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executing an officer of equal rank with Huddy upon re- '78*» ceiving proofs of his murder, Washington wrote to i Clinton, that unless the perpetrators of that deed were jdelivered up, he should be under the disagreeable necessity of retaliating. On the 20th, he sent a letter to congress, with the copy of a memorial from the inhabitants of the county of Monmouth, and sundry affidavits respecting the death of the captain; which produced the following resolution on the 29th—" That congress 29. having deliberately considered the said letter and the pa- I pers attending it, and being deeply impressed with the j necessity of convincing the enemies of these United States, by the most decided conduct, that the repetition of their unprecedented and inhuman cruelties, so contrary to the laws of nations and of war, will be no longer suffered with impunity, do unanimously approve of the firm and judicious conduct of the commander in chief ip his application to the British general at New York, and do hereby assure him of their firmest support in his fixed purpose of exemplary retaliation." What alteration may be produced by the change of British generals, remains to be discovered. Sir Guy Carleton arrived at New York on the 5th of May, and is now commander May in chief of the king's forces in America. From his ** tried and known humanity, it may be concluded with certainty, that no acts of barbarity will be supported by his countenance.

Negotiations were carried on the last year between some leading persons belonging to Vermont and the British in Canada and New York; which produced jealousies in the minds of several, who thought that the rulers meant to unite that country to Great Britain, contrary 1782. trary to the wish and without the knowledge of the inhabitants in general. Mr. Thomas Chittenden, the goJan, vernor, was addressed in a letter of January the iff, I upon the subject, by a gentleman of the first: consequence; to whom he gave the most positive assurances, that such negotiations were so far innocent, that there never was any serious intention of joining Great Britain in their attempts to subjugate the United States. But the intercourse had undoubtedly a bad tendency; and gave the British some ground to hope, that they should annex the people of Vermont to their interests.

General Washington wrote to gov. Hancock on the 31. 31st of January. The letter was upon public business, and urged the speedy pointed and effectual compliance of the state, with the requisitions of congress for completing their battalions; that so all the fruits of the successes of the preceding campaign might not be thrown away, by an inglorious winter of languor and inactivity. It insisted on the necessity of having a powerful army early in the field. "Soon," fays the general, "might we hope to enjoy all the blessings of peace, if we could fee again the fame animation in the cause of our country inspiring every breast, the same passion for freedom and military glory impelling our youths to the field, and the fame disinterested patriotism pervading every rank of men, as was conspicuous at the commencement of this glorious revolution." He pressed the furnishing of the recruits in season, and the establishing of checks to prevent impositions as to the quality of the men, that none might be accepted but able bodied and effective, and that it might not be attempted to impose upon them decrepid or improper men or boys as soldiers.

Near Near the end of April he observed, that the efficient '783' operating force of the northern army could be no more than 7,553 rank and file; and that he should be uncandid, was he not to acknowledge, that he did not expect it would be increased by recruits in the course of the campaign to more than 10,000 fit for duty in the field. He estimated the royal force in New York, including their established corps of provincials at 9,000, and their militia refugees and independent companies at 4000, in all 13,000; beside about 3,300 at Charlestown, and about 700 at Savannah.

The bank of North America opened at Philadelphia on the 7th of January. Through the establishment of it, Mr. Morris, the financier, was enabled to support credit, and to keep things in motion till the 23d of April April. Without that he must have stopped; for the public money was exhausted, and he had not at that hour received one farthing from any state in the union. There was too much cause for complaining of a disgraceful languor in most of the governments; and which has its origin in selfish views, party spirit or worse mo-" tives. The states were half a million of dollars in debt on -this year's taxes, which had been raised by anticipation on that system of credit which Mr. Morris had created. On the 14th of May he thus expressed himself^TM in a letter to gov. Hancock—" On the 1st of January '4~ 1782, with a heavy arrearage for 1781, unpaid on the face of the requisitions of congress, I had to provide for a three months expenditure, when no man would trust the public for a single dollar: your legislature knew the state of public credit as well as I did. Instead of providing money for the 1st of April, they have made no

effort

1782. effort for that purpose which can take effect before the 1st of June. Now then let us suppose every state in the union to be as negligent, and many of them are much more so, what can gentlemen promise themselves. I apprehend the most terrible consequences. I beg you to press an immediate payment of money, the necessity of which it is not easy to conceive, nor prudent to declare." The French king allotted in December last fix millions of livres to the assistance os the United States, and the financier was allowed to draw for 500,000 tournais monthly. This was but half he asked for; and he hopes that the other six millions may be granted, as that arrangement had been made before the arrival of the marquis de la Fayette. The most peremptory declarations however attended that grant, that it was all the United States were to have. Previous to the receipt of the news of the grant, the financier had been obliged to hazard drafts for 500,000 livres, and to order Dr. Franklin to resell the goods bought in Holland, if he had no other means of paying the bills. He requested the minister of France, and the secretary of foreign affairs, and the secretary a.t war, to keep the grant from congress, and all other persons, as much as possible, through fear that if it came to the knowledge of the several legislatures, they who had not passed their tax bills, would no longer think it necessary to pass them, and instead of exerting themselves, would hang their hopes on foreign aid.

The affairs of South Carolina and Georgia shall now be related.

. General Greene's army took its position on col. Sanders's plantation at Round O, on the 7th of last December. cember. On the 14th, the general wrote to the Ame- '79arican board of war—" We cannot advance upon the enemy for want of ammunition, though we have been in readiness more than ten days. I have not a quire of paper in the world, nor are there two in the army. We broil most of our meat, for want of camp kettles." On the 4th of January, he congratulated the army on the . arrival of major general St. Clair and the reinforcement under his command. Within a week after, the army moved down to Jackfonborough (about 35 miles from Charlestown) so to Stono, and then on the 16th to col. Skerving's, on the east fide of the Edisto, about 5 miles from Jackfonborough. Greene left it when the movement commenced, and crossing the Edisto, proceeded to join the light troops under cols. Lee and Laurens. He informed the secretary at war from his head quarters near Charlestown on the 23d—Cf I would order the returns you require, but we really have not paper to make them on, not having had for months past even paper to make provision returns, or to record the necessary returns of the army." The next day he wrote—" Since we have been in the lower country, through the difficulty of transportation we were four weeks without ammunU tion, while there was a plenty of this article at Charlotte. We lay within a few miles of the enemy with not six rounds a man. Had they got knowledge and availed themselves of our situation, they might have ruined us. The states here are become so tardy, as to regard representations little more than idle dreams, or an eastern tale. We may write till we are blind; and the local policy of the states, in perfect security, will counteract ous wilheiV The following extracts from

24.

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