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equalled, (they could not surpass) the rights to independent legislation integrity of his public conduct: which we conceded to you." and of whom it might best be said, The right honourable gentlenil non laudandum aut dixit, aut sen. man, he said, had taken notice of si, aut fecit. He nained Mr. the demands of the catholics in the O'Connor ; adding, that when such south, and of the dissenters in the men became the objects of hatred north, with a view of proving that and fear to government, it was not farther concessions would be prudifficult to ascertain the nature of dent and even absolutely necessary the government. He ended with on our part. He was himself quite declaring there was but one way of another opinion: no remedy of saving Ireland-of saving Eng- could be rendered serviceable to land : and that was, by divesting them, by a measure which would the present minister of the power operate as an entire alteration of he had so long and fatally abused, the form of the parliament-an aland calling him to a strict ac- teration too, which, as far as it count at the tribunal of his coun. would arise from the remaining try.
claims of the papists, and the wishes Mr. Pitt expatiated on Mr. Fox'se of the presbyterians, would be parconsiderations, in a speech too ticularly dangerous. The remedy long for the limits of this work to hinted at, though not so bigh in detail. The substance of his an- point of legislation, was one which swer was, that the parliament of could only fall within the province Ireland was considered to be the of the parliament of Ireland-he natural source of legislative ar- meant an alteration of the laws; rangeinents in that country, whose which might not only affect the peculiar interests were entrusted to right to a large mass of property, its care : por could any inter- but the practice of the church as ference be admitted after the con- to the present established mode of cession of 1782, by which we had worship. This was the principle declared the parliament to be inde- by which under the term “ lenient pendent, and placed it utterly out measures,” he supposed Mr. Fox of our controul. Nor could we, meant to lay the foundation of the under pretence of advising his ma- future peace of Ireland. At the jesty, induce him to give effect commencement of his majesty's to measures, which constitutionally reign, the catholics were prevented could only owe their effects to the from voting : they laboured under Irish legislature. He asked Mr. many disabilities, all of which had Fox if we could say to the parlia- been reinoved by his majesty : nor ment, “ You are an independent le could it fairly be brought forward, gislative body; but we, the parlia. that no pledge had been given by ment of England, shall at the end the crown, to extend to that people of fourteen years reyise and exa- the benefits enjoyed by the other mine, and direct how you shall ex- parts of the community. But it ercise your functions, and after- had been asserted, that it was possiwards feel it our duty to tell the ble to satisfy the catholics: if it Irish people that you are no longer were, it might be made the subject entitled to their confidence, no of advice to the executive governlonger possesed of those unalienable ment. The right honourable gen
tleman (Mr. Fox) would satisfy preposterous was the conduct of them indeed, by giving them the those who wanted their precious privilege of silting in parliament. monents in idle and pernicious But this could not be done, without words, instead of dedicating all their reversing the whole of its present powers to purposes of preparation form, and new- modelling the con- or precaution ? It was time, he said, stitution from the beginning to the to put an end to palliatives and self. end; and to make this change deceptions, and to place these kingwhen such principles were abroad doms on a footing of impervious dein the world, and were even pre. fence, whilst the delay of the French valent in the country where we still offered us the opportunity. lived, would be attended (aud he G eneral Hoche would find in appealed to the house if it would the province of Ulster alone 50,000 not) with the most pernicious con. Irishmen united, with pikes in their sequences. He would not enter hands, and arms concealed, busily into the subject respecting the employed in secret discipline, in wishes of the catholics and dissent- order to qualify themselves to reers in the north, to change the inforce the French army. This form of the Irish parliament; as it was no secret, except in London. would lead to discussions which, These people had long since comwhether they were to be decided municated their force, their numupon those old English principles bers, their intentions to France; which Mr. Fox admired, or on the and unless we conteracted their new French ones of modern liber- schemes by a speedy peace with ty, might be dangerous. If, in the common enemy, we were mudeed, they included the doctrine of tually lost., the sovereignty of we people, it L ord Wycombe declared it as was contrary to the duty of parlia- his opinion, that the present situament to give the least sanction to tion of Ireland was owing to the the measure. He stated, he said, conduct of our ministers towards all bis reasons, trusting that the that country. The disturbances English house of parliament would which had taken place in it, provnot for a moment hesitate in re ed a manifest disaffection to the jecting a motion calculated to alter British government : conciliation the fundamental principles of the instead of rigour ought to have jndependence of Ireland.
been tried, for it was time enough Mr. W. Smith contended, that to employ force when mildness the address could not interfere with failed. He could have wished, that the independence of the parliament the Irish parliament had been left of Ireland; and as he was uncon- to themselves to settle this, but vinced by any thing which he had that he knew they had entirely lost heard, he was called upon in duty the contidence of the people, and to the public to vote for it.
therefore the minister's observaColonel Fullarton asked whether tions on the independence of it we were or were not on the eve were thrown away. Indeed, he and in the crisis of impending in bad quite omitted to prove (for it vasion and commotion respecting was impossible to prove that the Ireland. If we were not, he had Irish parliament was independent : nothing to say, but beg pardon the truth was koown to be, that a end sit down ; if we were, how majority of it was at the will of
the cabinet of England. As to was this a reason to stigmatize them the fear of the religious sentiments as jacobins-a banditti without of the catholics, it was singular laws, without principles, without such a fear should be entertained, order! Mr. Courtenay stated, that when every body knew that reli- many most respectable persons had gion to be on the decline all over been arrrested at Belfast, and were Europe. He more dreaded, that, now languishing in gaol without if we did not interfere, we should being brought to a trial. And lose Ireland altogether, which would why? Because government dared be more severe to us than the loss not, knowing they could not estaof America.
blish their guilt; and their acquittas Lord Hawkesbury re-echoed the might disconcert the plan on which sentiments of Mr. Pitt, and was they were proceeding. convinced, he said, by the argu- Mr. Fox again rose : he thought ments so ably alleged, that its go- the discontents in Ireland might be vernment was capable of managing quieted by his majesty removing the concerns of the nation, and from places of trust many persons that there was no necessity of our now at the head of public affairs; interference, supposing (which he men who libelled the character of knew was not the case) that it a nation, at a moment when its could be done with propriety.
zeal, patriotism, and courage were Mr. Curwen said, it was not the most eminently displayed; men, in motion of his right honourable short, whose adminstration might friend, but the observations of the be considered as the source of those chancellor of the exchequer, which calamities with which the country were really mischievous. It was was afflicted. The chancellor of far from wise in him to fix a the exchequer had affirmed, that charge of jacobinism upon any the principles contended for rebody of his majesty's subjects. So specting liberty were not English, far, indeed, was the present motion but French; if they were also Irish, from being mischievous, that even they were worthy the attention of the discussion would do good, inas, government. But even allowing such as it would show the Irish na- them to be French (and he certion that there was a part at least tainly would not recommend such of the British parliament who were in this country), still it was better mindful of their interests.
to overcome them by conciliation Mr. Courtenay adverted to co- than to go to war with them. Was lonel Fullarton's account of Ethere the house prepared to begin anobeing 50,000 men in the province ther four years' war, to squander of Ulster, with arms in their hands, millions of treasure, and to shed ready to receive the French; he be- rivers of blood ? If it was, he bade lieved that there were; but not to them go on with their noble entersupport them on the contrary, prize; he would, bowever, warn they were prepared to resist an in- them, that, by literally fighting aFasion, if ever it should be attempt- gainst French principles in Ireland, ed. The people in that province they might in the end be introhad a strong spirit of liberty, and duced into Great Britain itself. were attached to the popular, or Unfortunately he had been a long what had been called the republican, time deprecating coercive measures. braash of the constitution. But He had deprecated the adoption of them against America, in 1774; he barous times. He concluded with deprecated them against France, in the works of Cicero, recommenda 1793; and he now deprecated the ing them to the serious considerasame system in Ireland. Though his tion of every person to whom the advice had not been followed, it was important task of legislation was a consolation to him, individually, assigned : that it had not been withheld. Carum esse civibus, bene de repubMeasures of coercion had proceed- licu mereri, laudari, coli, diligi, gloed from the same source ; war had riosum est ; metui vero et in odio esse, been preferred to negotiation, and invidiosum, detestabile, imbecillum, force to conciliation; because, in- caducum. stead of regulating our plans by: a For the motion, 64; against it, mild and enlightened policy, we 220. had acted upon the maxims of bar.
CH A P. VII.
Popular Meetings for the Purpose of petitioning for the Dimission of Mi
nisters. Motion to that Effect in the House of Lords in the House of Commons. The Duke of Bedford's Motion on the State of the Nution. Mr: Grey's Motion on a Parliamentary Reforin.
TN the course of the spring seves they had sacriñced, and the sum
ral popular meetings were held they had added to human misery, it agreeably to the restrictions of the was added, were incalculable. The new act, the avowed object of petition proceeds which was to petition his majesty "We humbly represent to your for the dismissal of ministers. In majesty, that in the hands of those most of these meetings the peti- ministers nothing has succeeded. tions were carried unanimously, “Instead of restoring monarchy particularly in the cities of London in France, they have been comand Westminster, the borough of pelled to recognize the republic Southwark, and the country of Mid- there established, and to offer prodlesex. The petitions contained posals of peace to it. Instead of heavy charges against the ministry, dismembering the territories of that but that of the city of Westminster republic, they have suffered it to was fuller than most, and equally add to them the Netherlands, Holstrong with any. It commenced land, and great part of Italy and with charging the ministers with Germany; and even a part of these having wantonly involved the na- kingdoms, which the fleets of that tion in a ruinous war, in conse- republic have insulted, has only quence of which they had squan- been preserved from the calamities dered upwards of ONE HUNDRED of an invasion by the accidents of AND THIRTY MILLIONS OF MO. the seasons. . NEY; and laid on taxes to the " In their negotiations for peace, amount of six'MILLIONS AND A they have been equally unsuccess HALF, annually. The lives which ful:- it was to be expected. When
they asked peace, they were abject,' the horrors of lawless military vion but not sincere; they acknowledg- lence. ed their impotence, but not their " These are no common errors. errors. They discovered the most They are great crines; and of hostile dispositions towards France, these crimes, before God and our at the very time they proved their country, we accuse your miniutter inability to contend with sters. Our affections to your ma
jesty's person, our loyalty to your “When they wanted to obtain government, are unabated :-your our consent to the war, they assured majesty's virtues are a pledge for us that it was necessary for the the one; the constitution which safety of our commerce. At this makes you king, for the other. moment, most of the ports of Eu- But duty to our follow contrymeri, rope are shut against us; goods to and to our posterity, which is but an immense amount are lying upon another name for that affection and the hands of our merchants; and loyalty, impels to us to represent to the manufacturing poor are starving your majesty, that your ministers by thousands.
are defrauding us of the benefit of “They assured us the war was those virtues, by destroying the necessary for the preservation of channels through which they Aow. property and public credit. They They have tarnished the national here rendered every man's proper- honour and glory; they have opty subject to an order of the privy pressed the poor with almost intolecouncil, and the bank of England rable burthens; they have poisoned has stopped payment.
the intercourse of private life; they “ They assured us that the war have given a fatal blow to public was necessary for the preservation credit; they have divided the emof the constitution. They have pire ; and they have subverted the destroyed its best part, which is constitution.” its liberty, by oppressive restric- Thus far we have thought protions upon the right of petitioning, per to insert; because from the and upon the freedom of the press; substance of one, the reader will by prosecuting innocent men under be able to judge of the general te. false pretences; by sending money nor of these petitions. The success to foreign princes without the con- which the petitions experienced in sent of parliament; while, by the public meetings, and the geneerecting barracks throughout the ral clamour and dissatisfaction at kingdom, they give us reason to the conduct of ministers, which apsuspect their intention of finally peared to prevail throughout the subjecting the people to military nation, encouraged some of the
leaders of opposition to bring for"They assured us the war was ward motions to the same effect in Decessary for the preservation of the both houses of parliament. The unity of our empire. But they have · first of these motions was made on 30 conducted, and are still so con- the 27th of March, when the earl ducting, themselves in Ireland, as to of Suffolk addressed their lordships alienate the affections of that brave, on the subject which, he said, it was loyal, but oppressed and persecuted the duty of every Englishman to disnation, and to expose the most cuss. The present situation of the lourishing of its provinces to all country was become truly alarm