
power of the alkali grows weak, " The various experiments I and at last it will diffolve no more, have made on this subject have When we obferve that the wool, been attended with the following upon being stirred in the liquor, is refults:
no longer diffolved, it is then timme 16.1. As soon as the wool is to stop the procefs. thrown into the boiling ley, its “I mall now point out what fibres adhere to each other, and a means are to be employed, in every very flight degree of agitation is woollen manufactory, to preparethe fufficient to render its solution com. soap which will be wanted in it. plete.
562. In proportion as fresh wool « On the Choice and Preparation of is added, the ley gradually acquires
the Maieriais. colour and consistence..
" 3. The soap has more or less "The materials requisite to form colour in proportion to the cleanthis foap are only two; alkaline subness and whiteness of the wool made ftances, and wool. ufe of.
“ The alkaline substances may "64. Hair of a coarser kind, be procured from tim alhes of any which happens to be mixed with fires where wood is burnt; and rive the old wool, is dissolved with more ley is to be made according to the difficulty.
common well-known process. -“5. The quantity of wool which Quick-line is to be Baked with a ley is capable of diffolving depends finall quantity of water, and the upon its strength, its causticity, and paste formed thereby is to be mixed its degree of heat. Two pounds, with the afires, (they being first three ounces, and three quarters, of passed through a fieve,) in the procaustic alkaline ley, at twelve de portion of one-tenth part of quicsgrees of concentration, and at the lime, by weight, to the quantity of boiling-heat, diffolved ten ounces alhes made ute of. The mixture and a half of wool. The foap, should be put into a ftone veffel; when cold, weighed one pound and (as wooden vefsels not only cotour four ounces.
the ley, but are themselves mich “ A fimilar quantity of alkaline injured by it;) and water is then to ley, of the fame degree of causticity be poured upon it, in such qirbrity and heat, in which I dissolved four as to cover it, and rise fome inches ounces of wool, did not thereby ac- above it. These are to be left toquire sufficient consistence to be ca. gether for a certain time, and then pable of being used for the various the ley is to be drawn off, by an apurposes for which this soap is in- perture made for that purpole, at tended.
the bottom of the vertel. It is best " Another limilar quantity of not to draw off the ley, till the mos -ley, of four degrees of concentra- ment when it is to be used: its jon, could not dissolve more than ftrength Thould be from four to fif
teen degrees; but the degree of stances. When washed they may be concentration is a matter of very lit. laid by till wanted. tle consequence, since all the dif "We may also, with equal adference that results from making vantage, make use of the cuttings use of a weak ley or strong one, is, and shreds of woollen cloth, which that a greater or a less quantity of are found in the shops of 'woo leowool will be diffolved.
drapers, tailors, &c. and likewise of " The pot-ath of commerce may all sorts of garments, or other wool. also be made use of; it is to be em, len articles, after they have been ployed in the same manner as the worn till they will serve no longer. woodalhes, but with one third of its weight of quick-lime. «« With reípect to the choice of
“On the Preparation of the Soap. the wool, every one knows, that in “When the ley is made and the the making of woollen cloths, blan- wool procured, nothing remains to kets, and all other kinds of woollen be do:e, but to bring the ley to a goods, a series of operations is per boiling-heat in a common caldron. formed, from the first walking of When it is brought to that degree the wool to the finishing of the of heat, the wool is to be thrown cloth, &c. in each of which there in, a little at a time, and the mix. occurs a loss, more or less confidera. ture is to be stirred, that the foluble, of a portion of the original ma. tion may go on the faster. A fresh terial. The water in which the quantity of wool Mould not be addwool je walue In the floor on which ed, until the preceding quantity is it is spread, and the warehouse in dissolved; and the process Tould which it is deposited, exhibit suffi. be stopped, as soon as we find that cient proofs of this; so also do the the liquor will not diffolve any more operations of beating, carding, spin. wool. ning, and weaving the wool, and “ It has been ascertained, by those of Mearing, combing, and trials in the large way, made by fulling the cloth. It is indeed true Michel Fabriguette, with soap of that the scattered wool, produced this kind, which he prepared ac. from these various processes, is col. cording to my instructions, that lected with some care; but many of such soap fcours the cloths, felts them are of such a nature, that the then), and softens them, perfectly waste wool resulting from them, ei. well; but there are some observa. ther is dirty, and mixed with other tions to be made, respecting its use, fubstances, or it is cur so short, that which are too important to be omit. it is rendered incapable of being an ted. gain used: in either case, the manu. “ First, when this soap is not facturer throws it on the dunghill. prepared with fufficient care, or The making of the soap here de. when it is made with dirty or cofcribed furnishes him with the loured wool, it is apt to give the means of bringing all these into use; cloths, &c. à greyill ringe, which it nothing more being requisite than is very difficult to remove. If the to colleat them in the balkers in cloth is iprended to be dyed, this which the wool is wased, and to tinge is of no consequence; but it wash them carefully; as well for – would injure that fine white colour, the fake of cleaning them, as to se. wbich, in certain cases, is intended parate from them all foreign suba to be given, or to be preserved.
This tinge, however, may be pre. therein, in the usual well-known vented, by a very careful selection' manner, it will, by being patled of the materials for making the three times through the liquor, and soap which is meant to be em- dried each time, be as strongly dif. ployed for such delicate purposes. posed to receive the dye, as cotton
“Cloths, &c. fulled with this which has been seven times passed soap, acquire, as was faid before, through the faponaceous liquors an animal sinell, which, without be, commonly used. This will not be ing very strong, is nevertheless un- thought very astonishing, when it pleasant; but water and air never is confidered that animal substances fail to remove it.
are very fit for difpoing thread and “Having succeeded in fulling cotton to receive the colours with woollen cloths by the use of this which they are to be dyed ; and foap, I attempted to use foda, in the that zhe intention of several of the place of pot-all, and thus to form operations performed upon them, (according to the procefs above de previous to their being dyed, is fcribed) a hard coap, fit for the merely to impregnate them with operations of dying cottons; and such substances. my experiments succeeded beyond “It is necessary to remark, that my expectations.
cotton, by being passed through a " Forty-fix pounds of foda-ley solution of this soap, acquires a grey (of eight degrees) diffolved, in a boil. tinge, very much like that which is ing-heat, five pounds of wool; and given to it by aluming; although afforded, when cold, fixteen pounds the common faponaceous liquors fourteen ounces of soap, fufficiently give it a beautiful white colour. hard to keep its form.
This grey colour, however, is no “ The first quantities of wool disadvantage to cotton which is in. thrown into the foda-ley are easily tended to be dyed, as we have diffolved; but it may be observed, already remarked with respect to that the liquor gradually grows woollen cloths. thicker, and that the diffolution “In confirmation of what I have becomes more difficult and Nower. faid above, respecting the advantage
" The ley, by the wool first dif- to be derived from making use of folved in it, acquires a green co- this foap, I may add, that after have lour; it afterwards grows black; ing impregnated fome cotton with and the soap, when cold, Nill re- it, according to the usual method, tains a blackish green colour. I made it pats through all the pro
“This soap has been made use of, cesses which wool undergoes, in in every different manner, and on- order to be dyed of a scarlet colour. der every form in my manufactory The consequence was, that the cotfor dying cottons ; and I am now ton was thereby dyed of a deep and satisfied that it may be employed, very agreeable fell-colour; whereinstead of the faponaceous liquor as cotton which had not been prewe are accustomed to make from pared in that manner, came out of ley of soda and oil, for the purpose the bath almost of its natural coof preparing the cottons. I have lour. This first trial promises ad. constantly observed, that if such a vantages which I mean to pursue. · quantity of this soap be diffolved in “It may be right to observe, that cold water as will render the water this soap of wool may advantage. milky, and the cotton be worked ously be made use of, instead of
common soap, for domestic pur- of the various ways in which I have poses. I have employed it with applied it. the greatest success, in washing li. " I shall only add, that as the nen; and it is particularly efficaci: soap bere described gives the wool. ous in scouring woollen garments, lens and cottons a grey tinge, which &c. I have no doubt that the facie is very difficult to remove, it foliows lity and economy with which its that it cannot be used for washing preparation is attended, will cause linen, unless it be made of white its use to be extended to many wool, carefully selected, and well other purposes; in the mean time, I washed." thought it right to give an account
INTERESTING ACCOUNT of the EFFECTS produced on the HUMAN
Bopy, by the INTERNAL Use of NITROUS Acid, and of the BeneFIT derived from it in the CURE of DISEASES, by Mr. Scort of BOMBAY.
[From Drs. DUNCANS'Annals of MEDICINE for the Year 1796.]
66TEE following interesting ar- The acid that I now employ for in
I scle of medical news has ternal use, is procured from a mixnot probably fallen into the hands ture of three parts of alum, and one of many o: our readers; and to all of nitre. I have no objection to of then it wil, we doubt not, ap- my name being used on this subpear fo fingular as to deserve parti- . ject; for I really believe that such cular atiention. If the observations a remedy would be highly useful made by Mr. Scott Mall be confirm to mankind, if judiciouily employ. ed by the experience of others, the ed, especially in warm climates, nitric acid will afford a most valua- where a tendency to animalizarion ble reine dy for combating diseases, gives a particular character to all against which the remedies com- our diseaies. monly employed are often attended
I am, &c. with so much inconvenience.
LETTER TO Sir Joseph Banks. Account of the Effects of the Nitrous
Acid on the Human Body, extract. Bombay, 6th May, 1796. ed from the Bombay Courier, April “I embrace an opportunity of 30, 1796. sending you a fhort account, that I have just published, of the effects The following attempt to extend of the nitrous acid on the human a little the limits of the healing art, body. As I have long made use of is inscribed as a tribute of respe&t to this active agent, and in a great va. the character of Dr. James Anderriety of cases, I am persuaded that son, physician-general at Madras. I have not been deceiving myself. “ In August 1793, I employed Another paper will shortly be pub. myfelf for some time in making exlished on this subject, which I Thail periments on the bile, a secretion also take the liberty of sending you, that is connected in a great degree with many of the diseases of this livers, on the diffection of the dead, country. I wished to unite some of of a peari colour, and much enlargthe calces of mercury with the resi- ed, which I fuipeet were composed nous matter of that Muid; for I in a good measure of this retinous imagined that I might discover matter. I have even found it, from some chemical affinity between thore accurate trials, in a considerable substances, and be able to see by quantity, in the substance of a liver what means this metal is fo lingue that was apparently without disease. larly qualified for removing obítruc. Is the well-kuown effect of new tions of the liver.
grafs, in diffolving the biliary calca“I had collected, for experiinent, l1 of the gall-bladder, 'that cattle get a quantity of the resinous base of the in the winter-time, to be accounted bile of a buffalo, which I had sepa- for froin the pure air of green and rated very carefully from its foda, acescent vegetables ? and from the lymphatic inatter with “ It is acknowledged, that all the which it is united. I had put a calces of mercury which are used in dram or more of this substance into medicine, contain a quantity of pure a vessel, to which I added about air; but I know of no direct expe. half of the same weight of the red riment having been hitherto made, calx of mercury, with ten or twelve to prove that the effect of mercury ounces of water. On heating the in diseases of the liver, or in other whole together, I was surprised to maladies, depends on this principle, observe, that the base of the bile be- and not on the metal itielf. The came remarkably more soluble in experiments, that I had made on the water. I caonot say that I ob- the base of the bile, inclined me to served the red colour of the calx in wish to take myself a quantity of any great degree altered; but it is pure air, united to some substance known to retain its brilliancy with for which it has no great attraction, different quantities of oxygene. I I reflected on the different ways filtraced this bitter solution, which that are employed by chemists to deposited the base of the bile, as oxygenate inanimate matter; for I the water evaporated in the ordi. believed that the lame chemical atnary heat of the atmosphere. I fail tractions would produce a similar at another time consider this subject effect in the living body, although with a little more attention. they might be disturbed in their o
6 M. Fourcroy has observed, peration by the vitality of the ma.. that water dissolves a small portion of chine, and the variety of the priothe base of the bile. In this expe- ciples of which it is composed. riment a considerably larger quan- " The nitric acid, as may be suptity was taken up than water could posed, was one of the first fubiances have diffolved, which I attribute to that occurred to ine as fit for my the oxygenation of the relin by the purpose ; for it is known to contain pure air of the calx. I had some about four parts of vital air, united reason to think, that obstructions to one of azote, with a certain proof the liver do often consist of a de. portion of water. These principles position of the resin of the bile, can be separated from each other which, I now began to suppose, by the intervention of many other. might be rendered foluble in the a. bodies, as chemists find every day in nimal fluids, by the pure air of the their operations. I was led, besides, mercurial preparations that are give to give a preference to the nitric en for the disease. I have feen acid, from observing, that it dis