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CLASSICAL AND POLITE CRITICISM.
SHort Account of the MODERN GREEK LANGUAGE, its Origin and
[Froni DALLAWAY'S CONSTANTINOPLE ANCIENT and MODERN.]
DETWEEN the Romeika, or prevails, was universally establish
U modern Greek language, ed. Not that one mode of expreland the ancient, a fimilar analogy fion only is in use. The inbabimay be found, as between the La- tants of the Morea and the coasts of tin and the pure Italian ; for lan the Adriatic partake much of the guages, no less than governments, Venetian ; the flanders of the have their revolutions and their Archipelago and the Smyrniotes periods. The Greek claims the mix Venetian with Turkish. The higheft antiquity, und perhaps af- Greeks of the Fanal speak almost ter the Arabic has been prelerved classically, whilst those of the oppolonger than any other ; from the fite town of Pera have the most irruption and domination of other vulgar pronunciation. nations its purity has been eventue “The leading cause of deviation ally corrupted, as from Grecian from the ancient Greek has been conquests the Egyptian lapsed into the great use of contractions, and the Coptic, and the Arabic into the the blending by that means several Syriac.
words into one. "When Constantine established “At what era the modern pro his new capital, si iany Roman nunciation was adopted it would citizens followed him, that the be difficult to determine with any Greek language adopted many La- degree of precision. The more tinisins, and, once corrupted, the learned of the inhabitants of the more readily admitted the idiom Fanal strongly contend, that howand words of the French and Ve ever their language has been denetian invaders, at the commence based by the alloy of others, that ment of the thirteenth century. the pronunciation of the remoteft The establishment of the Ottoman times is continued to them, pure empire extended the change, by and without variation. This quer. the adoption of so many Turkish tion, so much agitated at the rephrases and words, and the Romei- vival of literature, is foreign to my key or vernacular dialect, as it now present purpose, and it may be ne
cessary to fubjoin the more promi- ancient Greek or Latin. It retains nent distinctions *. Certain it is, the articles and inflection of cases, that the modern Greek, pronounc- but has neither duals nor aorifts. ed as the ancient in England, would The tenses are formed by the verbs be as unintelligible to them as the substantive. Italian at Rome or the French at “A summary account, which my Paris, if we spoke or read them ex- present limits allow me only to of a&tiy as they are spelled, giving the fer of a language so little known in letters and syllables the same power Europe, may be considered as lo as to those in our own language. unacceptable curiosity by some
« The Romeïka resembles in its readers. construction the Italian and French, " The grammar of Simon Porand rejects the transposition of the tius was the earliest attempt, Pere
“ * The ancient alphabet and character are retained by the moderns, who are ill versed in or negligent of orthography, both in their epistolary correspondence and monumental inscriptions. Their printed books are tolerably correct. Some of them write the character very neatly. In their books for the church service the capital letters are grotesquely made and ornamented, departing entirely from the antique and fimple form.
“ Without entering into too wide a digreffion, I shall remark only the different powers given to letters whieh in the combination of syllables produce a sound to differ. ent from that which we have been accuftomed to hear given them.
“ B, connected with syllables, is pronounced as our v, and is expressed by the modern Greeks by a after a tho : Bzardous, vajilifs- JA TOTES, ambotes.
" A and , as the hard or soft th of the English : dry, then. Mr. Knight, in his ingenious treatise entitled • An Analytical Effay on the Greek Alphabet,' 400. 1791, observes, that the ancient manner of pronouncing 0, was indisputably that which is • still preserved by the modern Greeks, the Copts, and the English, that is, by a con. • Arained aspiration between the tongue and upper teeth. All the other European * nations pronounce it as a mute consonant, and throw the aspiration on the next "succeeding vowel. P. 13. A is fyllabically formed by q after y: warta, panda.
“ I has a sound of frequent recurrence, and with a certain nicety of articulation is expressed indiscriminately with the diphthongs a. and 01: which mode seems to have been adopted from the French. It has a broad tone, as e in éire, or our a in fate.
forf, as in philosophy—the diphthong au is universally áv, as autos, autos. “ r has a soft tone between the g and y of the English ; as llaveria, Panagia. Two gey are ng, as in the ancient Ayyidos. '« medial as ce, and final as y in humanity. * K incipient as with us. X incipient very guttural.
" N final is generally quiescent, and when preceded by two vowels, the latter is likewise sunk: To vspår, to nerom 90 xpaciou, 10 krafy.
“ Q and S are used indiscriminately. The double ao is the diphthong ou, as in tho
« IT after u is b, and before rf, as i@ta, ofta.
" As a mechanical mode of facilitating pronunciation, the following management of the organs of speech is recommended, as tending to the acquirement of those sounds which are most frequent in the Romeika.
“X, x before a consonant, as in xpiatos, is beft propounced hy drawing the tongue to the throat, and holding it suspended under the palate with the lips a little open.
"Aas dth, which is effected by forcing the tongue against the upper row of teeth. “T incipient as gh, more gutturally than in English.
“ softer than Ä, which sound is produced by placing the point of the tongue between the teeth, almost closed with a kind of hifting.
" But pentection mug depend upon an accurate ear, colloquial facility, and long practice.
Thomas, a capuchin of Paris, com. 'OO POTATOS TOL;4 785 47.8,' a 1674 poled another; and Spon has affix- wife man. ed to his voyage a meagre vocabu- “DIMINUTIVES are much used lary, which he calls · Petit Dic- in conversation, by the modern •tionaire.' Mavro Kordato's 'LexiGreeks as by the Italians. They 'con' (as I have before observed) join sdi and axi to masculine or contains the most systematic ana- neuter nouns, and 1722 and sa to lyfis. There are grammurs extant feminine; as, 'anopartiodh, ażani,' of Romeïka, French and Italian, for a little man-a little toy : furaha, the use of the natives who acquire yopitfo,' a little foul-a little girl; those languages. That of Benardi- but efpecially to proper names, as no Pianzola, of Turkith, Romeïka, Iletpaxi, Soita. and Italian, printed in the Roman “ PRONOUNS. The genitives of character, is that in most general pronouns personal are always added acceptation.
to nouns: Tarmpjes, Tatapte, T&T “With no pretensions to philo- 79.5, Tammpuas, atnous, rathete; logical accuracy, I offer a summary my, his, her, our, your, their father. Sketch, noticing the leading difcri. “ Personal relatives are declinaminations, from claflical Greek, ble, and the others are supplied by and its analogy to the Italian and the invariable pronoun ow8. There French,in grammaticalconstruction, are likewise demonftratives and in
“ARTICLEs. The modernGreeks terrogatives, &c. as in the ancient retain the articles o, n, 70, as used Greek. by the ancients, which are constant. “ VERBS. There are four kinds: ly prefixed to nouns, as demonftra- derivative ; auxiliary trui, Ianu, tive of genders, of which the neu- G.Aw, I u'ill, and exw, I have, which ter is admitted as one. Plurals fe- form the teníes of the other; and mnioine are made by the article ai anomalous, or impersonal, which and the ancient dative, as a que passare but few. days.
“The derivative verbs are active, "Nouns are declined by articles, pallive, and deponent oply, and are prepositions, and inflections, Nouns divided into two clafles, barytone masculine and feminine have uni- and circumfies, the former of versally but three different termin which have the accent placed on nations in both numbers, and the the last 1yllable but one, as y, sex, neuter but two only. There are I urite; and in the patlive on the five declensions arrauged according Saft fyllable but two, as yaourt, to the termination of the nomina. I am written. The latter are active case.
centuated on the final fyllable, as " ADJECTIVEs are always pre- ayaw, I love ; and in the pasiive fixed to nouns, as in Englith, ex- on the last but one, as aguasuai, I cepting by the intervention of a am loved. The difference of converb, and are declinable with arti- jugations is determined by the firft cles peculiar to the three genders. perfou prefent and the firtt person There are likewise five declen- perfect of the indicative mood. fons.
The barytones have four and the “ COMPARATIVES and SUPER- circumflex three conjugations. LATIVES change the positive as the “There is no infinitive mood, ancients_oocos, coqotigos, CO POTG from which tenses in other lan. 505, adding likewise the prepofi- guages are deduced; but the potentions παρα and απο ; ο ανθρωπος tial with a conjunction is fubftituted, aseypa Iw, to write. The active par. communicate, merely as a matter ticiple resembles the Italian gerund of curiosity, some idea of the struc- ypa Portas, writing ; and the par. ture of a languaçe upon which the five is pure Greek-aypacouivos, character of barbarisin has been of, written.
ten fixed with less justice than that “ Adverbs are mostly determin- of syltem and refinement upon the ed byamwonando, very well. Italian and Spanish. The devia
“ PREPOSITions all govern an tions from the original tongues accusative case.
have sprung from the same caules, “ These flight observations may and are nearly equal."
On the LATIN TERMS used in NATURAL HISTORY, by the Rev. John
BRAND, A. M. &c.
[From the third Volume of the TRANSACTIONS of the LINNEAN
" THE Latin has been adopted thor; or improprieties (verba im.
1 as the language of natural propria, Quint.), when, though so history; but the latinity of the na- found, they are not to b: found Tural historians has undergone no used in the same sense. This must finall censure.
be admitted: but it is here con“ By the adoption of the Latin tended, that it does not on this acas the common language of the count alone follow that they are so. science, in the degree in which it This is proved from the practice of obtains, new discoveries in it are the ancient grammarians in the in. propagated with great facility. 0. vention of technical terms, in conther branches of philofophy have junction with the authority of Tul. not had the same good fortune; ly. and every European nation is be- « First, the use of a Latin primi. come philofophical: and tlus, as tive or derivative, in a sente in which
Mons. D'Alembert has observed, it does not occur in any pure Ro• he who devotes himself to the cul- man writer, is not necessarily an
tivation of any one of them, if he impropriety, technically so called ; would keep his knowledge up to for if a considerable variation from the level of its state, is reduced to such an established sense were so, the neceflity of Ainging away a the very grammatical terms of the very valuable part of his life, in ac. Roman writers would fall under quiring seven or eight languages. that cenfure, as for instance (articu
“But the latinity of the terms lus) an article, (verbum) a verb. in which natural history is written, When these terins were first used Jas been censured : upon this by grammarians, there was a great charge the following remarks may variation from their pre-established be made.
sense, and their priinary fignifica. « Such terms must be either pri- tions-a joint, a word. mitives or derivatives; now either " It is likewise certain, that if of these may be barbarisms, when grammar had not been reduced in. not found in any good Latin au to an art among the Romans, these terms would not have been now 'bave long pursued thefe researches; found in their technical senfcs in that to unusual fuljects I may aptheir writings. And if a writer of 'ply terims which never have been this age, having reduced the art in- ' in we. to a fyftem, h::c presented the world “Atticus. Certainly: but if our with the first Latin Grammar, and Latin language will not furnith had given the same names, vervum, 'them, you may have recourse to articulus, to the same things, bis “the Greck. offence against pure latinity, or the “ Varro, I am obliged to you; pre-established good use of those "but I will endeavour to exprefs words, would have been of the fame myself in Latin, confining myself magnitude as that of the original • to such terms of Greek derivatian Laun grammarians, and no more; ' as are already naturalized among the same innovations in a language, us, as philofophy,rhetoric,phyfics, living or dead, being of equal qua- dialectics. I have therefore form. lity: yet the charge against the pro- 'ed the new term Qualitas, to ex. priety of the terins used by such a press the sense of tbe Greek word writer, would be the same in kind 'Diótns; which even among them as that brought against the natural is not a word of common ute, but historians; but it must have fallen 'confined to the philosophers. In liko to the ground-nor would it have manner, none of the terms of the been in degree less strong; for logicians are found in the popular bolder extensions in the sense of language; and the fame is true of Latin terins, are not, that I recol. 'the terms of almost all the arts; to Jeet, to be found in the Lexicon of new things neu' names mujilegicer, our technical language. Thele faf- orthnfe of others transferred to then. tidious grammatical exceptions are, "If the Greeks take this liberty, in principle, exceptions both to the "who have cultivated the sciences art and the philosophy of grammar. 'for ages, how much stronger is the If the naturalifts err in this point, renfon it Mould le granted to w, in they err with the grammatical fa- our first attempilo treat upon then! thers (cum patrilus). .
“ Cicero. • It le ms to me, that " Secondly, What I have to say, you will do a work of utility to the about derivatives not used in Latin public, if you not only increase the writers, will be contained in a short stock of our ideas, which you have coniment on a passage in the Aca. 'ulreally cline, lut also that of our deinic Questions of Cicero, where words. he aflerts the rights and privileges “ Varro. "We fhall therefore of those who treat on philofophical hazard the use of vew words when subjects in a language not yet en: neceffary, and by your authority.' riched with proper terms, and ex- " And where the fame necefsity, emplifies his principles in the for- arising from the fame source, exists, mation of a new derivative, an au- the fame liberty is to be taken. thority from which I apprehend no And as Cicero, on this point, is an appeal will be made. The transla- unexceptionable authority, let us tion of this passage is as follows. examine bis practice, to fee to what The original is placed at the end of degree it may be carried. The this article *.
word Qualitas, derived from Quale, “ Varro. "You will allow me the is now familiarized to the ear. The • same liberty which has always first boldness of this derivative is 'been assumed by the Greeks, who only perceived by refection; bur its