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intervention in the affairs of Poland, observes: “Il

n'y avait cependant pour cette invasion aucun pré"texte légitime. Les puissances de l'Europe ayant “toujours exercé entre elles le droit du plus fort dans

toute l'étendue de sa barbarie, cherchent à couvrir “leurs injustices et leurs violences de quelque appa

rence spécieuse; et à tous les commencemens de guerre, on voit éclore des volumes de sophismes. “ Ceux qui furent alors imaginés doivent d'autant “moins être passés sous silence qu'ils ont eu dans “ la suite les conséquences les plus fatales” (d).

The whole question is placed upon its true basis by one of the greatest masters of jurisprudence, whose luminous treatise on the subject, though edited in London, is too little read in this country. “Ratio autem hujus partis, et juris est, quia hu

manum genus quantumvis in varios populos, et regna divisum, semper habet aliquam unitatem non solùm specificam, sed etiam quasi politicam,

et moralem, quam indicat naturale præceptum “mutui amoris et misericordiæ quod ad omnes ex"tenditur, etiam extraneos, et cujuscumque rationis.

Quapropter licèt unaquæque civitas perfecta, res

publica, aut regnum, sit in se communitas perfecta, "et suis membris constans, nihilominus quælibet “illarum est etiam membrum aliquo modo hujus “universi, prout ad genus humanum spectat: nun

quam enim illæ communitates adeo sunt sibi suffi“cientes sigillatim, quin indigeant aliquo mutuo "juvamine, et societate, ac communicatione, inter“dum ad melius esse majoremque utilitatem : in“terdum verò etiam ob moralem necessitatem, et

(d) Rulhière, Hist. de Pologne, vol. i. pp. 147-8.

Hac ergo

“indigentiam, ut ex ipso usu constat. “ ratione indigent aliquo jure, quo dirigantur et “rectè ordinentur in hoc genere communicationis et “ societatis. Et quamvis magna ex parte hoc fiat

per rationem naturalem : non tamen sufficienter, "et immediatè quoad omnia : ideoque aliqua specialia “jura potuerunt usu earumdem gentium introduci. “ Nam sicut in una civitate, vel provincia consuetudo “introducit jus, ita in universo humano genere po"tuerunt jura gentium moribus introduci. Eo vel “ maxime, quod ea, quæ ad hoc jus pertinent, et

pauca sunt, et juri naturali valde propinqua et quæ “ facillimam habent ab illo deductionem adeoque “utilem et consentaneam ipsi naturæ ut licèt non sit "evidens deductio tanquam de se omnino necessaria " ad honestatem morum, sit tamen valde conveniens “ naturæ, et de se acceptibilis ab omnibus” (e).

The suggestion contained in the last Protocol to the Treaty of Paris, 1856, that Christian States should not go to war without previously attempting to adjust their dispute by arbitration, has remained a dead letter, except perhaps in the case of Luxemburg. The Belligerents in the French and Prussian war, and in the Russian and Turkish war, would not listen to the suggestions of such an arbitration; though Turkey, after the defeat of Plevna, made some proposition of the kind.

The writer of these pages is anxious to acknowledge the service which he has derived from the works of his own countrymen, and from those of the United States of North America and the Continent of Europe, in the compilation of these volumes. To the works

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(c) Suarez de Leg., lib. ii. cap. xix. $ 9.

of Ward, of Manning, of Wheaton, and Story, he is under great obligations. To various writers on the European Continent, and especially to the learned Pfeiffer, his acknowledgments are also due. He also desires to draw attention to the Spanish works of Abreu and Pando, particularly of the latter; and to the following works,“ Die Geschichte und Literatur “ der Staatswissenschaften,” by R. von Mohl, Erlangen, 1855; an excellent essay by Mr. Hurd, an American jurist, on “ Topics of Jurisprudence con“nected with Conditions of Freedom and Bondage ;” a sketch by M. van Hogendorp, a Dutch jurist, of the Dutch School of Jurisprudence founded by Grotius ; some Pamphlets on Maritime International Law by Professor Würm of Hamburg ; “ Fünf Briefe über “ die Fluss-Schifffahrt” u. s. w., Leipzig, 1858; new editions of Wheaton's "Elements of International “Law,” by Mr. Lawrence and by Mr. Dana, with ample notes; a new edition by Mr. Demangeat of the “ Droit international privé" by M. Fælix; Mancini, “ Della Nazionalità,” Torino, 1851 ; “The Law of “ Nations,” by Sir. T. Twiss, 1863; an “Historical Ac“count of the Neutrality of Great Britain during the “ American Civil War,” by M. Bernard, Chichele Professor of International Law at Oxford, 1870, a work worthy of its very learned author ; " Inaugural "Lecture on Albericus Gentilis,” by Professor Holland, 1874; “ Discours prononcé, par M. Franck, au “collége de France dans la séance d'ouverture de son

cours, De Droit de Nature et des Gens," “ Journal “ des Débats," Mardi, December 24, 1872; “ Alberico Gentili,” Speranza, Roma, 1876; “ The Papacy and

” “ International Law," by Ernest Nys, Docteur en Droit, translation by Rev. P. A. Lyons, London,

1879; “First Platform of International Law," by Sir Edward Creasy, 1876; “ Le Droit International, by Calvo, 1870 ; “ The Law of Domicil,” by Dicey, 1879; “ Das Internationale Privat- und Strafrecht," von Dr. L. Bar, 1862; “ Encyclopädie der Rechts“ wissenschaft,” von Dr. Franz von Holtzendorff, Professor der Rechte in Berlin, 1873; and to the“ Journal “ du Droit International Privé et de la Jurisprudence

comparée,” fondé et publié par M. Edouard Clunet.

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