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of which one is the medium; but exhibit the state of the cash and these being decyphered in the same bullion; the average of bank notes manner, it appears that the real dis- in circulation; the discounts and ounts on the 26th of Feb. amount- advances to government during d 10 no more than 2,904,0801. the several periods which it em nd the following table will at once braces.
1793. March 3,508,000 | 11,903,820 4,817,000 8,735,200
June 4,412,000 12,100,650 5,128,000 9,434,000 September 6,836,000 | 10,038,620 2,065,000 9,455,000
December 7,720,000 10,907,310 1,976,000 8,887,500 1797. March 8,008,000 1,159,720 2,908,000 8,494,00
June 8,208,00) 10,366,450 3,263,000 7,735,800 September 8,096,000 10,348,940 2,000,000 6,779,800
December 7,708,000 10,927,970 1,887,000 7,545,109 1795. March 7,940,000 12,432,240 2,287,000
9,773,700 June 7,356,000 10,912,680 3,485,000 10,679,700 September 5,792,000 | 11,034,790 1,887,000 10,107,600 December 4,000,000 11,609,670 3,109.000
10,863,100 1796. Marchi 2,972,000 10,824,150 2,820,000 11,351,000 June 2,582,000 10,770,200 3,730,000
| 11,269,700 September 2,532,000 9,720,440 3,352,000
9,901,100 December 2,508,000 9,045,710 3,796,000 9,511,400 , 1797. Feb. 26. 1,272,000 8,640,250 i 2,905,000 | 10,072,490
From these documents it will ap. parison with the immense capitals pear that our observations in the which are annually turned over in beginning of this chapter are strict our different manufactures ! ly correct; and that the importance The truth is, the trade of Great of the bank, as a public institu. Britain is chiefly carried on, indetion, has been unwarantably mag. pendent of the bank, by a kind of nified. If we compare the sum of barter, traffic or circulation among 12,000,0001. which has in general the traders themselves, who accept been the extent of the bank-notes and receive private bills of ex. in circulation, with the whole trade change to an infinitely greater of Great Britain, as estimated by the amount than the whole circulation of custom-bouse reports, how insig- the bank of England. The banknificant will it appear. And if we paper is chietly confined in its circonsider that the assistance which culation to tåre inetropolis; and the this institution has afforded to com. assistance which it extends to indimerce has seldom exceeded three or viduals is principally extended to four millions at any given time, the merchants and traders of the how triffing must it appear in com- metropolis. It quickens perhaps, and preserves, in some degree, the and manufactures of the country Fital energy in that part wbich can be affected but in a very slight may be considered as the centre of degree by the prosperity or misforcommercial action; thus far, it is of 'tunes of the bank.-They happily use and importance, but this is the rest on a firmer basis on the geutmost limit of its utility, and it nius, industry, and spirit of the must be a consolatory reflection to people. Englishmen to know, that the trade
State of Ireland with respect to France.- Observations on the abortive At
tempt of General Hoche. — Beconies the Subject of Debate in the British Parliament.-Debute in the House of Commons on Mr: Whitbread's Motior relative to the Invasion of Ireland, - Debate in the House of Lords on the sume Subject.— Earl of Moira's Motion on the Stute of Irelandnegatited.--Mr. For's Motion in the House of Commons on the same Subject-alsu negatived.
If we except the transactions in clamations in execution. That ata
Italy, where the commanding tempt, fortunately for Britain, was genius of Buonaparté seems to have ill-planned. The whole conduct risen superior to the impediments of the expedition was intrusted to which the weakness, folly, or self- one man, without even an able ishness of his employers might have second in command, who was prothrown in his way, we may ven- · perly instructed to supply his place, ture to pronounce that the present should any accident prevent the directory of France have exhibited co-operation of the commander-inbut slender talents for conduct chiet': the consequence was, that ing a war, and but little of that the troops and seamen who first vigour, industry, and stratagem, made their destined port, were withwhich marked the politics of their out a leader, and incapable of act, predecessors. Their threatened in- ing. The directory, too, appear to Fasion of England is become almost have been unaccountably ignorant proverbially ridiculous ; nor have of the state of the country, which they on any occasion manifested an it was their object to subdue, since energy equal to their resources, or a late events have shewn that the genius in directing ably even the descent was not made in the most slender preparations they have made. vulnerable part, nor was the faction The attempt at an invasion of Ire- itself, which was expected to aid land, under the direction of general the design, apparently apprized of Hoche, which we noticed in our the enterprize, or prepared to colast volume, was the only effort operate. Had they acted in conthat was made to put their bombastic cert, and had the force of the French threats and their pompous pro. been directed to several points of
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the island, it is more than probable actually made ? He intreated the that this valuable appendage of the attention of the house to its situaBritish empire would have been for tion when the enemy was on the ever separated from the parent very coast; from the letter of the land; a revolution, more sangui- commander-in-chief in that quarter nary, perhaps, and certainly more (general Dalrymple) it appeared, disastrous in proportion to its near that, instead of any effectual meaness, than the American revolution, seres having been previously adopted might probably have been effected. for its deience, every thing remainProvidentially for this island, as ed to be done. After mentioning well as for Ireland itself, the design the appearance of the enemy in was frustrated by the weakness of Bantry Bay, the General says, that its projectors, and by the rigour of he will proceed to put every thing the season and the elements; and into the most proper train for de He may venture to predict, that a feating their designs. second opportunity equally favour- Was tbis, continued Mr. Wbit. able will not occur, and that Ireland bread, a proper defence against so will never now be reduced under active and enterprizing an enemy as the Gallic yoke,
we have to contend with? There To enter into the causes of disaf. was not at the time more than three fection wbich concurred to pro- thousand regular troops to oppose duce the late unhappy ferment in the whole force of the French; that kingdom, would at this season the city of Cork in particular was be obviously improper; and to in the most imminent danger of fall. extend these observations further ing into their hands, had not that would be to anticipate much of that God alone, who has so often favourmatter which we shall, in the course ed and protected this country, preof this chapter, have an opportu- vented it. In Cork were contained nity of giving upon superior au- stores and provisions of various thority. Let it sufñce to say, that kinds, to the amount of a million the exposed situation of Ireland, sterling in value; anongst those and the supposed neglect of the stores were the whole of the proadmiralty, with respect to observing visions intended for the use of the the motions of the Brest fleet, were British navy for the following year, made the subject of a motion in the so that, had they been taken or deBritish house of commons on the stroyed, our navy would have been, third of March. The opening of for a year to come, annihilated. He this interesting debate was intrusted proceeded to state the motions of the to Mr. Whitbread, who enlarged French fleet, and of our own, from much on the want of precaution in the time of their quitting Brest. the ministers in general, and on the Admiral Colpoys, with a fleet of inactivity of the admiralty in par fourteen or fifteen sail of the line, ticular. Information, he said, bad was lying off Brest harbour for been received through various chan. some weeks; the French fleet, how. nels, that Ireland was one great ever, in defiance of this, sailed from object of the meditated attack of Brest on the 15th of December; the enemy. Had any measures then on the 20th they arrived ou the been taken towards the defence of coast of Ireland, and some of them that country, when the attack was dropped anchor in Bantry Bay:
previous previous to that, and during the frustrated by the winds, and the safe time that admiral Colpoys was with ty of Ireland entirely abandoned to bis squadron lying off Brest, ad- the chance of the elements. miral Richery, with six French Another reason assigned for the ships of the line, passed our squa- return of admiral Colpoys' squadron dron and got sale into Brest; so that into port was, that it was short the enemy were at sea, and on the of provisions ; but, continued Mr. coast of Ireland, from the 18th of Whitbread, is it possible to conDecember to the 6th of January. ceive, that, in all the time it lay On the 20th of December news are off Brest, either fresh ships could rived in England that the French not have been sent to relieve him, fleet bad quitted Brest, and on the properly victualled, or transports 31st that it was off the coast of Ire- have been forwarded to re-victual land. On the same day, exactly, the fieet? When information had admiral Colpoys, with the fleet under been received of the active and exhis command, arrived at Portsmouth: tensive preparations going forward the reasons given for his return with at Brest, after the large sums conbis squadron are various and con- sumed in secret service money, and tradictory; one was, that his force with the immense navy in our poswas insufficient to encounter that of session, shall we be told they ought the enemy. If this be the real cause, not to have sent out fresh ships said Mr. Whitbread, it furnishes to have reinforced that squadron? additional reason for inquiring into He concluded by moving, “ that it the conduct of ministers, and of might be referred to a committee to the first lord of the admiralty in inquire into the conduct of ministers particular.
respecting the late attempt of the There was another circumstance French to invade Ireland.” which had occurred very remarka- Mr. Dundas replied to Mr. ble: admiral Elphinstone arrived in Whitbread in a speech of some Ireland, in the Monarch of 74 guns, length. He exonerated the admi. accompanied by a frigate. He gave salty from any want of foresight, or notice to the castle of Dublin, that failure of duty; said it was imposbe with the ship under his com- sible to decide whether Portugal or mand, and with the frigate, was Ireland was the object of the French ready to join any other force that feet; asserted that it was the wisest might be allotted for the purpose of measure our government could going in search of the enemy. Ad- adopt, to divide our fleets, stationmiral Kingsmill also issued orders ing one off Brest to watch the ene. for several frigates to sail on the my and intercept the sailing of the same errand; yet on the 3d of Ja- expedition, and the other at home, nuary admiral Elphinstone arrived to relieve it if necessary, or join it ut Spithead with the Monarch, with- if expedient. He contradicted a out having seen any of the enemy's statement that had gone abroad, that fleet. Lord Bridport, who sailed no frigate or squadron had been apthe same day from thence, and went pointed by the admiralty to watch first to Brest, and then shaped his over the enemy in Brest harbour, course to Ireland, returned to Spit- and give an account to admiral Colhead equally unsuccessful; and the poys as circumstances should re-. designs of the enemy were only quire. Sir Edward Pellew wus ap
pointed, and did actually cruize sail of the line, and was to have there. But notwithstanding the been sent to the relief of the feet diligence and skill of the admiral, off Brest; but the wind was so adand the experience and courage verse as to render it impossible for of sir Edward, their exertions were them to come to Spithead before in vain : for the state of the weather the 18th of November. As to the was such, that it was impossible for interval which took place between the admiral to keep his own fleet the arrival of admiral Colpoys and under his 'observation, and the air the sailing of lord Bridport, the was so hazy that the fog guns were instructions of sir Edward Pellew continually fired. Could any man reached the admiralty on the 20th of doubt sir Edward's inclination to December; and on the 21st he rehave given, if possible, the intelli- ceived information of the sailing gence to the admiral, that the enemy of the French fleet from Brest, and had put to sea; or that adiniral Col. immediately returned for answer, poys was not desirous to see it? Was that all the fleet would be ready it likely he should be unwilling, four days after, namely the 25th. when he had a fleet under his com [Here Mr. Dundas read the orders mand so superior to that of the ene- of tho admiralty, issued on the 21st, my? It was the wisest resolution and another order issued after, counhe could take, not to follow them to teracting some part of them, and Portugal or Ireland, till he knew desiring him to proceed off Cape their certain destination; and hie Clear immediately. He wished it kept his station for the chance of to be observed, that, although the intercepting all, or part of the fleet, French fleet arrived off the coast of in case of dispersion by a storm; Ireland on the 21st of December, he recollected also, that the circum- no intelligence of them was received stance of their having sailed, would in this country till the 31st; the be known to the admiralty, and by admiralty had taken the chance of remaining where he was, he should finding admiral Colpoys on the stareceive such authentic intelligence tion where they expected him to as be could not otherwise expect to have been, off the Lizard, in case obtain.
of any adverse winds removing him Respecting the charge of the want from the French coast. Lord Bridof provisions, Mr. Dundas could port had always been not only a not but admit the squadron had gallant but a successful admiral: remained longer on its station than yet it so happened, that, although was at first supposed necessary, and admiral Colpoys had been hovering not relieved so soon as the admiralty with bis squadron off Brest, to interhad intended; the reason was, sir cept the enemy upon their leaving Roger Curtis should have been in that harbour, although lord Bridport port the beginning of November, afterwards proceeded off Cape Clear and did not come till the 18th. He and the Irish coast with the same had been appointed to cruize off design, and although the Duke Rochefort, where he remained a and the Majestic, with two other fortnight longer than was expected, ships of war, were sent in search of to intercept the return of Richery's them, they were so covered by the squadron from Newfoundland. Sir fog, and protected by fortune, as to Roger's squadron consisted of seven escape them all. The honourable