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the country, so that a gentleman was no longer permitted :o hold his situation, excepting he acted agreeably to the dictates of these powerful families. Having shown this !o be the state of representation, he begged to know what remedy there could be for these corruptions but reform? If we could not apply it, our fate was inevitable. Our most illustrious patriots, and the men whose names were dearest to Englishmen, had long ago pointed it out as the only means of redressing national grievances. Sir George Saville had been its most strenuous advocate, and the venerable Cambden was its steady supporter—nay, Mr. Burke himself acknowledged its propriety for correcting the abuses fi our system. The advantages in tae present case would be many: fe should ward off the evil of concision growing out of accumulated foment; we should save our^res from the calamities which kid befallen Ireland; we should satisfy the moderate, and detach rrom the violent their numbers and ■ieir converts. Pride, obstinacy, <id insult, must end in concessions, Jfid those concessions be humble in Proportion to insolence: now was tae moment to prevent degradation; the monarchy, the aristocra7) the people themselves might cow be saved. Let those ministers

who had plunged us into our present state retire from the post to which they are unequal; and let us, with an earnest desire of recovering the country, pursue this moderate plan ot reform under the auspices of men likely to conciliate the public mind. A new admini: stration ought to be formed: but Mr. Fox solemnly avowed he had no wish of making part of it; and though he would readily and strenuously give his support to any measures which would restore our outraged privileges, his desire as to himself was retirement. He gave his vote to the proposition of his honourable friend.

Sir William Dblben expressed much satisfaction at the propriety of the motion, and the moderation of those who supported it." Something of the kind was absolutely necessary to save the country. He wished die plan might be adopted, and remain three months on the table for the consideration of members.

'For the motion 63
Against it . 258

The parliamentary session was concluded on the 20th of July, in the usual manner, by a speech from the throne, for which "see our Public Papers, (p. 237) of this volume.

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CHAP. VIII.

The War. French land a Body of Troops on the Coast of Pembrokeshire.^ Surrendei as prisoners without Resistance. Conjectures as to the Object of this Expedition. The Spanish Fleet defeated by Admiral Sir John Jervis. off Cape St. tlncent, and/our Ships of'the Linecaplured. The Dutch Fleet lomplctely defeated ojf Cumperdawn, by Admiral Duncan. The British Forces under /.dniirid Nelson defeated at Taurifl'e. French Vessels captured and destroyed lu the Sauadran under Sir J. B. IVarrcn. West Indies. Trinidad taken ly the British Forces under Sir Ralph Abercromlir and Admiral Harvey. Vnsncce'srful Attach at Porto Rico. Proposal'ft ■raising Black Regiments in the West Indiesnegatived.

THE war between Great Britain and the French republic was, during this year, almost exclusively confined to naval operations; in which the skill and activity of the British seamen were eminently conspicuous, and almost invariably crowned with victory.

In one solitary instance, the French directory attempted to put m practice their pompous threats of an invasion of England; but the attempt appeared as if intended literally to burlesque the project; and to assure the government of Great Biitain that nothing serious was intended from their extensive preparations. On the 22d of Februai y, that pat t of the coast of Devonshire which lies at the mouth of the British channel was alaTmed by the appearance of an ^nemy's force, consisting according to report of three frigates, which, as was Stated in a letter published by authority, entered the little port of Ilfracombe on that coast, scuttled some of the merchant ships there, and attempted to destroy all the vessels in the harbour. Their stay was, however, not of long continuance, and they steered directly across lh.fi channel towards the Pem

broke side. They were first descried from the heights above St. Bride's Bay, and the squadron then appeared to consist of two frigates and two smaller vessels, steering from the Bristol channel round St. David's Head. They displayed English colours, but were soon suspected to be enemies. Alter turning St. David's Head, arid sailing a few miles to the northward in Cardigan Bay, they casf single anchors to the north of a small promontory under Lanwnnwr. They remained theie, however, but a short time, brr. moved farther up towards Fishgard, and finally anchored in a small bay near Lanonda, church, when they hoisted French colours, and put out their boats. The cliff is here exceeding steep and n gged, and a party of them wore obseived by a countryman climbing up singly on their hands and knee-, and throwing their muskets befoie them. The spot which they mace choice of for their landing, proved that they acted in concert with no party in the country, and that they had no persons amor.g them who were well acquainted with the coast. As sown as this

party part? had gained the ascent, they let fire to the furze and other combustibles, to apprize their comrades of their success. The debarkation of the whole was completed before the morning of the 23d, when numhers >j>t them dispersed over the countrv to procure provisions and apparel. In these predatory excursions they ransacked those houses which they found abandoned, but took very fttvr things fiom those in which they found inhabitants ; they ommitted no wanton murder. Two the countrymen were killed, but they provoked their fate by their own rashness, and one almost deserved it; for, after the Frenchman had surrendered, and in fact resigned his musket, the Welchnan aimed a blow at him with the butt end of it, when he drew his bayonet which he had not relinquished, and ran his antagonist through the body.

The alarm was at first general; brst the numbers and situation of the enemy soon appeared equally contemptible. They did not exceed 14O0 men; they were without r.-.i.i pieces, though they had seventj cart-loads of powder and balLand . 'juantity of hand-grenades. The MK>>t exertions were made wivh■ utk>ss ot time by the principal men is the country, and before night .•boat 6oO men were collected, who raigrit be termed soldiers (though >ey had never been in action), :m*uting of militia, tencibles, and ^essnan cavalry, besides a considermultitude cf colliers, and •idver* who swelled the number it much increasing the force. )i rhis p-i'ty lord Cawdor assumed .nimund ; and, on approaching : trr.emy, he received at about ten t at night a letter by a French Seer, signed "*I'ate, chef de ...^iide," intimating, "that the cir

cumstances under which the bodr of French troops under his command were landed,having rendered it unnecessary to attempt any military operation, he proposed a capitulation."—The reply of lord Cawdor was, that he could only treat on the terms of their surrendering prisoners of war ; which was presently agreed to; and on the succeeding day, at noon, they laid down their arms. The frigates and other vessels, as soon as they had disembarked the men, set sail for France; but, as if every thing were adverse to this absurd and unfortunate expedition, the two frigates, la Resistance of 18 guns, and la Constance of 21, were captured on the SJth of the following month, as they wera standing in for Brest harbour, by the S'.. Fiorenzo and Nymphe frigates, under the command of sir Harry Neale.

The conjectures had beer, various with respect to the object of this expedition. The troops which were landed were said by some to have consisted of a number of the Vendean insurgents, who had inlisted into the service of the republic, but could not be trusted in their owe. c limtry. By others they' were represented as a band of galley slaves, and other criminals collected from the prisons of Brest, and landed in England merely to quarter them upon the enemy. This report is most generally believed, and is countenanced by some debates in the French councils, in which Tmguer, the minister of ma- t rine, was vehemently eensured for having planned so disgraceful a measure. In opposition to this opinion, however, it may .be mentioned, that the commander of the party declaied, that he had with him 600 of the best troops in France, veteran and experienced soldiers;

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soldiers; nor is it very credible, that if the sole object was to quarter a set of banditti Upon England, they would have sent with them . such ample supplies. There ate other causes, which to us appear more probable for this undertaking. It was, in the first place, ot some importance to demonstrate to France, that the invasion of England, in the face of her powerful marine, was practicable in any circumstances ; and secondly, it is well known that the French have always been egregiously deceived with respect to the temper and sentiments of the British nation: we have little doubt, therefore, but the French ministry flattered themselves that these troops would have been joined on their landing by considerable numbers of the lower classes of the people, and that at least a considerable alarm would be excited throughout the kingdom. It was, therefore, an experiment to try at once the temper of the people, and the practicability of a descent.

The marine of France, it we except this feeble and ill-concerted enterprize, lay, during tie whole of the year, ignominiously confined •within their own ports; but their allies the Spaniards and the Dutch were grieyous sufferers in two naTal engagements, which, considering ever) circumstance, were equally glorious to the British aims.

The first of these memorable actions took place on the Mth of February, off Cape .St. Vincent. The British fleet, or, to sneak rrc.ic correctly, the British squadron under the command of admiral sir John Jet vis, amounted to romere than fifteen sail (.1 the lii.e, tour frigans. a slcopof war, and a cutter. —Of these six were th'ee-deckcrs, eight were of 74 guns, and one ottii. The Spanish fleet consist

ed of 27 sari of the line, one of vhich was a four-decker, and car-: ried 136 guns; six were threedeckers of II2 guns each; two oi 84 guns, and eighteen of 74.

The Spanish admiral, Don Josef de Cordova, had sailed from Carthiigcna on the 4th of February, and passed Gibraltar on the following day, having left in that bay three line-of-batilc ships, supposed to be laden with military stoics for the Spanish troops before that garrison. On the night of the 11th, this fleet had been discovered by the Minerva frigate, which carried the broad pendant of commodore Nelson, then on his way from the Mediterranean to join admiral Jcrvis. Captain Foote, oi the Niger, also kept company with them l"r si me days previous to the lSth, and that night they approached s:i near the British fleer, that their signal guns were distinctly heard. The signals were, therefor'.-, made that night to the British fleet to prepare for battle; and at day-break on the 14th they were in complete order. The morning was dark and hft'y ; but about half-past six, the Cullodcn made the signal for five sail in the south-west quarter; at eight o'clock the squadron was ordered to form in close order, ami in, a few minutes after the sigr.;il w*s repeated to prepare for battle.

At a little after ten the Minerva friuatc made the signal for '20 sail in the scuth-west quarter, and in about hall an hour after the enemy's fiee* wire visililo to all the British squall: on. 'The ships first discovered by the Cullodcn were at this pericdj separated irons lln-'y main bedyj which was be;.ring oi w:i in son d confusion to join the separated! ships. It appeared to have beed ihe British eiJmiiai's intention M the first, to cut off these vessels iiom the enemy's fleet, before the main body could arrive to their assistance, and with this view, the fast-sailing ships were ordered to chase; but observing the near position of their main body, he afterwards formed his fleet into a line of battle a-head and a-stern/ as roost convenient.

At about 2S minutes past 11, the admiral communicated his intention to pass through die enemy's Krte, and immediately after the signal was made to engage. At about half past 11, the action commenced by the van ship, ihe Culloden, commanded by captain Trowbridge, firing against the enemy's head-most ships to the windward; as the squadron advanced, however, the action became more general, and it was soon apparent that the British admiral had accomplished his design of passing through the enemy's liae. In the mean time, the regular and animated fire of the British fleet was but feebly returned by the enemy's ships to windward, which were also completely prevented from joining their companions to leeward, and obliged to haul their v.ind on the larboard tack. Thus, a part of tile Spanish fleet was effectually cut off from the main body, and they were reduced to the necessity of also forming on the larboard tack, apparently with the intention of passing through, or to the leeward of, •he British line; but such was the reception they experienced from the centre of the British, that they were obliged to put about, and did not appear again in the action till the close of day.

The British admintl having thus fortunately obtained his first object, now directed his whole attention t* the enemy's main body to wind

ward, which was reduced at this time by the separation of ihe ships to leeward, to In sail of the line. At a li tie afer 12 o'clock, the signal was made for the British fleet to tack in succession, a id soon after 'the signal for again passing the enemy's line; while the Spanish admind's design appeared to be to join his ships to leeward, by wearing round the rear of the British line. The intention of the enemy was, however, soon perceived by commodore Nelson, whose station in ihe rear afforded him an opportunity of observing {he manoeuvre. [n order to frustrate the design, therefore, his ship, the Captain, had no sooner passed the Spanish rear, than he ordered her to wear and stand on the other tack towards the enemy. In executing this bold nanceuvre, the commodore found himself along-side of the Spanish admiral, the Santissima Trinidad, of 136 guns, which is said to be the largest ship at present in existence. Notwithstanding this immense disparity (the Captain being only a 7+), this brave officer did not shrink from the contest, though die Spaniard was also warmly supported by her two seconds a-head and a-stern, which were each of them three-deckers. While he sustained, however, this unequal conflict, his friends were equally pressing to his assistance: the enemy's attention, therefore, was soon direated to the Culloden, captain Trowbridge, and the Blenheim, captain Frederick j and the able support afforded by these vessels to commodore Nelson, and die approach of rear-admiral Parker, with four others of the British line, determined the Spanish commander to relinquish his design of rejoining his ships to leeward, and to make the signal for his main body lo haul

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