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3d Minister.PETER CARRUTHERS, from Queensferry, of which his father was minister. Ordained 238 May 1837.

GREAT SALKELD. Great Salkeld is 5 miles from Plumpton, and Salkeld and Plumpton about ; miles each from Penrith, in Cumberland, the post-town.

The place of worship at Great Salkeld is understood to have been built in 1709, that at Plumpton in 1707. Neither record nor tradition affords any information as to the commencement of Dissenting worship in either of these places ; but nonconformists are known to have been numerous in the district at the Revolution in 1688. There is still extant a long list of ministers who have been ordained over these churches, the last of whom, previous to their coming under the inspection of the Secession Synod, was Rev. Timothy Nelson, an alumnus of Glasgow University, and licentiate of the Northumberland Class of Presbyterians, who was translated from Redwing, Alston Moor, to Great Salkeld and Plumpton, 1801. In consequence of extreme age, his congregation, in 1827, resolved on providing him with an assistant, and with this view, applied to the United Associate Presbytery of Annan and Carlisle for a hearing of young men. Before granting this request, the Presbytery required the congregation to show what pecuniary resources it possessed, when evidence was afforded that, besides seat-rents and collections, which from several circumstances were necessarily small, they were in the receipt of £8 annually from Lady Hewley's Charity ; that they had a common interest in a plot of ground which lets for £4, 1os.; and that they received a common benefit of £7 out of the Presbyterian Fund, London. After due deliberation, the prayer of the congregation's petition was not only granted, but a recommendation to the Synod agreed on, to grant £10 annually to the congregation. Mr Nelson died in 1830, in the 93d year of his age, and 70th of his ministry, before the congregation had fixed upon any one to be his assistant and successor.

Ist Minister in connection with the Secession Church.-GEORGE CHAPMAN, from Bethelfield, Kirkaldy. Ordained 8th May 1833.

Mr Chapman has published “An Exposition of the Fifth and Three Following Chapters of the Epistle to the Romans.”

WIGTON. Wigton is a town in Cumberland, 11 miles south-west of Carlisle, 16 north-east of Maryport, and 28 from Whitehaven.

The United Associate Presbytery of Annan and Carlisle fixed upon Wigton as one of its stations, and began to send preachers to it in 1840. New church opened, ist December 1850. Mr George Jardine, probationer, and the Rev. James MWhirter supplied for some time as located missionaries.

Ist Minister.ALEXANDER LEITCH, D.D., from Nicolson Street, Edinburgh. Went as a missionary to Madras, under the auspices of the London Missionary Society. Returned to this country, on account of the health of his wife, 12th June 1849. Received, on petition, as a probationer by the United Presbyterian Synod, 1851. Inducted 12th April 1852. Author of “The Gospel and the Great Apostacy," “ Christian Errors Infidel Arguments,” “ The Unity of the Faith," " Lively Hope

a Sermon,” “Heart Religion,” etc. Had the degree of D.D. conferred upon him by the University of Edinburgh in April 1871.

HOLYWELL. The place of worship of this congregation is in the township of Solport, and parish of Stapleton, county of Cumberland, 7 miles from Longtown. It was built in 1837. Its first minister was a licentiate of the Church of Scotland, who, after a year's incumbency, was translated to Longtown. While thus vacant, the congregation resolved to seek connection with the Secession Church, and with this view applied to the United Associate Presbytery of Annan and Carlisle to be taken under its inspection. This petition was granted, but only on the condition that the Presbytery should not be involved in any legal proceedings that might arise respecting the right of property, from the congregation passing into another connection.

Before obtaining a fixed pastor in this connection, the congregation called Mr Fleming, now of Whithorn, who declined the call.

ist Minister. JOHN B. THOMPSON, from Wellington Street, Glasgow. Ordained 14th June 1842.


The Presbytery of Cupar was formed at the union of the two great branches of the Secession Church in 1820, by a junction of part of the General Associate (Antiburgher) Presbytery of Kirkcaldy, with part of the Associate (Burgher) Presbytery of Perth and Dunfermline. Several of the congregations connected with it at its formation passed over to the Presbytery of Kirkcaldy, at the union of the Secession and Relief Churches, 1847.

CERES Ceres is a village in the parish of the same name, Fifeshire, 3 miles south-east of Cupar, and 8) south-west of St Andrews.

CERES (WEST). Mr Greenlees was minister of the parish of Ceres at the origin of the Secession. , Previous to that event a fama had gone abroad against him, which rendered a presbyterial investigation into his conduct necessary. In order to prevent the censure about to be passed upon him, he himself brought the case, by complaint, before the General Assembly, 1732. The Commission, to which it was referred, without reviewing the Presbytery's proceedings, justified MrGreenlees' complaint, and dismissed the case. So unsatisfactory was this decision to the people generally, that the Synod of Fife found it necessary to inquire at the Assembly, which met the following year, " whether the deliverance of the Commission was to be regarded as a complete deliverance on the whole case ?” and were answered in the affirmative. This answer provoked a number of the parishioners of Ceres to withdraw, not only from the

ministry of Mr Greenlees, but from the Established Church itself, and to become strongly hostile to both. It was one of several cases of a highly discreditable kind which had been recently passed over without animadversion, and accordingly not only affected Ceres locally, but Scotland generally. This is the case, along with that of Mr Young of Leslie, to which the founders of the Secession made special reference in their published documents as instances of the laxity of discipline the prevailing in the Church of Scotland, and as among the reasons for their solemn protest and subsequent procedure. The persons who thus became Seceders in the parish of Ceres, formed themselves into a praying society, which became part of an association that had previously existed in the district. When weather permitted. they travelled to Abernethy, a distance of 15 miles, to attend the ministry of Mr Moncrieff, one of the four seceding brethren, meeting privately for prayer and mutual exhortation at other times. Matters continued in this state for several years ; an occasional member of the Established Church uniting with the Seceders, while a still greater number sympathised with them, but were not wholly disposed to join them. A new set of circumstances however arose, which speedily brought about the formation of a Secession congregation in the place.

The parish church of Ceres having become vacant in 1738, the congregation proceeded to make choice of a minister. When it was found that they could not agree as to the person they should call, a call was brought out for each of two candidates. The majority (chiefly made up of sympathisers with the seceders), was in favour of Mr John Loudon, while the minority preferred Mr Thomas Scott, both probationers. The call to Mr Loudon was sustained by the Presbytery of Cupar, as having the majority of signatures, and this decision was confirmed by the Synod of Fife. The case was appealed to the Commission of the General Assembly, which allowed objections against Mr Loudon to be stated, the chief of which was “that he had preached upon several occasions for the seceding brethren." On examination into the truth or falsehood of this allegation by the court, Mr Loudon admitted “having once preached at Perth, and once at Orwell, at the invitation of Messrs Wilson and Mair, but that he did not approve of said ministers' separation." The Commission set aside the call to Mr Loudon, and sustained that of Mr Scott, though subscribed only by a minority of the congregation ; and this decision was confirmed by the General Assembly that met in 1740. The Seceders in the district had been organised into a congregation more than two years before. Their records, which are still extant, date from the 23d March 1738, and are entitled “Records of the Associate Session of the East of Fife.” A few days after the decision of the Assembly in Mr Loudon's case was made known, between 30 and 40 persons, resident in the parish, and previously members of the Established Church, applied to the Associate Presbytery to be recognised as in connection with it, and were received. The Seceders, thus greatly augmented in Ceres, received supply of sermon, along with others in adjoining parishes, at different places in the district. In April 1741, Mr Alexander Fairnie, elder in the parish of Ceres, along with a number of the parishioners, joined the Secession, and the great proportion of the adherents in the east of Fife being resident in Ceres, that place became the seat of the congregation. In a short time it embraced 32 parishes, extending from the Forth on the south, to the Tay on the north, and from St Andrews in the east, to the Lomond Hills on the west. At the first dispensation of the Lord's Supper, which took place on the 21st August 1743, two thousand tokens were distributed to intending communicants. According to tradition, these tokens were circular pieces of leather, about the size

of a shilling, with a hole perforated in the centre. The sum collected on the occaion was 140 pounds Scots; £11, 135. 4d. sterling. The sacrament on this occaion was administered in the open air, not only from want of a house sufficiently arge to accommodate the worshippers, but for want of a house of any kind ; the serrices at all times being conducted out of doors till 1744, when the congregation took possession of a place of worship provided by itself in Ceres, containing between goo ind 1000 sittings. This congregation had at one time members residing in 32 parishes. The Secession Congregations in St Andrews, Cupar, and Balmullo, were wholly formed out of the first congregation of Ceres, as was also the Relief Congregation in the same place; and other congregations in the surrounding district, drew largely upon it. By these diminutions much space was left unoccupied in the original edifice, which for the sake of comfort has been contracted, and affords accommodation now for only 500 sitters.

Ist Minister.-WILLIAM CAMPBELL. Ordained ist September 1742, two years before the erection of a Secession place of worship at Ceres. Adhered with the majority of his congregation to the General Associate (Antiburgher) Synod at the Breach, 1747. Died October 1752, in the 49th year of his age, and 11th of his ministry. A series of sermons, by Mr Campbell, on ist Peter iii. 16, were published after his death, under the title “ The way in which Sinners were brought back to God.”

2d Minister.ADAM FOOTE, from Muckart. Ordained 25th October 1756 Died 1762, in the 29th year of his age, and 6th of his ministry.

3d Minister.THOMAS BENNET, from Milnathort. Called to Dumbarrow, Pathstruiehill, and Ceres. Ordained 22d December 1762. Died 3d October 1793, in the 61st year of his age, and 31st of his ministry.

Mr Bennet published a volume of sermons on the xlv. Psalm, and another entitled “Zion's able Defence.” He was author of a work published anonymously, entitled “Terms of Communion agreed upon by the Scots Methodists, but generally known by the Specious Denomination of the Presbytery of Relief."

The congregation called, ist, Mr Andrew Aedie, who was appointed by the Synod to Forfar; 2d, Mr John Jamieson, who was appointed to Methven ; 3d, Mr Moses Robertson, from whom the call was withdrawn, and who never received another.

4th Minister.—PETER TAYLOR, from Cairneyhill. Ordained 19th March 1799. Resigned 25th July 1843. Removed to Edinburgh, where he lived privately till his death, which took place in 1846, in the 74th year of his age.

5th Minister.-WILLIAM BARLAS YOUNG, from Logiealmond, of which his father was minister. Ordained 19th February 1845. Demitted his charge on account of infirm health, 4th November 1856. Died 29th September 1857, in the 36th year of his age, and 13th of his ministry.

A call was given to Mr Alexander Doctor, but not prosecuted.

6th Minister.-ROBERT ANDERSON, from Glasgow, Greyfriars. Ordained 28th July 1858, Author of “Asleep in Jesus ;" the Funeral Sermon of Rev. John Dawson, Kirkowan.

CERES (EAST). After the death of Mr Bennet, the first congregation, Ceres, called Mr Moses Robertson, but a fama having arisen against him while on trials for ordination, it was agreed, by a majority of the congregation, to withdraw the call, which was ac

cordingly done in due form. A number of his admirers, thinking him ill treated in the matter, withdrew from the congregation, and applied to the Relief Presbytery of Dysart to be taken under their inspection, which was granted, 1798. But Mr Robertson, not having applied for admission to the Relief Church, was not eligible to office among them, and they proceeded accordingly to make choice of a pastor from among the probationers of that denomination. Church built, 1798; sittings, 560.

ist Minister.- FORREST FREw, a licentiate of the Established Church, who had been received into connection with the Synod of Relief as a probationer. Ordained 8th December 1798. Translated to Perth, 22d July 1807.

2d Minister.-ARCHIBALD CUMMING, previously of Newlands. Admitted to Ceres. 20th January 1808. Resigned 1830. Admitted to Colinsburgh 1834.

3d Minister.-DANIEL KERR, A.M., from Kilbarchan. Ordained 17th April 1833. Translated to Dunse, 17th March 1839.

4th Minister.-DAVID ANDERSON, from Kilsyth, of which his father was minister. Ordained 12th August 1840.

AUCHTERMUCHTY. Auchtermuchty is an ancient burgh in the centre of Fife, 13 miles north of Kirkcaldy, 9 west of Cupar, 5 south of Newburgh, and 4 east of Abernethy by the hillroad.

AUCHTERMUCHTY (EAST). The Rev. Mr Thomson of Auchtermuchty took part with “The Four Brethren” in all the measures which led to the Secession, but died at the time the Secession occurred. His hostility to the law of patronage had excited his people's indignation against it, and they successfully opposed it when it came to be exercised upon themselves. After the death of Mr Thomson, Mr Moncrieff of Riddie laid claim to the patronage of Auchtermuchty, and presented Mr Matthew Moncrieff, probationer, afterwards of Bressa, in Shetland, to the vacant charge. The kirk-session of the parish, and the town council of the burgh, disputed Mr Moncrieff's claim, and insisted that the right belonged to them, and heads of families resident in the parish ; and on this ground called Mr Patrick Maxton to become their minister. Mr Moncrieff applied to the Court of Session to have his claim sustained, but on investigation it was refused. Nevertheless, the General Assembly acknowledged his right when the parish again became vacant. In the meantime the Presbytery, as well as the Civil Court, took part with the people, and the object of their choice was settled among them on the 16th July 1734. When the very offensive “Porteous Act" came to be passed by the Legislature, Mr Maxton, who was indebted for his office to a species of popular election, read this Act from the pulpit, and persisted in reading it in despite of the frequent remonstrance of his people against his doing so; while several of the clergy, who had come to their livings by the exercise of patronage, refused to read it at all. This subserviency to the Government, itself unpopular, and the particular act by which it was indicated, itself insulting, highly incensed his people against him, and for a time the congregation was threatened with annihilation by his parishioners

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