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7. The French republic promiles to procure to his majefty the king of Sardinia, at the period of a general or continental peace, all the advantages which circumftances may permit him to obtain.

8. Neither of the contracting powers (hall conclude a feparate peace with the common enemy, and no arm id ice (hall be agreed to by the French republic, in which his Sardinian majefly is not ineluded.

9. All the contributions impofed on the flares of his Sardinian majefly which are not yet paid up, (hall ceafe to be demanded immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the prefent treaty.

10. Thefurnifhings, which from (he fame period fh?ll be made in the dates of his majefty the Icing of Sardinia to the French troops, or to prifoners of war, and alfo thofe which may have already been made in virtue of private contracts, and which have not yet been paid for by the French republic, fhall be returned in kind to the troops forming the contingent of bis Sardinian majefty: and if the amount of the furnifhings fliould exceed the waflft of the contingent, the overplus (hall be repaid in fpecie.

11. The two contracting partiea fhall immediately appoint commiffioners charged to negotiate in their name a treaty of commerce agreeably to the bafis ftipulated in article 7, of the treaty of peace concluded at Paris between the French republic and the king of Sardinia.— Meanwhile the ports and all other commercial relations fhall be reeftablifhed without delay in the feme manner as they were before the war.

is. The ratifications of the prefent treaty of alliance fhall be eje

changed at Paris in the fhortcft delay pofllble.

Done and figned at Turin on the 16th of Germinal (April 5), 5th year or" the French republic.

(Signed) H. Clarke.

Clement Damiav.

The executive directory ratify and (ign the prefent treaty of alliance with his majefly the king of Sardinia, negotiated in the name of the French republic by Henry James Clarke, general of divifion, appointed by an order of the executive directory on the 13th Veatofe laft, and charged with initructions to the above effect.

Done at the national palace on the 3 2d Germinal, 5th year of the French republic.

Mtffazt from the Prtftitnt of tit
United Statu to Congrefs.

Gentlemen of the Senate and
Houfe of Representatives,

I have received information from the commiffioner appointed on the part of the United States purfuant to the third article of our treaty with Spain, that the running and marking of the boundary line between the colonies of Eaft and Weft Florida, and the territory of the United States, have been delayed by the officers of his catholic majefty, and that they have declared their intention to maintain his jurisdiction, and to Sufpend the withdrawing his troops from the military pons they occupy within the territory of the United States, until the two governments fhall, by negotiation, have fettled the meaning of the fecond article refpecting the withdrawing the troops. Stores, or Settlements of either party in the territory of the other; that is, whether when the Spanish gar. jifons withdraw, they are to leave the works Handing or to demolifh them; and until, by an additional article to the treaty, the real property of the inhabitants fhall be fecured, and likewife until the Spain fli officers are fure the Indians will be pacific.

The two firft queftions, if to be determined by negotiation, might be made fubjedts of difcuffion Tor years; and as no limitation of time can be prefcribed to the other, a certainty in the opinion of the Spanifh officers, that the Indians will be pacific, it will be impoffible to differ it to remain an obftacle to the fulfilment of the treaty on the part of Spain.

To remove the firft difficulty, I have determined to leave it to the difcretion of the officers of his catholic majefty, when they withdraw his troops from the forts within the territory of the United States, either to leave the works (landing or to demolilh them. And to remove the fecond, I fhall caufe an nflurance to be publiftied, and to be particularly communicated to the minifter of his catholic majefty, and to the governor of Louisiana, that the fettlers or occupants of the lands in queftion (hall not be difturbed in their pofleflions by the troops of the United States; but on the contrary, that they (hall be protected in all their lawful claims; and to prevent or remove every doubt on this point, it merits the conGderation of congrefs, whether it will not be expedient immediately to pafs a law, giving pofitive aflurances to thofe inhabitants who by fair and regular grants, or by occupancy, have obtained legal titles or equitable claims to lands in that country, prior to the final ratification of the treaty netweep

the United States and Spain, on the 85th April, 1796.

This country is rendered peculiarly valuable by its inhabitants, who are reprefented to amount to nearly four thoufand, generally well affected and much attached to the United States, and zealous for the eftablifhment of a government under their authority.

I therefore recommend to your confederation, the expediency of eredting a government in the diftridt of the Natchez, (imilar to that eftabliflied for the territory north-weft of the river Ohio, but with certain modifications relative to titles or claims of lands, whether of individuals or companies, or to claims of jurisdiction of any individual ftate.

John Arams. United States, June IS, 1796.

Speech of the PrefiJent of the Unite A
States on opening the Sejlon of the

Gentlemen of the Senate, and;
Gentlemen of the Houfe of

The perfonal inconveniencies to the members of the fenate and of the houfe of reprefentatives, in leaving their families and private affairs, at this feafon of the year, are fo obvious, that I the more regret the extraordinary occafion which had rendered the convention of congrefs indifpenfable.

It would have afforded me the higheft Satisfaction to have been able to congratulate you on a restoration of peace to the nations of Europe, whofe animofities have endangered our tranquillity.—But we have ftill abundant canfe of gratitude to the Supreme difpenfer

of of national bleffings, for general health and promifmg feafons; for domcitic und focial happinefs; for tbe rapid progreSs and ample a^cquifitions of induStry, through extenfive territories; for civil, political, and religious liberty. While other {latei are deiolated with foreign war, or convulSed with interline divisions, the United States preSent the plcafing prolpcct of a nation governed by mild and equal laws; generally Satisfied with the poflef* iion of their rights; neither envy* ing the advantages nor fearing the power of other nations; folicitous only for the maintenance of order and juftice, and the preservation of liberty; increafing daily in their attachment to a fyftem of government, in proportion to their experience of its utility; yielding a ready and general obedience to laws flowing from reafon, and I'eSting on the only folid foundation— the affection of the people.

It is with extreme regret that I fhall be obliged to turn your thoughts to other, which admonifh ui that fomc of thefe felicities may not be lading; but if the tide of our prolperity is full, and a reflux commencing, a vigilant citcumipedf ion becomes us, that we may meet our reverfes with fortitude, and extricate ourfelves from their conSequences, with all the (kill we poSiefs, and all the efforts in our power.

In giving to congrefs information of the State of the union, and recommending to their confideratioh fuch mcaluresas appear to me to be expedient or neceffary, according to my conftitutional duty, the caufes and the objects of the prefent extraordinary kfiion will be explained.

After the prefident of the United States received information, that

the French government had e»* preffed ferious difcontents at fbme proceedings of the government of thefe States, laid to affect the interefts of France, he thought it expedient to fend to thai country a new minifter, fully instructed to enter on fuch amicable dilcuSSions, and to give fuch candid explanations, as might happily remove the difcontents and fulpicions of the French government, and vindicate the conduft of the United States. For this purpofe he Selected from among his fellow-citizens a character whole integrity, talents, experience, and fervices,had placed him in the rank of the moft efteemed and reSpe&ed in the nation. The direct object of his million was exprefTed in his letter of credence to the French republic, being "to maintain that good understanding, which from the commencement of alliance had fubfiSted between the two nations; and to efface unfavourable impreffions, banifli fuf-' picions, and reftore that cordiality, which was at once the evidence and pledge of a friendly union." And his instructions were to the fame effe£t, "faithfully to repre* Sent the difpofition of the govern* ment and people of the United States, their dil'pofition being one* to remove jealolilies, and obviate complaints, by Showing that they were groundless, to reftore that mutual confidence, which had been So unfortunately and injuriously impaired, and to explain the relative intereSts of both countries and the real Sentiments of his own."

A minifter thus Specially com* miSfii.ned, it was expected, would have proved the instrument of restoring mutual confidence between the two republics: the fiift Step oS the French government corre* Sponded with that expectation j a


few days before his arrival at Paris, the French minifter of foreign relations informed the American minifter, then refident at Paris, of the formalities to beobfsrved by himfelf in taking leave, and by his fucceflbr preparatory to his reception. Thefe formalities they obferved, and on the 9th of December prefented officially to the minifter of foreign relations, the one a copy of his letters of recall, the other a copy of his letters of credence. Thefe were laid before the executive directory; two days afterwards, the minifter of foreign relations informed the recalled American minifter, that the executive directory had determined not to receive another minifter plenipotentiary from the United States, until after the redrefs of grievances demanded of the American government, and which the French republic had a right to expect from it. The American minifter immediately endeavoured to afcertain whether, by refilling to receive him, it was intended that he fliould retire from the territories of the French republic, and verbal anfwers were given that fuch was the intention of the directory. For his own julliiication he delired a writteu anfwer, but obtained none until towards the laft of January, when receiving notice in writing to quit the territories of the republic, he proceeded t* Amfterdam, where he propofed to wait for inftructions from this government. During his refidence at Paris, cards of hofpitality were refufed him, and he was threatened with being fubjedted to the jurifdiction of the minifter of police—but with becoming firmnefs he infilled on the protection of the law of nations, due to him as the known minifter of a foreign power. You will derive

further information from his difr patches, which will be laid before you.

As it is often neceflary that na» tions fliould treat for the mutual advantage of their affairs, and efpecially to accommodate and terminate differences, and as they can treat only by minifters, the right of' embafTy is well known and eftabliflied by the law and ufage of nations: the refufal on the part of France to receive and hear our minifter is then the denial of a right; but the refufal to receive him, until we have acceded to their demands without difcuflion and without in*, veftigation, is to treat us neither as allies, nor as friends, nor as a fovereign ftate.

With this conduct of the French government, it will be proper to take into view the public audience given to the ,late minifter of the United States en his taking leave of the executive directory. The fpeech of the prefident difclolei fentiments more alarming than the refufal of a minifter, becaufe more dangerous to our independence and union; and at the fame time ftudiouily marked with indignities towards the government of the United States. It evinces a difpofition to feparate the people of the United States from the government; to perfuade them that they have different affections, principles, and interefts, from thole of their fellowcitizens, whom they themfelves have chofen to manage their common concerns, and thus to produce divifions fatal to our peace. Such attempts ought to be repelled, with, a decifion which fhall convince France and the world that we are not a degraded people, humiliated under a colonial fpirit of fear and fenfe of inferiority, fitted to be the mi (crab'.e inftruments of foreign in. - flueace,

flnence, and regardlefs of national honour, character, and intereft.

I Should hare been happy to have thrown a veil over thefe tranfactions, if it bad been poflible to conceal them; but they have paflcd fan the great theatre of the World, in the face of all Europe 2nd America, and with fuch circumftances of publicity and folemnity, that they cannot be difguifed, and will not foon be forgotten; they have inflicted a wound in the American breaft; it is my fincere defire, however, that it may be healed; it is my fincere defire, and in this I presume 1 concur with you End with our conuiti cuts, to preferve peace and friendship with all nations; and believing that neither the honour nor the intereft of the United States absolutely forbid the repetition of advances for Securing thefe defirable objects with France, I (hall inftitute a frefh attempt at negotiation, and dial I not fail to promote and accelerate an accommodation, on terms compatible with the rights, duties, interests and honour of the nation;—if we have committed errorf, and thefe can be demonstrated, we (hall be willing to correct them; if we have done injuries, we (hall be willing on conviction to redrefs them, and equal meafures of jufticc we have a right to expect from France and every other nation.—The diplomatic intercourfe between the United States and France being at piefent fufpended, the government has no means of obtaining official information from that country; neverthelefs there is reafon to believe, that the executive directory paflcd a decree on the fecond of March laft, contravening in part the treaty of amity and commerce of one thoufand feven hundred and feventy-elght, injurious to our lawful

commerce, and endangering the lives of our citizens.—A copy of this decree will be laid before you.

While we are endeavouring to ad» juft all our differences with France by amicable negotiation, the pro> grefs of the war in Europe, the depredations on our commerce, the perfonal injuries to our citizens v and the general complexion of affairs, render it my iodifpenfable duty to recommend to your conlidera. tion effectual meafures of defence.

The commerce of the United States has become an interesting object of attention, whether we confider it in relation to the wealth and finances, or the ftrength and refources of the nation. With a fea coaft of near two thoufarid miles in extent, opening a wide field for fisheries, navigation, and commerce, a great portion of our citizens naturally apply their in* duftry and enterprile to thefe objects; any lerious and permanent injury to commerce would not fail to produce the moft embarrafling disorders; to prevent it from being undermined and destroyed, it it eSTential that it receive an adequate protection.

The naval establishment mult occur to every man, who confideTM the injuries committed on our commerce, the intuits offered to our citizens, and the defcription of the veflels by which thefe abufes have been practifed. As the fufterings of our mercantile and feafaring citizens cannot be afcribed to the omiSSIon of duties demandable, con« fidering the neutral Situation of our country, they are to be attributed to the hope of impunity anting from a fuppofed inability on our part to afford protection—to refill the confequences of fuch impreffions on the minds of foreign na

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