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to Madelaine de la Tour, of Au- assassins to murder him, which they vergne, of che house of Bouillon; were near perpetrating. Lorenzo allied to the blood royal of France. died May 4, 1519; his remains The lying Sleidan, to use the epi. were deposited in the facrifty of chet of the emperor Charles V. St. Lorenzo's church, near those of calls this lady Galla, of the house the duke of Nemours. His moof Bolonnois, but she was the se. nument is also the workmanship of cond daughter of John de la Tour, Michael Angelo; his effigies, and count of Auvergne, descended from the figure of Aurora and Twiligbi, a brother of Godfrey, the first are the admiration of connoil. Christian king of Jerusaleni, by seurs. Jane of Bourbon, sister to the count “Leo did not confine his favours of Vendosme. She brought Lou to the nearest of his name. He renzo a foriune of ten thousand was the patron of every one of his ducats per annum, chiefly the gift family, whether of the male or feof Francis l. who also presented male liue, not forgetting the ille. him with fifty thousand ducats out gitimate branches. He even form. of the money raised for the crusade ed the project of leaving Julio, the against the sultan Seliin I. and pofthumous natural son of the unwhich Leo had given a brief to fortunate Julian, who fell a victhat monarch to apply to his own tim to the malice of pope Sixtus ufe.
IV. and the Pazzi, his successor in " It is not easy to estimate the the papal see. Lorenzo, the Maggrief of this pontiff, when he saw nificent, had shown his particular this prince brought to an early regard for his brother Julian, by grave, by a lingering jilness con- an extreme tenderness for this his tracted in France from youthful in- son, whom he educated with his temperance, and in a few days af- own children, treated as his ne. terwards Madelaine, in bringing phew, and loaded with every kindinto the world Catherine, their nefs. only child. The little orphan be. « His fine parts, learning, and canie queen of France, and is taste, ftill, if pollible, more en. well known for the uncommon deared all the Medici to him. His beauty, fine accomplishments, and courage, assiduity, and the ease the vast extent of abilities the pof- and dexterity with which he per. selled, but which were rendered formed the most difficult and hadangerous in the extreme by the zardous enterprises, won him the atrocious wickedness of her man- favour of the discerning Julius,
who created him a knight of “ Lorenzo had little to recom- Rhodes, and grand prior of Capua, mend bim to Leo, except his rela.. and as such he carried the standard tionship, as his character was chief of the military order at the corona. ly formed of deceit, revenge, and tion of Leo. cowardice. When he bad name.. “ The pontiff was no sooner fully deserted France, and dreaded seated upon the papal throne, than her vengeance, he meanly threw he obliged Julio to go into the the wiiole blame upon his uncle church, though bis inclination led and henefactor. Instead of answer. him most to the camp. Ecclegas. ing the challenge of the injured tical honours crowded upon him. duke of Urbino, as military ho. He received the archiepiscopate of pour demanded, he basely hired Florence, and the following year
was presented with a cardinal's chair about eight. His remains hat, and made chancellor of the were deposited in a brick grave in Roman church, the next dignitary St. Peter's church, but were afterIn the pope. The emperor Charles wards removed by Paul II l. to the V. granted him great pensions, church of St. Maria-fupra-Mi. and when Leo broke with Cæsar, nerva. Francis I. to make a recompence “ Revenge, more than policy, for the loss it would occafion to the made Leo the invererate enemy of Cardinal, assigned him an annuity France; he remembered that the and preferments to the value of ten misfortunes of his house were in a thousand ducats yearly, as he had be- great measure owing to that na. fore done to Lorenzo. His promo- tion ; but whenever his own or his tions in the church were beyond all family's interest demanded it, he decency, holding bilhopricks in altered his conduct. He profeffed most of the kingdoms in Europe; the utmost affection for Francis I. and Leo, after Lorenzo's death, ap- at Bologna, where they had an in. pointed him governor of Florence. terview, yet he took the first op
" In all these various situations, portunity to break his engagements Julio acted with consummate pru, with that monarch. dence, and by the confidence Leo “ Leo's excess of magnificence placed in him, he plainly pointed charmed the Romans; a medal him out as heir to the Mediceanwas ítruck with Liberalitas Pongrandeur. There was none of the tificia upon the reverse, with a elder branch of the family to con- device suitable to the motto. He tett it with him, and if there had, was the first pontiff that had a me. his vast advantages would have fe- dal elegantly wrought; his prede. cured it to him against every oppo, ceffor began to strike them. 'Marnent.
tin I. is the earliest who had one * In this situation was the house struck in honour of his memory of Medici, when Leo, its head, " Leo's ambition and inclination was saddenly called away by excess to enlarge the patrimony of St. of joy; for whilst he sat at supper, Peter was equal to that of his prenews was brought him that the decessor; but Julius left a full, French were beaten out of Italy; Leo an empty treasury. Other he cried out, “God has been so 'pontificates,' it was said, "expire • merciful to me, as to let me see "ed at the death of a pope, but his
three things, which I desired from continued long after. His un. * the bottom of my heart:--To bounded magnificence and libera• return with houjour into Florence, lity, which his revenue, immense • whence I was banished with as it was, could not support, by • shame; to have merit fufficient producing the sale of indulgences,
to advance me to the papacy; and began the Reformation. Some of " to see the French beaten out of them the pope liad given to be • Italy.' In pronouncing of which raised by fale, in particular prolast words, he fell dead with the vinces, to his relations and friends; glass he held in his hand.
Saxony was apportioned to his fister “ This event took place Decem- Maddelene, the wife of Francisco ber 2, 1521, when he had within Cibo, son of Innocent VIII. not a few days completed his forty- more from affinity to her than in eighth year, and Tat in the papal gratitude to him, whose family had treated the Medici in the kindest that of a Bacchanalian. With manner after their expulsion from all these excessive detects, he will Florence. These were told at so ever be remembered by the lovers great and extravagant a price, that of learning and taste with venera. it called forth Luther, and Luther, tion. His reign was the golden age freedom from papal tyranny
of literature, and the arts were "". His atfectiou to his family, by not less obliged to him, owing in its excess becaine highly criminal, a great measure to his father hav. because neither justice, honour, or ing selected those of the highest gratitude, were any impediment to celebrity in every science for his ihe pronioting their intereft, for- tutors and early companions. How getting for that purpose every thing much is it to be laniented, that he due to his sacred character. It is was not equally virtuous as learned said he did not even pretend to be- and elegant." lieve in revelation. His mirth was
Memoirs of Baron Born.. (From Travels in HUNGARY,&c. by ROBERT TOWNSON, LL.D. &c.]
"MHE Baron aras born at Carif- with the celebrated Ferber, who
1 burg in Transylvania, of a in 1774 publilied his letters.-10 noble family, and caine early in life was in this tour that he so nearly to Vienna, and fuctied under the lost his life, and where he was Jesuits; who, no doubt, perceiv: struck with that disease which em. ing in him more than common bittered the rest of his days, aud abilities, and that he would one which was only rendered support. day be an honour to their crder, able by a strong philofophic mind prevailed on him to enter into it; and active difpofition. but of this society he was a mem. “ It was at Felso-Banya where ber only for about a year and a he met with this misfortune, as aphalf. He then left Vienna and vent pears from his eighteenth letter to to Pracue, where, as it is the cultom Mr. Ferber. He descended bere in Germany, he studied the law, into a mine, where fire was used As foon as be bad conipleted his to detach the ore, to observe the ftudies, he macie a tour through a efficacy of this means, too soon af part of Germany, Holland, the ter the fire had been extingui lhed, Netizerlands, and France; and re. and whilst the mine was full of ar. furning to Prague, he engaged in sepical vapours raised by the hear. the ftudies of natural history, min. My long filence,' fays he to his ing, and their connected branches; friend Ferber, is the consequence and in 1770 he was received into of an unlucky accident, which the department of the mines and had almost cost me my life. I de. mint at Prague. As we learn from "scended the Great Mine to see the his letters, this year he made a tour, ómanner of applying the fore, and and vilited the principal mines of its effects on the mine, when the Hungary and Transylvania, and fire was hardly extinct, and the during is kept up a correspondence mine was ftill full of smoke.'
How greatly he suffered in his "Memoirs of a private Society in health by this accident appears from · Buhemia.' his letter which we mentioned when “ His fame reaching the empress we spoke of Tokay; where it will Mary Theresa, in 1776 the called be remeinbered he complained that him to Vienna lo arrange and dehe could hardly bear the motion of fcribe the imperial collection : and his carriage: upon this misfortune about two years after, he published he hastened to Vienna. After this the splendid work containing the he was appointed at Prague coun, Conchology :' in the execution sellor of the mines. In 5771 he of this, I believe, he had some ass published a small work of the Je- fistance. The empress defrayed the suit Poda, on the machinery uiled expences for a certain number of about mines; and the next year copies. On the death of this pa. his Lithophylacium Borneanum. tron the work was discontinued, This is the catalogue of his col. her successor, the emperor Joseph, lection of foftils, which he afternot favouring the undertaking. wards disposed of to the hon. Mr. He had likewise the honour of inGreville. This work drew on bim structing the arch-duchess Maria the attention of mineralogists, and Anna in natural history, who was brought him into correspondence partial to this entertaining study with the first men in this line. He and he formed and arranged for was now made a member of the her a neat museum. In 1779 he Royal Societies of Stockholm, Sic was raised to the office of actual enna, and Padua ; and in 1774, the counsellor of the court chamber same honour was conferred on him (Hof Kammer) in the department by the Royal Society of London. of the mines cod mint. This of,
" During his residence in Bohe. fice detained him constantly in Vi. mia, he did not apply himself to enna, and engaged the chief part the business of his charge alone; of his time, but his active disposition induced « The consequences of his mishim to seek for opportunities of fortune at Felso-Banya began now extending knowledge, and of be to be felt in the severest manner; ing useful to the world. He took he was attacked with the most ex. a part in the work entitled Por- cruciating colics, which rose to ” traits of the Learned Men and such a degree as to threaten a speedy • Artists of Bohemia and Moravia.! termination of his life and miseries. He was, likewise concerned in the In this depth of torment he had • Alta Literaria Bohemiæ et Mora- recourse to the usual calmer of bo.
viæ;' and the editor of the latter dily pain, opiuin; and a large por. publicly acknowledges in the pre- tion of this being placed by the face to it, how much Bohemian li- side of him, which he was ordered terature is indebted to him. Prague only to take in small doses; once and Vienna were both without a brought to desperation through the public cabinet for the use of the intensity of his pain, he swallowed Itudents : it was at his instigation it at one draught. This brought that government was induced to on a lethargy, which lasted fourform one, and he himselt affifted and-twenty hours; but when he by his contributious and his labours. awoke he was free of his pains. In 1775 he laid the foundation of The disorder now attacked his legs a literary fociety, which published and feet, particularly his right leg, several volumes under the title of and in this he was lame for the rest of his life; sometimes the lame their meetings, differtations on ness was accompanied by pain, fome subject of history, ethics, fometimes not. But his feet by or moral philosophy, were read by degrees withered, and he was ob- the members; and commonly fome. liged to sit, or lie, or lean upon a thing on the hiftory of ancient and sopha; though sometimes he was modern mysteries, and secret fo. so well as to be able to sit upon a cieties. These were afterwards ftool, but not to move from one published in the Diary for Free room to the other without affift. masons, for the use of the initiat. ånce.
ed, and not for public sale. In “ His free and active genius led the winter they met occasionally, him to interest himself in all the and held more public discourses, occurrences of the times, and to to which the members of the other take an active part in all the ir.sti- lodges were allowed access. As tutions and plans for enlightening most of the learned of Vienna be. and reforming mankind. With longed to this lodge, it was very these benevolent intentions he form- natural to fuppofe, that many of ed connections with the Free Ma- the dissertations read here were fons, whose views in this part of not quite within the limits of the the world were something more original plan of the fociety. It than eating and drinkiog, as may was these differtations, I believe, be conjectured by the laws and re which gave rise to another perigulations made against masonry by odical work entitled, Phifica. the emperor Jofeph. Under The. lische Arbeiten der einträchtigen resa, this order was obliged to keep • Freunde in Wien,' which was itself very secret in Austria; but continued for some time by the ba. Joseph, on his coming to the ron and his brother Masons. He throne, tolerated it, and the baron was likewise active in extirpating founded in the Austrian metropo. fuperftitions of various kinds which Jis a lodge called the “True Con. had crept into the other lodges, and • cord.' This was no card club, or equally zealous in giving to these association for eating and drinking, focieties such an organization as where the leading members were might render thein useful to the chosen by their capacity for taking public. in folids and liquids, and where a " The baron, and many others good song was considered as a first of his lodge, belonged to the foo rate qualification; but a fociety of ciety of the Illuminated.' This learned men, whose lodge was a was no difhonour to him: the views place of rendezvous for the literati of this order, at least at first, seem of the capital.
to have been commendable; they “ No doubt the obstacles there were the improvement of mankind, gentlemen would find, to the pro. not the destruction of society. Such gress of science and useful know. institutions are only useful or dan ledge, in the church hierarchy, and gerous, and to be approved of or in the cabals of courtiers, would condemned, according to the ftate draw their attention to political of fociety; and this was before the subjects ; and subjects were really French revolution, and in a coun. discussed here which the church try less enlightened than almoft any had forbid to be spoken of, and other part of Germany. So żealwhich the government mult bave oüs a friend was be to them, that wished not to be thought of, it when the elector of Bavaria or