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Washington, 212-215; falls ander| 34; his influence, 36; campaign for
guidance of Conway cabal, 221, 222; ratification, 38-41.
discovers incompetence of cabal, Contrecoeur, Captain, leader of
223; meddles with prisoners and French and Indians in Virginia, i.
officers, 231; rejects English peace
offers, 233; makes alliance with "Conway cabal," elements of in Con-
France, 241 ; suppresses protests of gress, i. 214, 215 ; in the army,
officers against D'Estaing, 244; de 215; organized by Conway, 217 ;
cline in its character, 257; becomes discovered by Washington, 220 ;
feeble, 258; improvement urged by gets control of Board of War, 221;
Washington, 259, 266 ; appoints tries to make Washington resign,
Gates to command in South, 268; 222, 224; fails to invade Canada
loses interest in war, 278; asks or provide supplies, 222, 223; har-
Washington to name general for assed by Washington's letters, 223,
the South, 295; considers reduc 226 ; breaks down, 226.
tion of army, 313; elated by York- Conway, Moncure D., his life of Ran-
town, 323; its unfair treatment of dolph, ii. 65, note, 196; his defense
army, 333, 335; driven from Phila of Randolph in Fauchet letter af-
delphia by Pennsylvania troops, fair, 196; on Washington's motives,
340; passes half-pay act, 342 ; re 200; on his unfair treatment of
ceives commission of Washington, Randolph, 201, 202.
347-349 ; disbands army, ii. 6; in- Conway, Thomas, demand for higher
different to Western expansion, 15; rank refused by Washington, i. 216,
continues to decline, 22; merit of plots against him, 217; his letter
its Indian policy, 88.
discovered by Washington, 221 ;
Congress, Federal, establishes depart made inspector-general, 221, 222;
ments, ii. 64 ; opened by Washing complains to Congress of his re-
ton, 78, 79; ceremonial abolished ception at camp, 225; resigns, has
by Jefferson, 79; recommendations duel with Cadwalader, 226; apolo-
made to by Washington, 81-83 ; gizes to Washington and leaves coun-
acts upon them, 81-83; creates
commission to treat with Creeks, Cooke, Governor, remonstrated with
90; increases army, 94, 99; fails to by Washington for raising state
solve financial problems, 106; de troops, i. 186.
bates Hamilton's report on credit, Cornwallis, Lord, pursues Washing-
107, 108 ; establishes national bank, ton in New Jersey, i. 175; repulsed
109; establishes protective revenue at Assunpink, 181 ; outgeneraled by
duties, 113; imposes an excise tax, Washington, 182 ; surprises Sulli.
123; prepares for retaliation on
van at Brandywine, 197 ; defeats
Great Britain, 176; Senate ratifies Lee at Monmouth, 236 ; pursues
Jay treaty conditionally, 184 ; Greene in vain, 302 ; wins battle of
House demands papers, 207 ; de Guilford Court House, 302; re-
bates over its right to concur in treats into Virginia, 302; joins
treaty, 208-210; refuses to adjourn British troops in Virginia, 303; his
on Washington's birthday, 247; dangerous position, 304; urged by
prepares for war with France, 285; Clinton to return troops to New
passes Alien and Sedition Laws, York, 306; plunders Virginia, 307;
defeats Lafayette and Wayne, 307;
Constitution, Federal, necessity of, wishes to retreat South, 307 ; or.
foreseen by Washington, ii. 17-18, dered by ministry stay on the
23, 24 ; the Annapolis Convention, Chesapeake, 307; abandoned by
23-29; the Federal Convention, 30 Clinton, 308; establishes himself
36; Washington's attitude in, 31, at Yorktown, 308; withdraws into
town, 315; besieged, 316, 317; sur Indies, 315; persuaded to remain
renders, 317; outgeneraled by by Washington, 315; refuses to join
Washington, 319, 320.
Washington in attack on Charleston,
Cowpens, battle of, i. 301.
322 ; returns to West Indies, 322.
Craik, Dr., attends Washington in De Guichen, commander of
last illness, ii. 300-302 ; Washing French fleet in West Indies, i. 280;
ton's friendship with, 363.
appealed to for aid by Washington,
Creeks, their relations with Spaniards, 281 ; returns home, 282.
ii. 89, 90 ; quarrel with Georgia, Delancey, Oliver, escapes American
90; agree to treaty with United attack, i. 306.
States, 91 ; stirred up by Spain, Democratic party, its formation as a
French party, ii. 225; furnished
Curwen, Samuel, op Washington's ap with catch-words by Jefferson, 226 ;
pearance, i. 137.
with a newspaper organ, 227; not
Cushing, William, appointed to Su ready to oppose Washington for
preme Court, ii. 72.
president in 1792, 235; organized
Custis, Daniel Parke, first husband of against treasury measure,
Martha Washington, i. 101.
stimulated by French Revolution,
Custis, G. W. P., tells mythical story 238 ; supports Genet, 237 ; begins
of Washington and the colt, i. 45; to attack Washington, 238; his
Washington's care for, ii. 369.." opinion of it, 239, 240, 258, 261, 267,
Custis, John, Washington's tender 268; forms clubs on French model,
ness toward, i. 111; care for his 241 ; Washington's opinion of, 242,
education and marriage,
243; continues to abuse him, 244,
hunts with Washington, 141 ; death 245, 250, 252; exults at his retire-
ment, 256; prints slanders, 257.
Custis, Nellie, marriage with Wash- Demont, William, betrays plans of
ington's nephew, ii. 281, 369; letter Fort Washington to Howe, i. 175.
of Washington to, 377.
D'Estaing, Admiral, reaches Amer-
'ica, i. 242; welcomed by Wasbing-
DAGWORTHY, CAPTAIN, claims to out ton, 243; fails to cut off Howe and
rank Washington in Virginia army, goes to Newport, 243; after battle
i. 91, 97.
with Howe goes to Boston, 244; let-
Dallas, Alexander, protests to Genet ter of Washington to, 246; sails to
against sailing of Little Sarah, ii. West Indies, 246 ; second letter of
Washington to, 247 ; attacks Sa-
Dalton, Senator, entertains Washing vannah, 248 ; withdraws, 248.
ton at Newburyport, ii. 359. De Rochambeau, Comte, arrives at
Deane, Silas, promises commissions to Newport, i. 277 ; ordered to await
foreign military adventurers, i. 190. second division of army, 278; re-
De Barras, jealous of De Grasse, de fuses to attack New York, 280 ;
cides not to aid him, i. 310 ; per wishes a conference with Washing-
suaded to do so by Washington and ton, 282; meets him at Hartford,
Rochambeau, 311 ; reaches Chesa 282 ; disapproves attacking Florida,
301 ; joins Washington before New
De Grasse, Comte, announces inten York, 306; persuades De Barras to
tion of coming to Washington, i. join De Grasse, 311 ; accompanies
305; warned by Washington not to Washington to Yorktown, 314.
come to New York, 305; sails to Dickinson, John, commands scouts at
Chesapeake, 306; asked to meet Monmouth, i. 326.
Washington there, 308, reaches Digby, Admiral, bitter comments of
Chesapeake, 312; repulses British Washington on, i. 325.
fleet; 312; wishes to return to West Dinwiddie, Governor, remonstrates
against French encroachments, i. shall, and Gerry to France, 284;
66; sends Washington on mission the X. Y. Z. affair, 285.
to French, 66; quarrels with the Donop, Count, drives Griffin out of
Virginia Assembly, 71; letter of New Jersey, i. 180; killed at Fort
Washington to, 73; wishes Wash Mercer, 217.
ington to attack French, 79 ; tries Dorchester, Lord. See Carleton.
to quiet dissensions between regu- Duane, James, letters of Washington
lar and provincial troops, 80 ; mili to, i. 294, 329.
tary schemes condemned by Wash- Dumas, Comte, describes enthusiasm
ington, 91 ; prevents his getting a of people for Washington, i. 283.
royal commission, 93.
Dunbar, Colonel, connection with
Diplomatic History: refusal by Wash Braddock's expedition, i. 84, 87.
ington of special privileges to Dunmore, Lord, arrives in Virginia as
French minister, ii. 59-61; slow governor, i. 122 ; on friendly terms
growth of idea of non-interven with Washington, 122, 123; dis
tion, 132, 133; difficulties owing solves assembly, 123.
to French Revolution, 134 ; to Eng- Duplaine, French consul, exequatur
lish retention of frontier posts,. of revoked, ii. 159.
135; attitude of Spain, 135; rela-
tions with Barbary States, 136 ; EDEN, WILLIAM, peace commissioner,
mission of Gouverneur Morris to i. 233.
sound English feeling, 137; asser- Edwards, Jonathan, a typical Now
tion by Washington of non-inter England American, ii. 309.
vention policy toward Europe, 145, Emerson, Rev. Dr., describes Wash-
146 ; issue of neutrality proclama ington's reforms in army before
tion, 147, 148; its importance, 148 ; Boston, i. 140.
mission of Genet, 148–162 ; guarded Emigrés, Washington's treatment of,
attitude of Washington toward ii. 151, 253
émigrés, 151 ; excesses of Genet, England, honors Washington, f. 20;
151 ; neutrality enforced, 153, 154 ; arrogant behavior toward colonists,
the Little Sarah episode, 154-157 ; 80, 81, 82, 148 ; its policy towards
recall of Genet demanded, 158; Boston condemned by Virginia, 119,
futile missions of Carmichael and 121, 123, 126; by Washington, 124,
Short to Spain, 165, 166 ; success 125, 126; sends incompetent officers
ful treaty of Thomas Pinckney, to America, 155, 201, 202, 233; stu-
166-168 ; question as to binding na pidity of its operations, 203, 205,
ture of French treaty of commerce, 206, 265; sincerity of its desire for
169-171 ; irritating relations with peace doubted by Washington, 324,
England, 173-176; Jay's mission, 325 ; arrogant conduct of toward
177-184; the questions at issue, 180, the United States after peace, il.
181 ; terms of the treaty agreed 24, 25; stirs up the Six Nations and
upon, 182; good and bad points, Northwestern Indians, 92, 94, 101 ;
183; ratified by Senate, 184 ; sign folly of her policy, 102 ; sends Ham-
ing delayed by renewal of provision mond as minister, 169; its opportu-
order, 185 ; war with England pre nity to win United States as ally
vented by signing, 205; difficulties against France, 171, 172; adopts
with France over Morris and Mon contrary policy of opposition, 172,
roe, 211-214; doings of Monroe, 173 ; 173 ; adopts" provision order,"
212, 213; United States compro 174; incites Indians against United
mised by him, 213, 214; Monroe States, 175; indignation of America
replaced by Pinckney, 214; review against, 176 ; receives Jay well, but
of Washington's foreign policy, refuses to yield points at issue, 180;
216-219; mission of Pinckney, Mar insists on monopoly of West India
trade, 180 ; and on impressment, 181; port of financial measures, 236 ;
later history of, 181; renows provi Washington looked upon by Demo-
sion order, 185; danger of war with, crats as its head, 244, 247 ; only its
193; avoided by Jay treaty, 205; members trusted by Washington,
Washington said to sympathize with 246, 247, 259, 260, 261 ; becomes a
England, 252; his real hostility British party, 255; Washington
toward, 254 ; Washington's opinion considers himself a member of,
of liberty in, 344.
269–274 ; the only American party
Ewing, General James, fails to help until 1800, 273; strengthened by
Washington at Trenton, i. 180. X, Y, Z affair, 285 ; dissensions in,
over army appointments, 286-290;
FAIRFAX, BRYAN, hunts with Washing its horror at French Revolution,
ton, i. 115; remonstrates with Wash 294, 295; attempts of Washington
ington against violence of patriots, to heal divisions in, 298.
124; Washington's replies to, 124, Fenno's newspaper, used by Hamil-
126, 127 ; letter of Washington to ton against the “National Gazette,"
in Revolution, ii. 366.
Fairfax, George, married to Miss Finances of the Revolution, effect of
Cary, i. 55 ; accompanies Washing papar money on war, i. 258, 262;
ton on surveying expedition, 58; difficulties in paying troops, 258 ;
letter of Washington to, 133. labors of Robert Morris, 259, 264,
Fairfax, Mrs. letter of Wash 312; connection of Washington
ington to, ii. 367.
with, 263 ; continued collapse, 280,
Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, his career in 290, 312.
England, i. 55 ; comes to his Vir- Financial History, bad condition in
ginia estates, 56; his character, 55 ; 1789, ii. 105 ; decay of credit, paper,
his friendship for Washington, 56 ; and revenue, 106 ; futile proposi.
sends him to survey estates, 56; tions, 106; Hamilton's report on
plans a manor across the Blue credit, 107 ; debate over assump-
Ridge, 59; Becures for Washington tion of state debt, 107; bargain
position as public surveyor, 60; between Hamilton and Jefferson,
probably influential in securing his 108 ; establishment of bank, 109;
appointment as envoy to French, other measures adopted, 112; pro-
66; hunts with Washington, 115 ; tection in the first Congress, 112-
his death remembered by Washing 115 ; the excise tax imposed, 123 ;
ton, ii. 366.
opposition to, 123-127; “Whiskey
Fairlie, Major, amuses Washington, Rebellion," 127-128.
Fishbourn, Benjamin, nomination re-
Farewell Address, ii. 248, 249.
jected by Senate, ii. 63.
Fauchet, M., -, letter of, incrimi- | Fontanes, M. de, delivers funeral
nating Randolph, ii. 195, 196, 202. oration on Washington, i. 1.
Fauntleroy, Betsy, love affair of Forbes, General, renows attack on
Washington with, i. 97.
French in Ohio, i. 93.
Fauquier, Francis, Governor, at Forman, Major, describes impressive.
Washington's wedding, i. 101. ness of Washington, ii. 389.
Federal courts, suggested by Wash- Fox, Charles James, understands sig.
ington, i. 150.
nificance of Washington's leader-
“Federalist," circulated by Wash ship, i. 202.
ington, ii. 40.
France, pays honors to Washington,
Federalist party, begun by Hamil i. 1, 6; war with England, see
ton's controversy with Jefferson, French and Indian war; takes pos-
ii. 230 ; supports Washington for session of Ohio, 65; considers Ju-
roëlection, 235; organized in sup monville assassinated by Washing-
ton, 74 ; importance of alliance with
Bon, ii. 227 ; attacks Adams, Hamil-
foreseen by Washington, 191 ; im ton, and Washington in “National
pressed by battle of Germantown, Gazette," 227 ; makes conflicting
200 ; makes treaty of alliance with statements as to Jefferson's share
United States, 241; sends D'Es in the paper, 227, 228; the first to
taing, 243 ; declines to attack Can attack Washington, 238.
ada, 256 ; sends army and fleet, Fry, Colonel, commands a Virginia
274, 277 ; relations of French to regiment against French and Indi-
Washington, 318, 319; absolute ne-
ans, 71 ; dies, leaving Washington
cessity of their naval aid, 318, 319; in command, 75.
Revolution in, applauded by Amer-
ica, ii. 138, 139, 142; real character GAGE, GENERAL THOMAS, conduct at
understood by Washington and oth Boston condemned by Washington,
ers, 139-142, 295 ; debate over in i. 126 ; his treatment of prisoners
America, 142; question of relations protested against by Washington,
with United States, 143, 144; 145 ; sends an arrogant reply, 147 ;
warned by Washington, 144, 145; second letter of Washington to,
neutrality toward declared, 147; 147, 156.
tries to drive United States into Gallatin, Albert, connection with
alliance, 149; terms of the treaty Whiskey Rebellion, ii. 129.
with, 169; latter held to be no Gates, Horatio, visits Mt. Vernon, his
longer binding, 169-171 ; abrogates character, i. 132; refuses to co-
it, 171 ; demands recall of Morris, operate with Washington at Tren-
211; mission of Monroe. to, 211 ton, 180; his appointment as com.
214; makes vague promises, 212, mander against Burgoyne urged,
213; Washington's fairness toward, 208; chosen by Congress, 209; his
253; tries to bully or corrupt Amer part in defeating Burgoyne, 210 ;
ican ministers, 284 ; the X, Y, Z neglects to inform Washington, 211;
affair, 285 ; war with not expected loses his head and wishes to sup-
by Washington, 291 ; danger of con plant Washington, 215; forced to
cession to, 292, 293; progress of send troops South, 216, 217 ; his at-
Revolution in, 294.
titude discovered by Washington,
Franklin, Benjamin, gets wagons for 221 ; makes feeble efforts at oppo-
Braddock's expedition, i. 84; re sition, 221, 223; correspondence
mark on Howe in Philadelphia, 219; with Washington, 221, 223, 226;
national, like Washington, 252, ii. 8; becomes head of board of war, 221 ;
despairs of success of Constitutional quarrels with Wilkinson, 223; sent
Convention, 35; his unquestioned to his command, 226; fears attack
Americanism, 309; respect of Wash of British on Boston, 265; sent by
: ington for, 344, 346, 364.
Congress to command in South,
Frederick II., the Great, his opinion 268 ; defeated at Camden, 281, 294 ;
of Trenton campaign, i. 183; of loses support of Congress, 294.
Monmouth campaign, 239.
Genet, Edmond Charles, arrives as
French and Indian war, i. 64-94; in French minister, ii. 148 ; his char-
evitable conflict, 65 ; efforts to pe acter, 149; violates neutrality, 151 ;
gotiate, 66, 67; hostilities begun, his journey to Philadelphia, 151 ;
72; the Jumonville affair, 74; de reception by Washington, 152 ; com-
feat of Washington, 76; Braddock's plains of it, 153 ; makes demands
campaign, 82-88; ravages in Vir. upon State Department, 153 ; pro-
ginia, 90; carried to a favorable tests at seizure of privateers, 153 ;
conclusion by Pitt, 93, 94.
insists on sailing of Little Sarah,
Freneau, Philip, brought to Philadel 155; succeeds in getting vessel
phia and given clerkship by Jeffer away, 157 ; his recall demanded,