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vowel of the fecond, joined together, form the precife found wanted.
"The compofition of many of the Chinese characters often difplays considerable' ingenuity; and ferves alfo to give r.n infight into the opinions and manners of the people. The character expreflive of happinefs, includes abridged marks of land, the fourcc of their phyfical, and of children, that of their moral enjoyments. This character, embelliiiied in a variety of ways, is hung up almoft in every houfe. Sometimes written by rhe hand of the emperor, it is fcnt by him as a compliment, which is very highly prized; and fuch as he was pleafed to fend to the ambafTador.
"Upon the formation, changes, and allufions of compound characters, the Chinefe have published many thoufand volumes of philological learning. No where does criticifm more abound, or is more llrict. The introduction, or alteration of a character is a ferious undertaking; and feldom fails to meet •with opposition. The moft ancient writings of the Chinefe are ftill claflical amongft them. The language feems in no inftance to have been derived from, or mixed with, any other. The written, feems to have followed the oral, language foon after the'men who fpoke it were formed into a regular fociety. Though it is likely that ail hierogfyptiicai languages were originally founded on the priciples of imitation, yet in the gradual progrefc towards arbitrary forms and founds, it is probable that every fociety deviated from the originals, in a different manner from the others; and thus for every independent fociety, there arofe a feparate hieroglyphic language. As foon as a communication took place between any, two
of them, each would hear name* and founds not common to both. Each reciprocally would mark down fuch names, in the founds of its own characters, bearing, as hieroglyphics, a different fenfe. Id that inftance, confcquently, tho'.'e eha« rafters ceafe 10 be hieroglyphics, and were merely marks of found. If the foreign founds could not be expreffed but by the ufe of a part of two hieroglyphics, in the maimer mentioned to be ufed fometimes in Chinefe dictionaries, the two marks joined together, become in fact a fyllable. If a frequent intercourfe fbould take place between communities, fpeaking different bnguages, the neceflity of ufing hieroglyphics merely as marks ol found, would frequently recur. The praftiot would lead imperceptibly to the difcovery that, with a few hieroglyphics, every found of the foreign language might be exprefied; and the hieroglyphics which anfweret) beft this purpofe, either as to ex3ftnefs of found, or fimplicky of fornv would be felefted for this particular ufe; and, ferving as i'o many letters, would form, in faft, together wfcat is called an alphabet. This natural progreffion has actually taken place in Canton, where, on account of the vait concourfe of perfons, ufing the Englifh language, who refort to it, a vocabulary has been publifhed of Englifh words in Chinefe characters, expreffive merely of found, for the ufe of the native merchant* concerned in foreign trade; • and who, by fuch means, learn the founds of Englifh words. To each character is annexed a mark, to denote that it is not intended to convey the idea, hut merely the foreign found-attached to'k. The habit of applying the found, infread of the meaning of hieroglyphics, to foreign words, fed to the zppfica• oon tion of them likewife as founds, to alfift the memory in the pronunciation of other hieroglyphics in the fame language, hut uot in common ufe; and the repeated application of them for thofe purpofes may be • at length fuppofed to have effaced their'original ufe. Thus the paffage from hieroglyphic to alphabetic writing may naturally be traced, without the neceflity of having * re'courfe to divine instruction, as *-fome learned men haveconjechir4 ed, on the ground that the art of 4 writing by an alphabet is too re'fined and artificial for untutored 4 reafon.' It is, indeed, equally natural to fuppofe that no fuch art could have preceded the eStabliShnient of hieroglyphic, as that a mixture of other nations fuperinduced the invention of alphabetic, language. The exclusive existence of the former ftill in China is a proof and an inftance, that the number of foreigners who had ever found their way among them, as the Tartars, for example, however warlike and victorious, bore fo very fmall a proportion to the vanquished, that it introdudced no more a change in their language, than in their ufages and manners.
44 The Chinefe printed character is the fame as is ufed in mod manufcripts, and is chiefly formed of Straight lints in angular positions, as moil letters arc in EaStern tongues; especially in Shanfcrit, the chandlers of which, in fome instances, admit of additions to their original form, producing a modification of the fenfe. A runping hand is ufed by the Chinefe only on trivial occafions, or for private notes, or for the eafe and expedition of the writer; and differs from the other as much as an European mauufcript does from print. \Tbere are books with alternate columns of both kinds of writing,
for their-mutual explanation to a learner.
44 The principal difficulty in the Study of Chinefe writings ariles from the general exclusion of the auxiliary particles of colloquial language, that fix the rela-ioh between indeclinablewords, fuchasare all thofe of the Chinefe language.— The judgment m'uft be constantly exercifed by the Student, to' fupply the abfence of fuch affiStance.— That judgment niuft be guided by attention to the manners, cuStoms, laws, and opinions of the Chinefe, and to the events and local circumstances of the country, to which the alluSions of language perpetually refer. If it, in general, be true that a language is difficult to be understood in proportion to the distance of the country where it is Spoken, and that of him who endeavours to acquire it; becaufe in that proportion the alluSions to which language has continuatly rec6urfe are lefs known to the learner; fome idea, may be conceived of the obstacles which an European may expeft to meet in reading Chinefe, not only from the remotenefs of Situation, but from the difference between him and the native of China in ali other refpe&s. Trie Chinefe characters are, in facTt, Sketches or abridged figures, and a .Sentence is often a String of metaphors. The different relations of life are not marked by arbitrary founds, Simply conveying the idea of fuch connection; but the qualities naturally expected to arife out of fuch relations become frequently the name by which they are refpe<£tively known. Kindred, for example, of every degree, is thus distinguished, with a minutenefs unknown in other languages. That of China has diftinft characters for every modification, known by them, of objects in the pbyfical and intellectual H \ world. world. Abftradt terms are no otberwife exprefled by the Chinefe, than by applying to each the name of the moft prominent objects to which it might be applied, which is likewife, indeed, generally the cafe of other languages. Among the Latins the abftract idea of virtue, for example, was exprelTcd under the name of valour, or ftrength (virtus), being the quality moft efteemed amongft them, as filial piety is confidered to be in China. The words of an alphabetic language being formed of different combinations of letters, orelemental parts, each with a diftinct found and name, whoever knows and combines thefe together, may read the words without the leail knowledge of their meaning; not fo hieroglyphic language, in which each character has, indeed, a found annexed to it, but which bears no certain relation to the unnamed lines or ftrokes, of which it is com
pofed. Such character is ftud:«d and beft learned by becoming acquainted with the idea attached to it; and a dictionary of hiexogrj* phics is lefs a vocabulary of tbe terms of one language with the correfpondent terms in another, than an encyclopedia, containing explanations of the ideas therofelves, reprefeuted by fuch hieroglyphics. In fuch fenfe only can the acquifition of Chinefe words bejuftly faid to engrofs mod of the time of men of learning amongft them. Tbe knowledge of the fciences of the Chinefe, however imperfect, and of their moft extenfive literature, is certainly fuff.cient to occupy tbe life of man. Enough, however, of the language is im[ erceptibly ac» quired by every native, and may, with diligence, be acquired by foreigners, for the ordinary concerns of life; and further improvement* muft depend on capacity and opportunity."
On the Coalition attempted by fome British Artists, between Poetrt and Painting.
[From the Philanthrope:
after the Paper.]
Manner of a Periodical
"A Coalition of a very pleafine A nature has been attempted by fume Britifh artifts, between poetry and painting. Peetry and painting are no doubt congenial arts. They have fome principles or eiTential qualities in common, and denote fimilar energies in the mind pf the poet and painter.
"It is therefore exceedingly
% pleafing to fee the fine fancy of the
poet, particularly the bold and ftrik
mg imagery of Sliakefpeaxe, ai ex.
hibited in the Shakefpeare gallery, realized by the pencil; and difplayed, as it were, not only to mental, bur aclual vifion.
"But the obfervation is no lefs juft in criticifm than in morals, that where we enjoy a great deal of pleafure, we alto encounter a good deal of danger. Pleafing as on many occafinns may be the effeds of this combination between two of the moft elegant arts, it ought not to be attempted in any inftance, without cautious deliberation and acute difcernment. In particular^ much difcernment and good tafte are required for afcertaining what paflages in a poem are proper fubje£ts for painting. Here the admirers of painting and the partifans •of its alliance with poetry may be inclined to afk, are not all fine paffages in a poem fit to be delineated by the painter? are not the arts congenial, and are they not produced by fimilar energies? They are admitted to be congenial; but fome dittinctions mud be attended to. Let it be particularly attended to and remembered, that what is highly poetical is not always pifturefque. Many fine thoughts of the poet, and many objefts prefented by him to the mind, cannot by all the creative power of lines, colours, and (hades, be rendered vifible. Can any grief be more natural than that of Cordelia when flic is informed how cruelly her fitters have treated their lather? But who can portray the feelings that (brink from notice, as the lenGtive plant from the touch; that veil themfelves with referve; that fly even from confolation, and hide themfelves in the fecret mazes and myfterious fanctuaries of the heart?
Kent. Did your letters pierce the
queen to any demonftration of grief?
Gent. I fay (he took 'em, read 'em
in my prefence;
And now and then an ample tear
trill'd down Her delicate cheek: it feem'd (he
was a queen Over her paffioii, which, moil rebellike, Sought to be king over her. Kent. O, then it moved her. Gent. But not to rage. Patience and forrow ftrove Which (hould exprefs her goodliefl: You bare feea
Sun-(hine and rain at once. Thdfc
happieft ("miles That play'o on her ripe lip feem'd
not to know What quells were in her eyes,
which parted thence, As pearls from diamonds dropt.—
In brief, Sorrow would be a rarity moft be
lov'd, If all could fo become it.
Kent. Made (lie no verbal question? Gent. Once or twice She heav'd the name of father Pantingly forth, as if it preft her
heart; Cry'd,Sifters! lifters! What! i'th*
ftorm of nigl*! Let pity ne'er believe it! Then flic
(hook The holy water from her heav'nly"
eyes, And then retir'd to deal with grief
"In like manner, the fublime and awful vifion in the book of Job, the indiftinft form of the fpirit, the portentous filence, and the folemn voice, (hake and appal the foul; but fet at defiance all the (kill and dexterity of the moft ingenious ar> tift:'
"' In thoughts from the vifions of
• the night, when deep deep falleth.
• on men, fear came upon me, and 4 trembling, which made all my 'bones to (hake. Then a fpint 'patted before my face; the hair 'of my fle(h ftood up; it flood ftill, 'but I could not difcern the form
• thereof; an image was before 'mine eyes j there was filence, and
• I heard a voice.' "In faft, perfons of real can
dour, who are capable of difcerning, and of giving attention to the beauties of nature, will acknowledge the exiftence of many fine aijd ftriking landfcapes which cannot not be imitated or difplayed by the painter. Exquifite fcenery, without being picturefque, may be d'jtinguifhed both for beauty and grandeur. Or fliail we fay, as I have heard aflerted by fome fafliionable connoifleurs, that nothing in external nature, no combination whatever of water, trees, and ver dure, can be accounted a beautiful object, unlefs it can be transferred to the canvafs r Contrary to this, it may at leaft be doubted, whether many delightful paflages, if I may to exprefs inyfelf, both at the Leafowes and among the lakes in Cumberland, though gazed at with tendernefs, or contemplated with admiration, would not baffle all the power of the pencil. Though poetry ought to be like painting, yet the maxim or rule, like many other fuch. rules and maxims, is not to be received without due limitation.
"It is therefore the duty of the painter, who by his "art would ilhiftratethat of the poet, to confider in every particular inftance, whether the defcriptjon or image be really pictarefque. I am loth to blame where there is much to commend, and where the artift poflefles high and deferved reputation. But will it not be admitted that the picture by Reynolds, which reprefents the death of cardinal Beaufort as defcribed by Shakefpeare, is liable to the cetifure at injudicious felection in the choice of a i'ubject r Or is it poffible for any colouring or delineation to convey the horror of the fituatioiT- fo impreffively as in the words of the poet?
SaL Difiurb him not, let him i pafs peaceably.
- King. Peace to his foul, if God'3
good pleafure be!— Lord Cardinal, if thou think'ft on
Heaven's bliis, Hold op thy hand, make fignal of -i • thy hope.<-«»
He dies, and makes no fign :■—0 God, forgive him!
"The fu'bje£r is entitled to more particular confederation.— Certain difpofnions of mind produce great effects on the body; agitatt th; whole frame; imprefs or diftort the features. Others again, more latent or more referved, fupprt-fs their external fymptnms, fcorn or reje/t, or are not fo capable of external difplay; and occafion no remarkable, or no immediate change in limb, colour, or feature. Such peculiar feelings and affections, averfe to render themfelves vifible, are not fit fubjects for-that art which affects tlve mind, by prefenting to the eye the rtfemblant figns of its objects. Defpair is of this number: fuch utter defpair as that of cardinal Beaufort. It will not complain, for it expects no redrefs; it will cot lament,"" for it defires no fympatbv; brooding upon its hopelefs affliction, it neither weeps, nor fpeaks, 'nor 'gives any fign.' But, in the picture under review, the painter reprefents the chief cbara&er in violent and extreme agitatioc. Nor is even that agitatio.i, if we allow defpair to difplay agitition, of a kind fufficiently appropriated. Is it the fullen anguith, the fuppreiled agony, the horrid gloom, the tortured foul of defpair? No: it is the agitation of bodily pain. The poor abjtct fufferer gnaih.es his teeth, and writhes his body, as under the torment of corporal fuffering. The anguifli is n«t -that pf the mind.— No doubt, at a preceding moment, before his defpondency was completely ratified, the poet reprefents him as in great perturbation; but the affliction is from the pangs of death.
War. See how the pangs of death
do make him grin.