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tions, and to guard againft the degradation and fertility which they muft finally lbmp on the American character, is an important duty of government.
A naval power, next to the militia, is the natural defence of the United States. The experience of the laft war would be Sufficient to fhow that a moderate naval force, fuch as would be eafily within the prefent abilities of the union, would have been fufticient to have battled many formidable tranfportations of troops, from one State to another, which were then practifed; our fea-coafts, from their great extent, are more eafily annoyed, and more eafily defended by a naval force than any other; with all the materials our country abounds; "m (kill, our naval architects and navigators are equal to any; and commanders and feamen will not be wanting.
But although the establishment of a permanent fyftem of naval defence appears to be requifite, i am fenfible it cannot be formed fo fpt-edily and extenfively as the prefeiit crifis demands. — Hitherto I have thought proper to prevent the failing of armed veSTels, except on voyages to the Ealt-Indies, where general ufage, and the danger from pirates, appeared to render the permission proper; yet the restriction has originated folely from a.wifli to prevent collufions with the powers at war, contravening the ac"r. of congrefs of June, one thoufand feven hundred and ninety-four, and not from any doubt entertained by me of the policy and propriety of permuting our veflels to employ means of defence, while engaged in a lawful foreign commerce. It remains for congrefs to prefcribe fuch regulations as will enable our feafaring *797
citizens to defend thetifelves a-, gainft violations of the law of nations, and at the fame time restrain them from committing arts of hoftility againft the powers at war. In addition to this voluntary provision for defence by individual citizens, it appears to be neceflary to equip the frigates, and provide other veffels of inferior force to take under convoy fuch merchant veffel- as Shall remain unarmed.
The greater part of the cruifers whofe depredations have been moft injurious have been built, and fome of them partially equipped, in the United States. Although an effectual remedy may be attended with difficulty, yet 1 have thought it my duty to prefent the fubjeft generally to your consideration. If a mode can be devifed by the wifdom of congrefs to prevent the refources of the United States from being converted into the means of annoying our trade, a great evil will be prevented. With the fame view I think it proper to mention, that fnne of our citizens refident abroad have fitted out privateers, and others have voluntarily taken the command or entered on board of them, and committed fpoliatious on the commerce of the United States. 'Such unnatural and iniquitous practices can be reftrained only by Severe punishments.
But, befides protection of our commerce on the fe?.s, I think it highiy necelfary to proteft it at home, where it is collected in our moSl important ports. The distance of the- United States from Europe, and the well-known promptitude, ardour, and courage of the people, in defence of their country, happily diminish the probability of iuvafion: neverthelefs, to guard againft fudden and predatory incursions, the Situation of fome of our (X) principal principal fea-ports demands your consideration: and, as our country is vulnerable in other intereib besides thofe of its commerce, you will ferioufly deliberate whether the means of general defence ought not to be increafed by an addition to the regular artillery and cavalry, and by arrangements for forming a provi (ional army.
With the fame view, and as a meafure which even in time of universal peace ought not to be neglected, 1 recommend to your consideration a revision of the laws for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, to render that natural and fafe defence of the country efficacious. Although it is very true, that we ought not to involve ourfelves in the political SVftem of Europe, but to keep ourfelves always distinct and feparate from it if we can; yet to effect this reparation, early, punctual, and continual information of the current chain of events, and of the
fiolitical projects in contemplation, s no lefs neceflary, than if we were directly concerned in them. It is neceflhry, in order to the difcovery of the efforts made to draw us into the vortex, in feafon to make preparation again ft them: however we may confider ourfelves, the maritime and commercial power of the world will conlider the United State* of America as forming a weight in that balance of power in Europe which never can be forgotten or neglected. It would not only be again ft our interest, but it would be doing wrong to one half of Europe at lea ft if we fliould voluntarily throw ourfelves into either fcale; it is a natural policy for a nation that Studies to be neutral, to confult with other nations engaged in the fame fiudies and pursuits; at the fame time that meafures
might be purfued with this view, our treaties with Pruffia and Sweden, one of which is expired, might be renewed.
Gentlemen of the houfe of representatives,
It b particularly your province to confider the ftate of our public finances, and to adopt fuch meafures refpecting them as exigencies fhall be found to require. The prefervation of public credit, the regular extinguishment of the public debt, and a provifion of funds to defray any extraordinary expences, will, of courfe, call for your ferious attention: although the imposition of new burdens cannot be in itfelf agreeable, yet there is not ground to doubt that the American people will expect from you fuch meafures as their actual engagements, their prefent fecurity, and future intereft demand.
Gentlemen of the fenate, and gentlemen of the houfe of reprefentatives,
The prefent Situation of our country impofes an obligation on all the departments of government to adopt an explicit and decided conduct. In my Situation an exposition of the principles by which my administration will be governed, ought not to be omitted.
It is impoffible to conceal from ourfelves or the world what has been before obferved, that endeavours have been employed to fofter and eftablifh a division between the government and people of the United States. To investigate the cauSes which have encouraged this attempt is not neceffary; but to repel by decided and united councils insinuations So derogatory to the honour, and aggreflions So dangerous to the constitution, union, and even independence of the nation, is an indifpenfable duty.
It nnift not be permitted to be doubted whether the people of the. United States will fupport the government eftabliftied by their voluntary confent, and appointed by their free choice.; or whether, by furrendering themfelves to the direction of foreign and domeftic factions, in opposition to tbeir own 'government, they will forfeit the honourable Cation they have hitherto maintained.
For myfelf, having never been indifferent to what concerned theinterefts of my country; having devoted the belt part of my life to obtain and fupport its independence, and conftantly witnefTed the patriotism, fidelity, and perfe vera nee of my fellow-citizens on the moft trying occasions, it is not for me to hefitate, or abandon a caufe in which my heart has been fo long engaged.
Convinced that the conduct of the government has been jufl and impartial to foreign nations; that thofe internal regulations which have been eftabliftied by law, for the prefervation of peace, are in their nature proper, and that they have been fairly executed; nothing will ever be done by me to impair the national engagements, to innovate upon principles which have been fo deliberately and uprightly tftabliflied; or to Surrender in any manner the rights of the. government: to enable me to maintain this declaration I rely, under God, with entire confidence on the firm and enlightened fupport of the national iegiflattire, and upon the virtue and patriotifm of my fellowcitizens.
John Adams. Having concluded his fpeech, after prefeuting a copy of it to the pre/ident of trie fenate, and another to the Speaker of the houfe of reprefeiiiatives, the president retired,
as did alio the members of the fr. nate: and the fpeaker having r<fumed his chair, he read the fpeech: after which, on mo.ion it was ordered to be committed to a committee' of the whole to-morrow.— Adjourned.
Treaty of Definitive Peace concluded between the French Republic and the Emperory K'»S °f Hungary and Bohemia.
His majefty, the emperor of the Romans, king of Hungary and Bohemia, and the French republic, withing to confolidate the peace, the bafes of which were laid down by the preliminaries figned at the caftleof Eckenwald, near Leo ben, in Styria, on iSth of April, 1797, have named for their plenipotentiaries, to wit:—his majefty (the emperor and king>, the marqiii» di Gallo, count de Cobenzel, count de Meerfeldt, and baron de Degelmann; and the French republic, Buonaparte, commander in chief of the French army in Italy; who, after exchanging their full and refpeftive powers, have agreed to the following articles :—■
J. There fliall be for the future and for ever a folid and inviolable peace between his majefty the emperor of the Romans, and king of Hungary and Bohemia, his heirs and fucceflbfs,and the French republic. The contracting parties fliall engage their utmoft attention to maintain between them and thfir poflef(ions a perfect good underftanding, without permitting henceforth on either fide, that any aft of hoftility be committed by land. or fea, through any caufe, or undt: any pretext whatever; and everv thing (Xa) 'fliall Shall be carefully avoided, "that might impair for the future, the union happily efhblifhed between them. No affiftance or protection fhall be given, directly or indirectly, tothofe who might defiretodo any prejudice to either of the contracting parties.
II. Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the prefent treaty, the contracting parties fhall caufe all the fequeftrations which have been placed on the properry, rights, and revenues of the individuals refilling in the respective territories which are united to th^m, as well as of the public eftablifhments which are fituated in thofe territories, to be taken off They bind themfelves to difcharge all they may owe which has been lent to them, as funds, by the faid individuals or public elbbiifhments, and to pay or reimburfe all engagements entered into for their advantage by each of them.
[The prefent article is declared common to theCifalpine republic]
III. His majefty the emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia, relinquishes, on his own part, and on that of his fucceflbrs, in favour of the French republic, all his rights and titles on the ci-devant Belgic provinces, known by the name of the Auftrian Low Couutries. The French republic fhall poflefs thefe countries for ever, in full Sovereignty and propriety, and with all the territorial poffeffions which depend on them.
IV. All the mortgages entered into before the war on the land of the countries exprefled in the preceding articles, and the contracts of which fhall be drawn up with the ufual formalities, fhall become the charge of the French republic. The plenipotentiaries of his majefty the emperor fliall furuifh an account of
them in as Speedv a manner as portable to the plenipotentiaries of the French republic, and that hefoie the exchange of the ratifications, that when the exchange takes place, the plenipotentiaries of both powers may be enabled to agree with refpect to all the articles explanatory of, and additional to, the prefent article, a/id Sign them. ,
V. His majefty the emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia, consents that the French republic poffeSs in full Sovereignty, the former Venetian islands ot the Levan*, ro wit,—Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia, Santa Maura, Cerigo, and other iSlands depending on them, as well as Butrinto, Larta, Voniffa, and in general all the former Venetian eftablifbments in Albania, which are Situate lower thnn the gulf of Londrino.
VI. The French republic consents that his majefty the emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia, fhall poffeSs in full Sovereignty and propriety the country hereafter exprefled, to wit, Iftria, Dalmaria, the former Venetian ilhnds of the Adriatic, the mouths of the Cattaro, the city of Venice, the canals, and the countries comprehended between the hereditary flatss of his majefty the emperor and king, the Adriatic Sea, and a line which Shall be drawn from the county of Tyrol fliall follow the torrent forward to Gardola, and croSs the like of Garda as far as Laciffa ; from thence a military line as far as San Giacomo, holding out an equal advantage to both parties, which fliall be traced by engineers named on each fide previous to the exchange of the ratifications of the prefent trentv. The line toafcertain the limns fhall croSs the Adige at San Giacomo, follow the left bank of that river as far as the mouth of the White Canal, comprehending
tending that part of Porto Legnago which is on the right bank of the Adige, with a circle drawn of 3000 fathoms. The line (hall be carried on by the left bank of the White Canal, the left bank of the Tartaro, the left bank of the canal called the Poiifella, until it difcharges itfelf into the Po, and the left'bank of the Great Po as far as the fea.
VII. His majefty the emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia, relinquifhes for ever, for himfelf and bis fucceflbrs, in favour of the Cifalpine republic, all the rights and titles arifing out -of thole rights which his (aid majefty might pretend to have on the countries which be poffeffed before the war, and which now conftitute a part of the Cifalpine republic, which fhall poffefs them in lull fovereignty and propriety, with all the territorial poffeffions that depend on them.
VIII. His majefty the emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia, acknowledges the Cifalpine republic as an independent power. This republic comprehends the former Auftrian Lombardy, the countries of Bergamo, of Brefcia, and of Cremona, the city and fortrefs of Mantua, the Mantuan territory, Pefchiera, that part of the former Venetian ftates to the weft and fouth of t le line defcribed in the 6th article as the frontier of the ftates of his majefty the emperorin Italy, the country of Modena, the principality of Mafia and Carhira, and the three legations of Bologna, Ferrara and Romagna.
IX. In all the countries ceded, acquired, or exchanged by the prefent treaty, the fequeft ration placed on the property, efftfts, and revenues of all the inhabitants and properties of «very defcription, on account of the war which has been carried on between his imperial majefty
and the French republic, fhall be taken off, without their being expofed in that refpe£l to be moiefted in their property or perfons. Thofe who for the future may not wifli to • continue their refidence in thefe countries, fhall be bound to make a declaration to that effeft, three months after the publication of the treaty of definitive peace. They fhall be allowed the term of three years to fell their moveable and immoveable poffeffions, or to difpofe of them as they think proper.
X. The countries ceded, acquired, or exchanged by the prefent treatyfhall encumber thofe in whofe pofleflion they fhall remain with, the mortgages that have been incurred on the land.
XI. The navigation of the part of the rivers and canals, ferving as limits between the poffeffions of his majefty the emperor, and thofe of the Cifaipine republic, fliail be free, without either being able to eftablifh any toll, or to keep any vefftls armed for war; which however does not exclude the neceffary precautions for the tafety of the fortrefs of Porto Legnago.
XII. Altlaiesoralienationsmade, all engagements contracted, whether by the towus, or by the government, or the civil and adminiftrative authorities of the countries formerly Venetian, for the maintenance of the German and French armies, until the date of figning the prefent treaty, fhall be confirmed and confidered as valid.
XIII. The titles of the domains, and the archives of the different countries ceded or exchanged by the prefent treaty, fhall be given up in the fpace of three months, to date from the exchange of the ratifications, to the powers which fhali have acquired the propriety of them. The plans and maps'1 of the for