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ministers are more imaginary than real. The argument drawn from the abuse of privileges and rights is not conclusive against the legitimate exercise of such rights and privileges. The past history of the United Presbyterian Church vindicates the conduct of those who made popular election the chief corner-stone of the edifice. And the trust bequeathed by former generations, is to be transmitted entire to coming generations.

7. Congregations Originating in Itineracies, Home Missions, and

Church Extension Movements. When the fathers of the Secession proceeded to form a Presbytery, it was not with the view of founding a Church ; but only, if possible, to constrain the Civil and Ecclesiastical Courts to modify the law of patronage, and remove offensive abuses. In this vain expectation they continued for about three years in a state of Secession before they complied with any of the applications made to them to organise congregations in their connection. The idea of becoming “a great home mission "_the boast of some in latter times—never seems to have occurred to them. The course they pursued was one to which they considered themselves impelled by necessity rather than by choice. So reluctant were they to enter upon it, that they willingly suffered many favourable opportunities for extending their cause to pass unimproved. They did, indeed, visit certain localities when invited ; but even then they refused to comply with the wishes of their professed friends, unless when fully convinced of the purity of their motives, rightly judging that the strength of a church depends more upon its right principles than the number of its adherents. The Rev. Mr Brown of Craigdam was the first Secession minister who spontaneously exerted himself to extend the interests of his denomination, by going forth and proclaiming its principles wherever opportunity was afforded him. From his itineracies in the counties of Aberdeen and Banff there arose the congregations of Cabrach, Grange, Huntly, Keith, and Shiels. Mr Buchanan of Nigg pursued a similar course, and by his exertions the congregations of Inverness (First), Thurso, and Wick were formed. Through the efforts of others in this way the following congregations had also arisen prior to the year 1800: Maisondieu Lane, Brechin; Kirkwall; Mill Street, Montrose; and Stronsay.

During the first twenty years of the present century, little was done by the Secession and Relief Churches, in the way of aggression, for extending their boundaries. To the exertions of a few persons may be ascribed the existence of several congregations in this way; but, as the doctrinal teaching of the parochial churches in their vicinity had considerable influence in leading to the formation of such congregations, we have ranked their origin under that head. It was not till the union of the two great branches of the Secession, which took place in 1820, that any effort to stimulate denominational growth, worthy of the name, was put forth. That auspicious event imparted a consciousness of power to the parties uniting, which immediately developed itself in a series of movements towards expansion. The United Associate Synod, at its very first meeting, appointed commissioners to visit the south and north of Scotland, and report such localities as appeared to them to stand in need of evangelical instruction. In 1825 a standing committee of Synod was appointed to correspond with ministers respecting places suitable for preaching stations in their districts; and an association, chiefly composed of laymen, and of which David Anderson, Esq., was the chief promoter, was formed in Glasgow, for advancing the interests of the Secession Church. Most of the Presbyteries in the denomination also formed themselves into missionary societies for home operations, and secured the co-operation of the congregations within their bounds. This zeal on the part of the Secession Church awakened also that of the Relief; and their operations, separate and combined, led to the formation of the congregations of Aberchirder ; Aberlady ; Lisburn Street, Alnwick; Annan (Second); Anstruther; Archieston; Bedlington ; Belfast; Blackburn; Burghead ; Campbelton, Argyleshire (Secession); Campbelton, Inverness-shire; Carluke; Cambuslang; Dalry, Dumfriesshire; High Street, Dumbarton ; Eday; Firth; Gardenston; Hartlepool; Houghtonle-Spring; Inveraray; Queen Street, Inverness; Kirkcowan; Larkhall; LeithLumsden ; Lerwick ; Lesmahagow; Letham ; Leven ; Lismore; Lochmaben; Longtown; Mainsriddle; Markinch ; New Leeds; Newtyle; Oban ; Otterburn; Patna ; Portree ; Rousay ; South Ronaldshay; Sandwick ; Savoch of Deer; Shapinshay; Tain ; Troon ; Walker ; and Wigton, Cumberland.

Congregations were also formed by the voluntary withdrawment of members and adherents of different congregations, with the sanction of Presbyteries, and having the place of worship in a central locality, not before provided with a Gospel ministry. In this way there arose the congregations of Wishart Church, Dundee ; Lothian Road, Newington, and Stockbridge, Edinburgh ; Calton, Cambridge Street, Eglinton Street, Gillespie Church, Gordon Street, London Road, Renfield Street, and Shamrock Street, Glasgow ; North Leith ; and Coupland Street, Manchester. Most of these had come into existence prior to the Disruption in 1843, which forthwith led to such a multiplication of places of worship throughout the country as to supersede, for a time, the necessity of any effort in this direction. A few years afterwards, the Rev. Dr James Taylor overtured the Presbytery of Glasgow to take steps for locating preachers in the densely-populated districts of the city, with the view of drawing out persons not in the habit of attending any place of worship, and forming them into congregations called Missionary Churches. This overture was adopted. The success which has attended the prosecution of this measure is written in the history of not a few of the new congregations in Glasgow. In February 1853, a number of persons connected with the United Presbyterian Church in Glasgow met in the Religious Institution Rooms there, and formed themselves into an association for church extension in that city. A fund for aiding this object received a contribution of £1000 from Miss Davie, of Garnethill, in January 1854.*

In reviewing the causes specified, as operating in the formation of the congregations named, it becomes at once apparent that though seemingly numerous and diversified, they nearly all resolve themselves into two-resistance on the part of the people to the domination of parties in the State Church on the one hand, and the maintenance of the position which they have assumed, on the other. Aggression, in the proper sense of the term, has contributed very little to the extension of the denomination of which we now write. Its progress has been accelerated by the influence of the laity rather than that of the clergy. It is emphatically the Church of the people in its progression as well as its maintenance. It differs in these respects from the Wesleyan Church, with which it has sometimes been compared, both bodies having originated about the same time. The one is the produce of seed broadcast over the land by a widely-extended and ever-active agency, the other a spontaneous growth, diffusing itself by degrees, aided, occasionally, by a supply from other sources; the one is somewhat of an exotic in danger of degenerating, the other, more of an indigenous plant, which only needs to be let alone to spread itself without limitation.

* Since 1854, at least 20 Churches have been added to the strength of the Denomination in Glasgow and its immediate suburbs, and energetic measures are now (1872) being adopted with a view to increased and systematic Church Extension.-Eds.

It is obvious, from the review of the causes specified, conjoined with the recollection of recent events, that the external causes operating in the formation of congregations have, to a great extent, ceased, or now exert little or no influence. The arbitrary exercise of Patronage, which was the chief of these, was restrained for a time by the enactment of the Veto Act. A few congregations which had separated from the main body of the Seceders united with the Established Church after that Act had been passed. But they were hardly inside when they repented of the step they had taken, and left with more precipitation than they had entered, finding that the privilege which the Veto professed to secure for them was illusory. The members of the United Secession and Relief Churches, on the other hand, not only maintained their position, but went on strengthening it. Congregation after congregation was added to these respective denominations. Afterwards, they coalesced into one body, and, notwithstanding the Disruption which has taken place and covered the land with churches, they have kept steadily on the increase. The precise extent to which they have been thus proceeding will become apparent in the course of the next chapter, where all the congregations which are now (1854) in connection with the United Presbyterian Church, or have ever been in connection with the sections of which it is composed, will be specified and enumerated according to the dates of their origin. In the meantime, it may be said to be apparent that whatever may have been the case aforetime, it is to the principle of a Church Establishment itself that the people referred to now object, and not merely to the abuse of it. Some there are in the National Church who persuade themselves to the contrary, and, under that persuasion, have recently attempted to get its Courts to move for the further modification of the law of Patronage, and, if necessary, even its entire abolition, in the hope that Dissenters would thereby be induced to return to it.

“Dissenters," as has often been declared, and now fully proved, “ do not design, do not desire, to obtain admission into the Church. There was a time when it would have been possible by slight concessions to satisfy the scruples of the Nonconformists, and schemes of comprehension have been brought forward with the sanction of some of the wisest and best men of the Established Church, which, had they been carried into effect, would, without compromising any of the essential doctrines of Christianity, have gone far towards neutralising Dissent. But the time for the success of such schemes has long since passed.” *

PROGRESSIVE EXTENSION OF THE CHURCHES BY INCREASE OF CONGREGATIONS. This progression might have been exhibited briefly and comprehensively by tables, in which figures alone would have marked the number of congregations formed each year since the first Secession took place, or during any other successive portions of time that might have been fixed upon for the purpose. But such tables are unintelligible or uninteresting to the great proportion of readers, and on that account passed over by them without perusal. We shall therefore conjoin the names of congregations, with the dates of their origin, and then sum them up at different periods into which the whole amount of time embraced by the history naturally or conveniently divides itself. It will thus be seen at a glance what congregations were contem

. "The Designs of the Dissenters. Letter to the King by a Protestant Dissenter.” 1834.

poraneous in origin, as well as the number which came into existence at different periods of time. 1733. Abernethy; Kinclaven ; Perth ; Stirling. 1739. Dalkeith (East); Dunse (East); Kilmaurs ; 1734.

Leslie (West); Mearns; Sanquhar 1735.

(South). 1736.

1740. Bridge of Teith; Comrie ; School Wynd, 1737. Cambusnethan; Craigmaillen; Queen Anne

Dundee; Midholm; Mill Street, MonStreet, Dunfermline ; Falkirk (East);

trose ; Stitchel. Haddington (East); Holm of Balfron; 1741. Blackfriars', Jedburgh. Bethelfield, Kirkcaldy; Milnathort (1st); 1742. Dumbarrow.

Morebattle ; Muckart ; West Linton. 1743. Cumbernauld (1st); Kinkell. 1738. Burntisland; Burntshields; Ceres (1st); 1744. Blackett Street, Newcastle.

Bristo Street, Edinburgh ; Greyfriars', 1745. Elgin (ist); Wigtown.
Glasgow; Cartsdyke, Greenock; Lock 1746. Alloa (West); Dennyloanhead.

erbie; Stow; Urr. “The Breach" occasioned by the Burgess Oath controversy took place in 1747, and from that date till 1820, when the portions of the Church which then separated were reunited, the congregations which originated are marked A. and B., according to the Synods to which they respectively belonged. The former referring to the General Associate (Antiburgher), the latter to the Associate (Burgher) Synod. 1747. A. Cairneyhill ; Coupar Angus; Back B. Inverkeithing.

Street, Dalkeith; Earlston (East); 1753. A. Elseridgehill; Errol (1st); Moyness.
Nicolson Street, Edinburgh ; Duke

B. Clayport Street, Alnwick; Newcastle-
Street, Glasgow; George Square,

ton.
Greenock; Haddington (2d); Kin- 1754. A. Colmonel ; Peebles (1st); Ivy Place,
ross (West); Pathhead, Kirkcaldy;

Stranraer.
Oakshaw Street, Paisley ; Perth
(North); Stirling (2d).

A. Minniehive ; Whitehaven.
B. Auchtermuchty (North); Thornhill ;

Dunblane (Ist); Ecclefechan; Scone; A. Auchinleck; Falkirk (South).
Selkirk (1st); St Andrews.

Biggar (North). 1748. A. Howgate; Logiealmond.

1757. A. Loreburn Street, Dumfries; RattB. 1749. A. Pathstruiehill. B.

1758. A. Kilwinning (Ist). 1750. A. Oxendon, London ; Methven.

B. Cumbernauld (2d); Wells Street, LonB. Aberdeen (1st); Kelso (1st); Kenno

don ; Dunblane (2d). way; Carliol Street, Newcastle. 1759. A. Mitchell Street, Beith. 1751. A. Buchlyvie ; Bell Street, Dundee ; Lau

B. der (ist).

1760. A. Eastbarns, afterwards Dunbar (2d); B. Torphichen.

Shiels. 1752. A. Craigdam ; Castle Street, Jedburgh ;

B. Greenloaning ; Norham. “ The Relief Presbytery,” afterwards the Relief Synod, was formed in 1761, and from this date the congregations in connection with it are marked R. 1761. A. Blackswell, Hamilton ; Mid-Calder ;

Kirkintilloch (1st); Lochgelly; Union
Milnathort (2d).

Church, Musselburgh.
B. Leslie (East); Rathillet.

R. Banff.
R. Colinsburgh; Gillespie Church, Dun- 1766. A. Clola; Whitehill; Whitburn.
fermline; High Street, Jedburgh.

B. Dunbar (Ist). 1762. A. Crieff (ist).

R. Campbelton; College Street, Edin. B.

burgh ; Dovehill, Glasgow. R. Bellshill; Blairlogie.

1767.

A. 1763. A. Bo'ness (ist); Johnshaven (ist); Kendal.

B. Coldstream (West); Eaglesham.
B. Abernethy (20); Dunse (West); Pol.

R. Dunse (South).
lokshaws (ist); Tough; Wooler 1768. A. Forres; Wick.
(1st).

B. Shotts; Wellington Street, Kilmarnock.
R. Auchtermuchty (West).

R. Dalkeith (West); Kilsyth.
A. Nigg; Strathaven (1st).

1769. A. Nairn.
B. John Street, Montrose ; Spring Gar-

den Lane, Sunderland. R.

A. Ayr (1st); Howford ; Kirkgate, Leith. 1765. A. City Road, Brechin ; Cabrach;Grange; B. Wallace Green, Berwick; Dunning Hawick (West); Keith (ist); Kelso

(1st); Linlithgow (West). (2d); Muirtown.

R. Falkirk (West); Anderston, Glasgow. B. Alloa (West); Livery Street, Bathgate; 1771. A.

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1791. A. Dalreoch.

B. Trinity Church, Greenock; Johnston

(ist); Lochwinnoch. R. Haddington ; East Kilbride ; Kelso

(East) ; Mainsriddel ; Newlands;

Newton-Stewart. 1792. A, Potterrow, Edinburgh; Wellington

Street, Glasgow ; Whithorn.
B. Well Wynd, °Airdrie; Buckhaven ;

East Linton; Portsburgh, Edinburgh;

Whitby.
R. Bridge-end, Dumbarton; Campbell

Street (20), Glasgow ; Kirriemuir

(ist). 1793. A. Inverleven ; Saltcoats (West).

B. Bo'ness (2d); Lauder (2d); Mauchline.

R. Balfron; Coldingham; Old Kilpatrick. 1794. A.

B. St Nicholas Lane, Aberdeen ; Crail ;

Freuchie ; West Calder. 1795. A. Kirkwall.

B. Irvine (East); Kilconquhar.

R. Errol (2d); Broomgate, Lanark. 1796. A. Kinross (East).

B. Barrhead; Denny; Pitcairn; Stone

house. R. St James' Place, Edinburgh. 1797. A. Pitcairngreen ; Stewarton.

B. Wallacetown, Ayr; Braehead; Mais

ondieu Lane, Brechin ; Maybole ; Morpeth; Penrith; Bellevilla, Stran

raer.

R. Southend. 1798. A.

B. Balfron (2d); Church Street, Hamilton.
R. Burnhead ; Ceres (2d); Earlston (West);

John Street, Glasgow. 1799. A. Stronsay.

B. Brunswick Street, Manchester; Midmar;

Peterhead (2d); Pollokshaws (2d).
R. Hutchesontown, Glasgow ; Milngavie;

Roberton; Strathkinnes. 1800. A. Sanday.

B. Balgedie.
R. Castle-Douglas (ist); Kilmarnock;

Langholm (South)."
A. Clavering Place, Newcastle.
B. Galashiels (East).
R. Castlegarth, Newcastle.
A. Newarthill.
B. Crossgates.

R. Carrubber's Close, Edinburgh. 1803. A. Stromness.

B. Annan (1st); Avonbridge ; Johnshaven

(2d); Keith (20); Leeds; New Deer;

Stonehaven.
R. Dunning (2d).
04. A. Moss Street, Elgin.

B. Bolton.
R.
A. Bathgate (2d); Bellingham ; Linlith-

gow (East); Thornhill.
R. St Paul's, Aberdeen; Greenhead,

Glasgow. 1806. A. Ferryport-on-Craig;Haddington(Wt.).

B. Airth; Coldingham; Duntocher;

Forgue.
R. Tollcross, Glasgow; Şir Michael Street,

Greenock ; Lilliesleaf (1st). 1807. A.

B. Buccleuch Street, Dumfries.

180

1782. A. Princes Street, Arbroath.

B. Fenwick; Penicuik.

R. Crieff (2d). 1783. A. Auchtermuchty (North).

B. Fala ; Renton ; Slateford.

R. Millhill, Musselburgh. 1784. A. Lethendy. B. Horndean ; Limekilns ; South Shields

(1st). R. Head Street, Beith ; Campsie. 1785. A. St Andrew's, Leith.

B. Liff ; Lanark (1st); Newburgh (ist).

R. Perth (East). 1786. A. Auchtergaven (1st); Balbiggie.

B. Rose Street, Edinburgh ; Galston ;

Kirkgate, Leith ; Yetholm (1st). R. Kilbarchan. 1787. A. Balmullo; Tillicoultry.

R. Coupar-Angus (2d); Dundee. 1788. A. Belford ; Chalmers' Street, Dunferm

line ; Inverness (1st). B. Campbell Street, Glasgow ; Newbig

ging ; Pitrodie. R. Clackmannan ; Queensberry Street,

Dumfries; Waterbeck. 1789. A. Carnoustie.,

R. Ford. 1790. A. Burnside, Cupar; Ellon; Peterhead

(1st). B. Kinghorn; Miles Lane, London ;

Peebles (East); Port-Glasgow; Countess Street, Saltcoats.

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