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p is indistinctly sounded, but has a tendency to become pootty.

In Avesta words th has the same lisping sound as in English and Greek, ņ and i have the sound of ng, 9 ought to be sounded like khw, zh bears the same relation to sh as z to s (that is, it has the sound of s in pleasure), and shk is pronounced sh by the Parsis. They also pronounce the other sibilants s and sh as written in this work, and there seems no sufficient reason for departing from their traditional pronunciation, which is corroborated, to a great extent, by Pahlavi and Persian words derived from the Avesta, such as Zaratusht, åtash, &c.

The author's principal object in publishing these Essays originally was to present, in a readable form, all the materials for judging impartially of the scriptures and religion of the Parsis. The same object has been kept in view while preparing this second edition, giving a larger quantity of such materials collected from a variety of sources, which I may now leave to the reader's impartial judgment.


MÜNCHEN, February 1878.

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1. Hormazd yasht

2. Haptân, Ardibahisht, and Khordâd yashts

3. Abân yasht

4. Khurshed and Mâh yashts

5. Tir and Gôsh yashts

6. Mihir yasht.

7. Srôsh Hâdôkht and Rashnu yashts
8. Fravardín yasht
9. Behrâm and Râm yashts
10. Dîn and Ashi yashts .
11. Ashtâd, Zamyâd, and Vanant yashts
12. Two fragments of the Hâdôkht nask; the

Afrin-i Paighambar Zaratusht, and Vish-

tâsp yasht.



1. The first fargard

2. The second fargard

3. The third fargard

4 The fourth fargard

5 The fargards v.-xvii..


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