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How greatly he fuffered in his health by this accident appears from his letter which we mentioned when we fpoke of Tokay j where it will be remembered he complained that he could hardly bear the motion of his carriage: upon this misfortune he haftened to Vienna. After this he was appointed at Prague counsellor of the mines. In 1771 he publiflied a fmall work of the JeAiit Poda, on the machinery uled about mines; and the next year his Lithopbylacium Borneanum. This is the catalogue of his collection of foffils, which he afterwards difpofed of to the hon. Mr. Greville. This work drew on him the attention of mineralogifts, and brought him into correspondence with the firft men in this line. He was now made a member of the Royal Societies of Stockholm, Sienna, and Padua; and in 1774, the fame honour was conferred on him by the Royal Society of London.

"During his refidence in Bohemia, he did not apply himfelf to the buiinefs of his charge alone; but his active difpofition induced him to feek for opportunities of extending knowledge, and of being ufeful to the world.—He took a part in the work entitled • Por

♦ traits of the Learned Men and

* Artifts of Bohemia and Moravia,' He was. likewife concerned in the

• Acta Literaria Bohemia; et Mora

* via?;' and the editor of the latter publicly acknowledges in the preface to it, how much Bohemian literature is indebted to him. Prague and Vienna were both without a public cabinet for the ufe of the fludents: it was at his irrigation that government was induced to form one, and he himfelf affifted by his contribution.-, and his labours. In 177; he laid the foundation of a literary fociety, which publilhed feverai volumes under the title of

'Memoirs of a private Society in 'Bohemia.'

"His fame reaching the emprefs Mary Therefa, in 1776 the called him to Vienna 10 arrange and defcribe the imperial collection: and about two years after, he publilhed the fplendid work containing the: * Conchology:' in the execution of this, I believe, he had feme af-: fi fiance. The emprefs defrayed the expences for a certain number of copies. On the death of this patron the work was difcontinucd, her fucceflbr, the emperor Jofeph, not favouring the undertaking. He had likewife the honour of inltruding the arch-duchefs Maria Anna in natural hiftory, Who was partial to this entertaining itudy» and he formed and arranged for her a neat mufeum. In 1779 he was raifed to the office of actual counfellor of the court chamber (Hof Kammer) in the department of the mines -.nd mint. This of. fice detained him constantly in Vienna, and engaged the chief part of his time.

"The confequences of his miffortuuc at Felfo-Banya began now to be felt in the fevereft manner; he was attacked with the molt excruciating colics, which rofe to fuch a degree as to threaten a fpeed'jr termination of his life and miferies. In t.lis depth of torment he had. recourfe to the ufual calmer of bodily pain, opium; and a large portion of this being placed by the fide of him, which he was ordered only to take in fmail doles; once brought to defperation through the inteufiiy of his pain, he fwallowed it at one draught. This brought on a lethargy, which lalted fourand-twenty hours; but when he .awoke he was free of his pains. The diforder now attacked his legs and feet, particularly his right leg, and in this he was lame for the reft

of of his life} ffltnetiniei the lamenefs was accompanied by pain, (bmetimes not. But his feet by degrees withered, and he was obliged to fit, or lie, or lean upon a fopha; though fometimes he was fo well as to be able to fit upon a ftool, but not to move from one room to the other without affittince.

"His free and active genius led him to intereft himfelf in all the occurrences of the times, and to take an active part in all the ir.ftitutions and plans for enlightening and reforming mankind. With thefe benevolent intentions he formed connections with the Free Mafons, whofe views in this part of the world were fomething more than eating and drinking, as may be conjectured by the laws and regulations made again ft mafonrv by the emperor Jofeph. Under 't'herefa, this order was obliged to keep kfelf very fecret in Auftria; but Jofeph, on his coming to the throne, tolerated it, and the baron founded in the Auftrian metropolis a lodge called the 'True Con* cord.' This was no card club, or aflbciation for eating and drinking, where the leading members were chofen by their capacity for taking in folids and liquids, and where a good fong was confidered as a firft rate qualification; but a fociety of learned men, whofe lodge was a place of rendezvous for the literati of the capital.

"No doubt the obftacles thefe gentlemen would find, to the progrefs of fcience and ufeful knowledge, in the church hierarchy, and in the cabals of courtiers, would draw their attention to political fubjeers; and fubjectb were really difcufled here which the church had forbid to be fpoken of, and which the government muft have wifiied not to be thought of. h\ %

their meetings, diflertations on fome fubject of hiftory, ethics, or moral philofophy, were read by the members; and commonly fomething on the hifiory of ancient and modern niyfteries, and fecrer fbcieties. Thefe were afterwards publifhed in the Diary for Frcemafons, for the ufe of the initiated, and not for public fale.—In the winter they met occafionally, and held more public difcourfes, to which the members of the other lodges were allowed accef*. As moil of the learned of Vienna belonged to this lodge, it was very natural to fuppofe, that many of the difiertations read here were not quite within the limits of the original plan of the fociety. It was thefe difTertations, I believe, which gave rife to another periodical work entitled, • Fhifica

• lifche Arbeiten der eintrachrigen

* Freunde in Wien,' which wat continued for force time by the.baron and his brother Mafons. He was likewife active in extirpating fuperftitions of varioiu kinds which had crept into the other lodges, and equally zealous in giving to thefe focieties fuch an organization as might render them ufeful to the public.

14 The baron, and many others of his lodge, belonged to the fociety of the 'Illuminated.* This was no di (honour to him: the views of this order, at leaft at firft, feem to have been commendable; they were the improvement of mankind, not the deftruction of fociety. Such institutions are only ufeful or dangerous, and to be approved of or condemned, according to the ftate of fociety; and this was before the French revolution, and in a country lefs enlightened than almoft any other part of Germany. So zealous a friend was he to them, that when tlte elector/ of Bavaria or*


dered all ttiofe in his fervice to quit this order, he was fo difpleafed that he returned the academy of Munich the diploma they had fent him on their receiving him amongft them, publicly avowed his attachment to the order, and thought it proper to break off all further connection with Bavaria as a member of its literary fociety. The Free Mafons did not long retain the patronage of their Sovereign; the emperor Jofeph foon became jealous of their influence, and put them under fuck reftrictions, and clogged them with fuch incumbrances, as to amount almoft to a prohibition; and as fuch they a<3ed, for the fociety found it neceffary to diffolve.

"What raifed the baron fo high in the public opinion, was his knowledge of'mineralogy, and his fuccefsful experiments in metallurgy, and principally in the procefs of amalgamation. The ufe of quickfilver in extracting the noble metals from their ores, was not a difcovery of the baron's, nor of the century in which he lived j yet he extended fo far its application in metallurgy as to form a brilliant epoch in this mod important art. After he had at great expence made many private experiments, and was convinced of the utility of his method, he laid before the emperor an account of his difcovery, who gave orders that a decifive experiment on a large quantity or ore fhould be made at Schemnhz in Hungary. To fee this he invited many of the moft celebrated chymifts and metallurgies of Europe; and Ferber, fclhujer, Charpentier, Trebra, l'oda, and many more were prefent, and approved of his invention. On this general approbation be pubhflied, by order of the emperor, his Treati'feon the Procefs of Amalgamation, with a great many

engravings of the requifite inftruments and machinery. To fuppofe that his fuccefs, whilft it brought him fame and emolument, did not draw upon him the envy and ill will of many of his brother metallurgies and affbciates in office, would fhow a great ignorance of what is daily palling in common life. Envy has its fhare even in maintaining order in fociety: it is this which tends to keep the great from rifing higher, whilft a con-* trary paffion lifts up the little, or prevents them from falling lower.

"Though great cabals were raifed againft him, and againfi the introduction of his method, yet the advantages of it in many cafes were fo evident, that the emperor ordered it to be ufed in his Hungarian mines; and as a recoinpenfe for his difcovery, gave him for ten years the third part of the favLngs arifing from its application, and four per cent, of this third part for the next twenty years. Even this did not defend him from being flill haraffed by his enemies; obftacies were ftili thrown in the way to prevent the introduction and fuccefs of his difcovery, and to defraud him of his we'll-earned recompenle.

"Though he fuffered very much in the latter part of his life, yet this did not prevent him from continuing his literary purfuits. In 1790lie publifhed his 'Catalogue • methodique raifonne' of the collection of foffils of Mifs Raab, which had been chiefly formed by his donations. This work, elegantly printed in two volumes, wa* well received by the public, and he was writing the 'Fafti Leopol'dini,' and a mineralogical work, when death put an end to his ufeful life and to his fufferings.

"Notwithftanding the varied advice of his phyficians, his difeafe

conticontinued: in fuch a ftate quacks find eaf'y accefs to the fick; who is not then ready to feize the noftrum of the bold pretender? One of tliefe gave him a decoifrioii which foon calmed his fufferings, and which he was adored would cure him in a few weeks. He continued the nfe of this for the lad five months of his life: it really diminifhcd his pains; but his friends obftrved that his cheerfuliiefs, which hitherto had not left him, diminifhcd like wife, and that fpafms often attacked his upper limbs. On the a 111 of July, 179 r, he was feized with fpafms and cold; the former foon fubfided on friction, but he loft his fpeech. On the fubfequent dayi he had different attacks till the 28th, when he found himfelf better, but he was foon attacked again with fpafms, and in thefe he expired.

44 Born was of a middle fize and delicate conftitution, dark complexion, black hair, and large black eyebrows. Wit and fatire, and a quick comprehenfion, were marked in his eyes, and his lively and penetrating genius appeared in his countenance. Belides being a good Latin claffic, he was mafterof mod European languages of note, and poflelled a deal of general information no ways connected wiih thofe branches of fcience required in his profeffion. He was a great wit and fatirift, and a good companion even under the fufferings of bodily pain. His too liberal and unguarded ufe of fatire made him many enemies. In his youthful days he wrote the * Staats Periicke' for the amufement of his friends: this was afterwards publifiied without his knowledge. But nothing fhows more his talent for fatire than his * Monachologia,' which he publiflted in 1783, juit when the

emperor Jofeph was making his reforms in the church: indeed, at any other time fuch a fevere fatire on the monks would not have been permitted. They are characterized thus:

4 Monachus.

Defcripiio..— Animal avanim, 'fcetidum, immundum, fiticulofum, 1 iners, inediampotiustoleransquam 'laborem;—vivunterapinaetquarf

• tu; mundum fui tan turn caufa cre» 4atum efle predicant; coeunt clan

• deftine, nuptias non celebrant, foc4 tus exponunt; in propriam fpeciem 'faeviunt, et hoffem ex infidiis ag4 grediuntur. Ufus. Terras pondus 'inutile. Fruges confumerc nati.' And upon the order of Dominicans he fays—* Eximio olfacftu poller, 4 vinum et hasrefin e longinquo ode4 rat. Efurit femper polyphagus. 4 Jimiores fame probantur. Vere4 rani, relegata omni cura et occu4 patione, guise indulgent, cibis fuc4 culentis uutriuntur, molliter cu4 bant, tepide quiefcunt, fomnum 4 protrahunt, et ex fuis dijeta cu

* rant, urefca omnisin adipem tranf. 'eat. lardumqueadipifcautur: bine 4 abdomen prolixom paffim prar fe 4ferunt; fenes ventricofi maxime

* xftimantur. Virginitatis facra?ofo4 res in venerem volgivagam proni 4 ruunt. Generi humano et faoac 4 rationi infellifllma fpecies, in cu4 jus creatione non fe jadtavit auc4 tor naturae.'

44 The archbifhop of Vienna complained to the emperor againti this work; who replied, that it was only the idle and ufelefs part of the fpiritual order which was attacked. This was feconded by his 4 Defeufio Phyfiophili;' and to this fucceeded his 4 Anaromia Mo4 nachi.' He wrote likewife a fatire on Father Hell the afironomer, by publifhinga long Latin advertifement, full of irony, announcing a book written againft the Free-mafons, in the name of this learned Jefuit.

"It muft not be forgotten, that his houfe was always open to the travelling literati who vifited Vienna; and that unprotected genius was always fure to find in him a friend and patron. He carried this perhaps too far, fo far as to ruin hiseftate; probably the expectations of receiving a large income fpom the amalgamation, made him It fs

attentive to economy in his domeftic concerns; though 1 believe his infolvency was ch:efly owing to ufurers and money lenders, to whom he was obliged to have recourfe tb carry on his expenfive projects. Through thefe, though bis patrimony ~was very confiderable, he dieoJ*greatly in debtt this is the more to be lamented, as he left a wife and two daughters."

Memoirs of Dr. Zimmerman.

[Extracted from the Lipn of M. Zimmerman, Counfellor of State, Chief Phyfician to the King of England at Hanover, Sec. Translated from the French of S. A. D. Tissor, M. D. F. R. S. &c]

"JOHN' George Zimmerman was born at Brugg, a town in the German, part of the canton of Berne, on the 8th of Dec. 1728. He was the fon of the fenator J. Zimmerman, of one of thofe families, as there are many even in the fmalleft towns of Switzerland, and without doubt in other partsof Europe) which, without any of thofe titles of rank that are obtained in monarchies, fometimes by money, hut often through favour or influence, have diftinguiftied themfeives for ages by the integri.y with *hicb they have fihed the higheft employments in their country for the advantage, of their fellow-citizens. The motherofM Zimmerman was a mils Pache of Mbrges, ■ town in the French part of the fame canton, and daughter to a celebrated counfeilor, who had formerly belonged to the parliament of Pat is. This circumftance is mentioned ferves to explain why, though born in a province where German only is fpo'797

ken, and though he followed his ft tidies in German cities, and paffed a very fhort time in France, he yet fpoke and wrote the two languages with equal facility.

"He was brought up in his fa* ther's houfe under able mailers till the age of fourteen, when he was fent to Berne, where he fhidied the belles lettres under M. Kirchberguer, profeffbr of eloquence and hiftory, and M. Altman, profefTor of Greek; to both of whom he airways acknowledged great obligations. At the end of three years he pafled into the fchool of philofophy, the profrflbr of which, a zealous difciple of Mr. Wolf, knew of philofophy only the metaphyfics of his matter, and employed the! whole year in explaining a very fmall part even of them. Itmayeafily be imagined how much fuch a method would tend to difguft an aftive mind with a fcience, which, well taught, is of infinite ufe to every perfon who wifhes to ftudy well; and which has even its alB lurements,

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