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his valour. The elections were all tory; for, by a former resolution, confirmed except that of Barrere; the executive power had been au. and Pichegru was appointed presis thorized to send out commissioners dent; Simeon, Vaublanc, Henri, of its own choice. A more obnoxi. Lariviere and Parisot, secretaries. ous measure 'was, however, in In the council of ancients no ex- contemplation; and the usual source ception was taken against any of of disagreement between the peothe elections, and Barbe Marbois ple and their rulers, the expenditure was chosen president.

of the public money, was soon to The day before the new councils set at variance the councils and die assembled, the directory decided by rectory of France. lot the change of one of their own On the 7th of May, some days body; and Le Tourneur drew the previous to the admission of the lot which disrobed him of the di- new third, Cimis, in the name of sectorial purple. On the 22d, the the committee of public expendicouncil of five hundred proceeded ture, had made a report, in which to form the lists for the election of he pointed out some instances of a new director; Barthelemi, the unwarrantable profusion in the successful negotiator at Basle, a home department, which the comhan of amiable manners, and of mittee were of opinion ought to respectable talents, had by far the be reduced from seventeen to less greatest number of suffrages, and than seven millions. He stated, being at the head of the list re. that an unnecessary number of arturned to the council of ancients. chitects and inspectors were kept in he was the object of their choice. pay at Versailles, St. Cloud, &c.

The hrst important business which that the manufactory of arms at occupied the council of five hun. Versailles, and of porcelain at dred after the installation of the Seve, were unnecessary expenses ; new third, was that of the colo. and that the editor of a newspaper

debate on this subject, had charged one hundred and cweron the 4th of June, General Jour- ty thousand livres for printing and dan took a part, and his first speech distributing his paper, exclusive of

It was proposed postage. Upon this report, some ecali Santhonaxfrom St. Domin- resolutions were passed, abolishing

an apprehended that all these sources of expense, and along with it an adequate support, vernment in

without carrying limiting strictly the executive go.

dequate support, vernment in this respect.

et commissioner of The new third had scarcely taken he might be induced to deliver up these atta

nto, rebellion, and full possession of their seats, before the island to the English. He pró- directory were

ed to deliver up these attacks on the agents of the posed therefore that a general offi- forms. On the 7

nglish. He pro- directory were renewed in other cer, supported by an ade

ita general offi- forms. On the 7th of June, Buona. wadequate force, venture propcsed several retrench

letters of re- ments of expense among the civil oners; and this and military agents, who, he said,

deliberation of formed an army within an army, My adopted. and a republic within a republic. "s blow which He also called the attention of the

new council couacil (of five hundred) to the 1797. 'y of the direc- sale of the national property in


should carry out the letters of re- ment
call to the commissioners. and this and min
proposition, after the deliberation of formed a
some weeks, was finally adopted. and a

*25 aimed by the new council couaci against the authority of the direc- sa

Belgium, which he termed a scan. fect for public education; to the dalous dilapidation; another mem- debt of Belgium; and to that of ber of the name of Berger men- the emigrants, which he estimated tioned, at the same time, several at nine hundred millions of livres. other necessary reforms, and moved After a report of two hours and a to have the council divided into com. half, he moved the adoption of ynittees for effecting that purpose. three several projects, which were A more formal and authoritative ordered to be printed separately. effort was made on the 14th, when Bailleul having combated some of Gilbert Desmolieres ascended the his arguments, Gilbert rose again, wibune, to make a report in the and in the course of his reply adname of the committee of finauces. verted to a demand of one hundred Foresight, order, and economy, he millions of livres made by the disaid, were the basis oir which a rectory under the pretence of mak. good system of finance ought to ing peace. This sum had been rest. Of these the first had been granted them by the weakness of particularly neglected by the go- the committee. The directors, said vernment, which had never fore. he, having, in an animated confer. seen its wants, but waited till it ence, seemed to fear the return of felt their pressure. At that instant the brave defenders of their country, the arrears of ministers amounted I answered, “You who know so to a dreadful mass-upon a loose well how to obtain supplies for the calculation, to no less than six hun- prosecution of the war, demand dred millions. Thus did the anti- some for the consolidation of peace." cipations exceed the ordinary reve. The directory presumes to criticise nue by more than thirty-two mil. your opinions. It has been prolions. It was necessary to put an end posed, that my report should be to this disastrous evil, and to pre sent to the directory. I do not vent the other ministers from mak- wonder at that motion, since orie ing contracts like those of Tru. of the directors demanded, in my guet, minister of the marine, who presence, that I should be obliged had purchased flour at twenty-nine to lay the speech I had delivered on livres ten sous the quintal, though their table. (The council at the the same cost a. Nantz only thir- mention of this manifested the teen livres ten sous at most, and most narked disapprobation.) It is sail.cloth at twenty-two sous the high time that the directory should ell, though a larger measuse was be taught not to alarm the public sold for but thirteen sous.

by indecent messages, but to confine After going through a long and itself to its functions, 'to wait your elaborate detail of the revenue and orders, and to leave your discuse expendi! ure for the sixth year, Gil. 'sions free. bert computed the amount of the The sword was now drawn, and former at 479,593,579, and of the on the 18th, the committee threw laties 290,377,526 livres, by away the scabbard, when the same which it appeared, that there would reporter rose to propose a plan of be a dehciency of about twelve finance, the direct object of which millions. He then adverted to the was to take the whole power of the expenses of the clerks of the direc. purse out of the hands of the directory, who, he said, lived like kings; iory. The council, at least the to the sums squandered without ef. majority of it, agreed with the

· committee, decreed as follows:

lation of paper money:

tion :

cutive directory, is abrogated.

equally abrogated.

committee, and almost as soon as most tumultuous debate, or rather the proposal was produced, it was contest, ensued, in which the au

thority of the president (Pichegru) council of five hundred con- was scarcely sufficient to restore orung that, though the service of der, or restrain the parties from

ational treasury may require blows; at length the motion of egotiations to satisfy urgent ex. Le Clerc was virtually negatived by puses, it is yet indispensable and passing to the order of the day. pressing to restrain them on ac. In some of the following sittings, om of the cessation of the circu. the proceedings of the directory

were severally canvassed. Pastoret, They declare that there is urgen. on the 20th of June, inculpated and make the following resolu- greatly their treatment of the United

States of America, and proposed a 9.1. ... The law of the 3d Bru. plan of a decree for appointing a courth year, which authorises committee to inquire into the un

nal treasury to negotiate constitutional resolutions of the exethe approbation of the exe- cutive power on that subject, which

was adopied. On the following day m. The Article II. of the a committee was also formed on

Vendemiaire, fifth year, the motion of Imbert Columes, for authorises the minister of the inquiring upon what grounds the o regulate the order of the directory had presumed, contrary or the drafts of all the min to the principles of liberty, to vio. account of urgency, is late the sacredness of private cor

respondence, by the opening and ". The commissioners of examining of private letters--and a "Yare nevertheless autho. resolution was (to the honour of the make the negotiations council) passed, declaring such a Service of the treasury violation utterly unlawful. hat under their per. Not only the conduct of the di.

rectory, but of Buonaparte himself, odowing day the direc- was strictly scrutinized; and, on council. and et friends in the the 23d of June, Dumoulard pro

e Clerc proposed the posed a committee to examine the

e concerning the external relations of the republic,

contended that it was and to demand information from a divicinam house, and without the directory concerning the events

said a scandalous that followed Buonaparte's manitime between existed for some festo against the government of

directory and the Venice. ide complained of the nce, and that the French general's interference with stion annihilated that government, and of the dis. ace...“ Will not turbance which was given by the

added) depend sanction of the directory to the Ge. t the republic, noese and Helvetic republics.

power of the The opposition party in the

he executive go. councils at this period is generally s men who has put into the hands considered as consisting of three prevaricated ?" A distinct descriptions of men. The



the treasury are nevertheless rised to make the negou which the service of the treasi may require, but under their personal responsibility.

On the following day the directory collected their friends in the council, and Le Clerc proposed th repeal of the deeree concerning th finances. He contended that it w


a division. He said a scandal contention had existed for som time between the directory and committee of finance, and that resolution in question annul every hope of peace. “ W foreign powers (he added) depend on a dissolution of the rep when they see the power purse taken from the executive vernment, and put into the of men who have prevaric

first were the adherents of the the relations of emigrants in their ancient regime, some of whom, property. The following is the subthrough the influence of connex. stance of the decree which was af. ions and of forture, undoubtedly terwards adopted on this subject :obtained seats on the election of Art. l. The articles 3, 4, 5, the new third ; the second were and 19, of the law of the 28th young and aspiring men, persons of March, 1793, the law of the who were ambitious to distinguish 17th Frimaire, second year, the themselves, and whom the love of laws of the 6th Floreal, third year, novelty might, in some degree, in- of the 12th Messidor, third year, duce to aiter or repeal the decrees and all other regulations relative to of their predecessors; the third set the sequestration of the estates, and consisted of men of open and libe- as the reparation of the heritages of ral minds, who supported many of fathers, grandfathers, and other re. the proposals of their colleagues, be- lations of emigrants, are annulled, cause they considered them as the all sequestrations are taken off, and dictates of truth and justice, and all divisions made with the republie not to be relinquished for tempo. are to be considered as void of effect. rary inconveniences, or, in the fa 2. The emigrants are declared shionable language, existing cir- unable to possess any civil rights, to cumstances.

count from the decree of the 23d Among these men a proper and of October, 1792, which enacted commendable zeal for religion and their perpetual banishment from the morality soon began to display it day of their emigration, if it be self. The detestable laws autho- posterior to the said decree. rizing polygamy, or rather a gene- 3. Substitutions entailed on emi. ral system of debauchery, under grants, and not consolidated in the colour of a facility of divorce, their persons by the law of the 25th were ordered to be revised. On of October, 1792, are declared open the 17th of June, Camille Jourdan by their civil death for the benefit made an important, and, in the opic of the heirs next in the order of suc. nion of many, an enlightened and cession. philosophical report on the freedom 4. Direct and collateral succes. of religious worship, which was or- sions, to which emigrants would dered to be printed by the unani- have been entitled in case of nonmous vote of the council of five emigration, and which have become hundred.

· open since the 23d of October, On the plea of humanity (and 1792, are to be regulated in the with many of them, unquestionably, same manner as they would have their motives in this instance were been adjusted in case the emigrants good) some relaxation of the laws had departed this life previous to was proposed with respect to emi- the above successions being opened. grants. Greatly to their honcur 5 . The estates to be reclaimed in both councils were almost unani- virtue of the two preceding articles, mous in restoring to the prince of and which the republic is still posConti and the duchess of Orleans sessed of, shall be restored in natura their estales and privileges. A plan to the lawful owners. As to those was brought forward by a member states which have been disposed of

of the council of five hundred, of in the form prescribed by the laws, · the name of Emery, for reinstating they remain definitively alienated :

but but the indemnification of the pro. religion was in fine brought under prietors shall be provided for by the consideration of the council of another law.

five hundred, and the discussion 6. The proceeds and revenue was closed, on the 15th of July, from the said estates, as well as the by the adoption of the following interests thereof, which have be. resolutions: come due previous to the 1st Prairial 1. The laws which pronounce of the fifth year, shall be compen- the punishment of transportation sated with the charges of sequestra. or confinement against ecclesiastics, tion, administration, and repair, who were subject to oaths or decla. with the relief granted in pursuance rations, or who have been denounced of the laws of the 230 Nivose, third under the name of refractory, or on year, and with the contribution for account of incivism, and against the cloathing and pay of two soldiers those who have afforded shelter to until the general peace, established priests unsworn, are, and continue, by the law ofthe 12th of September, repealed. 1792 ; of which the fathers and mo. 2. The laws which assimilate exthers of emigrants are definitively ported priests to emigrants, are also acquitted and discharged.

repealed. 7. The estates of emigrants 3. The individuals affected by charged with pensions or usufructs said laws are restored to all the in favour of their fathers and mo. rights of French citizens, by fulfilthers, and which are not yet dis- ling, the conditions prescribed by posed of, cannot be sold but with the constitution. the charge they imposed on them. A resolution requiring from The fathers and mothers, entitled to priests a declaration of fidelity 10 such pensions and usufructs, shall the constitution was at the same be indemnified according to ano. time discussed and declared by the ther law, to be enacted on this sub- president to be negatived. An ject.

appel nominal being however deThe barbarous policy of punish. manded, a zreat tumult ensued, and ing individuals for the crimes of the president walked away. The others was justly and generally re- subject was however renewed the probated. By a former law, the following day, when the motion for fugitive labourers from the Upper exacting a declaration from the and Lower Rhine, who had emic priests was carried by 210 votes grated while those countries were against 20+. The liberality and the seat of war, were allowed a cer- justice of the council was further tain time to return, and were invited instanced on the 18th of July, with to resume their respective occupa- respect to fifty-three unfortunate tions. A motion was made in the emigrants, who had been shipcouncil of five hundred to prolong wrecked on the coast of Calais. this period, and to extend the bene- The member who made the report fits of the law to persons exercising concerning them, Jourdan, obany useful trade; and, after some served that it would be barbarous to deliberation, the time was enlarged show less clemency than the furious six months.

element from which they had esThe distressed and persecuted caped. They were therefore by the state of the banished ministers of order of the council reimbarked,


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