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island followed the fate of St. Kitt's and surrendered. 1782. Sir Samuel left Basse-Terre road the fame night, unperceived as he imagined, for not one of the French ships was to be seen in the morning; though when his fleet flipped their cables, the other lay within five miles and with their. lights full in view. The surrender of Montserrat on the 22d, necessarily succeeded the loss of the two before-mentioned; so that of all the former numerous British possessions in the West Indies, there remain only Jamaica, Barbadoes and Antigua. Notwithstanding the reduction of Brimstone-hill might cost the French 1000 soldiers, and count de Grasse might lose full 1 coo sailors by engaging the British fleet, their remaining strength was so great, that the design against Jamaica must have been revived, especially as the Spaniards had a powerful fleet, and a great body of land forces, in the islands of Hifpaniola and Cuba, ready to join de Grasse in an attack upon it.
After mentioning en passant, that the marquis de la Fayette and viscount de Noaille arrived at Paris on the 20th of January from America, and that, commodore Johnstone returned to Portsmouth from the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, on the 28th of February j I shall relate what has passed in the United Provinces of Holland, and in the dominions of the emperor of Germany.
You will recollect the circumstance of Mr. John Adams's presenting a memorial to the States General in April 1781. The French minister would have hindered his presenting it, but could not prevail. Mr. Adams was determined at all hazards to follow his own judgment -, which he did in the most independent manner,
1782, in opposition to resistance, remonstrance, and other endeavours to produce a different conduct. You must understand, that the gentlemen at the Hague, who are called their high mightinesses, are not the sovereign. They are only deputies of the States General, who compose the sovereignty. These joint deputies form a diplomatic body, not a legislative nor executive one. The States General are the regencies of cities and bodies of nobles. The regencies of cities are the burgomaster schepens or judges and counsellors, composing in the whole a number of four or five hundred men, scattered all over the republic. Mr. J. Adams had no way to come at them, but by the press. He therefore employed it, and by his publications succeeded.
The quarter of Oostergo in the province of Friesland, was the first public body that proposed a connection with the United States of America, in December Jan. last. On the 9th of January, Mr. Adams waited on the J" president Van Den Sandheuvel, and demanded a categorical .answer, that he might be able to transmit it to Feb. his sovereign. On the 26th os February, Friesland pre2°* ceded the other confederates by a resolution for opening negotiations with America, and admitting Mr. J. Adams forthwith as the minister of congress. The new ministers of the court of London attempted to bring forward a negotiation for a separate peace with the state of Holland. Propositions for a particular peace, with an offer of an immediate suspension of hostilities, on the part of Great Britain, were made to that state by the mediation of the Russian ambassador. The merchants had the greatest aversion to such offers, as artful and dangerous. Holland and West-Friesland agreed to admit Mr. Adams, on Thursday, March the 28th.—Zealand I78a. the same on the 4th of April:—Overyssel on the 5th: —Groningen on the 9th :—Utrecht on the 10th :—and Guilderland on the 17th of April. On Friday the 19th, it was resolved by the deputies of the States General, that Mr. Adams be admitted and acknowledged. The next day he waited on Mr. Boreel who presided that week, and presented to him a letter from congress, dated Jan. 1, 1781, containing a credence. On Monday the April 22d it was resolved, "That the said Mr. Adams is"" agreeable to their high mightinesses; that he shall be acknowledged in quality of minister plenipotentiary; and that there shall be granted to him an audience, or assigned commissioners, when he shall demand it."
"Do not you think that the Dutchmen have behaved bravely at last? It is a great deal for them, after so long a neglect of all enterprise, and such a settled devotion to gain, to aspire at being the second power in Europe to acknowledge American independence, which they have done with great eclat. They never did any thing with more good will. They think it with reason one of the brightest periods of their history. It was the naval battle of Dogger's Bank which raised their courage. When they found that the fingers of their marine warriors had not forgotten to fight, they began to think that they might venture upon a political manœuvre *."
The Dutch are chagrined with the intelligence from Bassora, contained in the London Gazette of April the 13th, and are apprehensive that their settlements of Sadras, Hulicat and Bimlipatam, with some other places to the northward of Madras, and Chinsura in Bengal, * A letter from the Hague.
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.J7s?* together .with Negapatam their principal settlement on the coast of Coromandcl, are actually in the possession of the British. They had some weeks before heard of the successful expedition,. which had been carried on against tiPadang, and their other factories on the west coast of •.Sumatra. But they conclude from the British publications, that the French had recovered Demarara and Isscquibo for them about the end of January *. The fame Gazette mentions, that Hycler Ally had been so repeatedly and totally defeated, as to be obliged to retreat to his own territories.
What follows will afford you peculiar pleasure, as favoring the rights of conscience, and militating against ecclesiastic tyranny. ..
A circular letter was sent the last year through all the different districts of Bohemia, with the following notice ~~." That his Imperial majesty was resolved to grant to all the protestants in his hereditary dominions, liberty of conscience; and that all the natives of his hereditary . dominions, who had become voluntary exiles on account • of religion, might return in the fullest conviction, that -they never should be disturbed in future on the score of religion." The emperor has likewise caused an edict jof the 28 th of last November, to be published at Brussels, absolving the religious orders in the Low Countries from all foreign independence whatsoever. On the 19th of January, the following notification appeared in the Vienna Gazette—" Notice is hereby given to all those who have hitherto kept out of their country on account of the religion they profess, that his majestypardons them, on condition that they return in the course * They surrendered to the French by capitulation, Feb. 3, 1782. .\ Of of the year 1782, promising that they shall enjoy the1?82* same benefits as those who, on account of religion, had quitted the place of their birth, and taken up their abode in other provinces belonging to his said majesty." His majesty has moreover abolished several religious orders. His edict for the abolition of various convents has taken place at Prague, Brunn, Olmutz, &c. and the nuns and friars are freed from their vows. The possessions of the already abolished monasteries exceed what could be imagined. It is said to be the intention of his majesty, to appropriate all the money he may obtain by the abolitions to charitable uses.
The emperor has caused a rescript to be circulated throughout his dominions, containing the reasons and principles which have induced him to disclaim all subordination to the pope in secular affairs. They are in short these—" That it is the highest absurdity to pretend that the successors of the apostles had a divine right to more authority than they themselves ever exerted: nor is any man ignorant, that our Lord Jesus Christ only charged them with functions entirely spiritual: 1st, With the preaching of the gospel, sdly, With the care of the propagation of it. 3dly, With the administration of the sacraments, (that is, of those which are spiritual.) 4thly, With the care of the church." They are the same principles as were published by father Paul in his Rights of sovereigns and subjects: or to ascend to a much higher authority, in the Books of the New Testament, by the Supreme Head of the christian church, who declared, my kingdom is not of this world.
The measures adopted and persisted in by the emperor, occasioned great commotions at Rome. The
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