Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors]

of the two globes perpendicular to the plane The fluid mass thus formed will be exploded of their lines of motion is just equal to the mo- by this prodigious heat, outwards in vapour ment of momentum of the sun's rotation round or gas all round. Its boundary will reach his axis. It is an elementary and easily proved to a distance considerably less than one hunlaw of dynamics that no mutual action between dred times the radius of the earth's orbit on parts of a group of bodies, or of a single body, first flying out to its extreme limit. A rigid, flexible, or fluid, can alter the moment diminishing series of out and in oscillations of momentum of the whole. The transverse will follow, and the incandescent globe thus velocity in the case we are now supposing is contracting and expanding alternately, in so small that none of the main features of the the course it may be of three or four hundred collision and of the wild oscillations following years, will settle to a radius of forty * times it, which we have been considering, or of the the radius of the earth's orbit. The average magnitude, heat, and brightness of the result- density of the gaseous nebula thus formed ing star, will be sensibly altered; but now, would be (215 X 40)-3, or one six hundred instead of being rotationless, it will be re- and thirty-six thousand millionth, of the volving once round in twenty-five days and sun's mean density; or one four hundred and so in all respects like to our sun.

fifty-four thousand millionth of the density If instead of being at rest initially or of water; or one five hundred and seventy moving with the small transverse velocities millionth of that of common air at an we have been considering, each globe had a ordinary temperature of 10° C. transverse velocity of three-quarters of a The density in its central regions, sensibly kilometre per second (or anything more uniform through several million kilometres, than 71), they would just escape collision, is one twenty thousand millionth of that and would revolve in equal ellipses round the of water; or one twenty-five millionth centre of inertia, in a period of one year, just of that of air. This exceedingly small grazing one another's surfaces every time density is nearly six times the density of the they come round to the nearest points of oxygen and nitrogen left in some of the their orbits.

receivers exhausted by Bottomley in his If the initial transverse velocity of each experimental measurements of the amount globe be less than, but not much less than, of heat emitted by pure radiation from 71 of a kilometre per second, there will be a highly heated bodies. If the substance were violent grazing collision, and two bright suns, oxygen, or nitrogen, or other gas or mixture solid globes bathed in flaming fluid, will of gases simple or compound, of specific come into existence in the course of a few density equal to the specific density of our hours, and will commence revolving round air, the central temperature would be 51,200° their common centre of inertia in long elliptic Cent., and the average translational velocity orbits in a period of a little less than a year. of the molecules 6:66 kilometres per second, Tidal interaction between them will diminish being V of 10-2, the velocity acquired by a the eccentricities of their orbits, and if con- heavy body falling unresisted from the outer tinued long enough will cause the two to boundary (of 40 times the radius of the revolve in circular orbits round their centre earth's orbit) to the centre of the nebulous of inertia with a distance between their surfaces equal to 6.44 diameters of each.

nebula thus constituted would Suppose now, still choosing a particular in the course of a few million years, by concase to fix the ideas, that twenty-nine million stantly radiating out heat, shrink to the size cold solid globes, each of about the same mass of our present sun, when it would have as the moon, and amounting in all to a total exactly the same heating and lighting effimass equal to the sun's, are scattered as uni- ciency. But no motion of rotation. formly as possible on a spherical surface of The moment of momentum of the wholesolar radius equal to one hundred times the radius system is about eighteen times that of the sun's of the earth's orbit, and that they are left rotation ; seventeen-eighteenths being Jupiabsolutely at rest in that position. They ter'e and one-eighteenth the Sun's, the other will all commence falling towards the centre bodies being not worth taking into account of the sphere, and will meet there in two in the reckoning of moment of momentum. hundred and fifty years, and every one of Now, instead of being absolutely at rest the twenty-nine million globes will then, in the course of half an hour, be melted, and homogenevus gas is 40 per cent of the radius of the spherica raised to a temperature of a few hundred surface from which its ingredients must fall to their actual thousand or a million degrees centigrade. ene ternilainathe nebula to have the same kinetic energy as


The gaseous

•The radius of a steady globular gaseous nebula of any

the .

in the beginning, let the twenty-nine million hundred million years. Thus there may in moons be given each with some small motion, reality be nothing more of mystery or of difmaking up in all an amount of moment of ficulty in the automatic progress of the solar momentum about a certain axis, equal to the system from cold matter diffused through moment of momentum of the solar system space, to its present manifest order and which we have just been considering; or beauty, lighted and warmed by its brilliant considerably greater than this, to allow for sun, than there is in the winding up of a effect of resisting medium. They will fall clock * and letting it go till it stops. I need together for two hundred and fifty years, scarcely say that the beginning and tho and though not meeting precisely in the maintenance of life on the earth is absolutely centre as in the first supposed case of no and infinitely beyond the range of all sound primitive motion, they will, two hundred and speculation in dynamical science. The only fifty years from the beginning, be so crowded contribution of dynamics to theoretical biotogether that there will be myriads of col-logy is absolute negation of automatic comlisions, and almost every one of the twenty- mencement or automatic maintenance of life. nine million globes will be melted and driven I shall only say in conclusion :-Assuming into vapour by the heat of these collisions. the sun's mass to be composed of materials The vapour or gas thus generated will fly which were far asunder before it was hot, outwards, and after several hundreds or the immediate antecedent to its incandescence

must have been either two bodies with details differing only in proportions and den. sities from the cases we have been now considering as examples; or it must have been some number more than two-some finite number—at the most the number of atoms in the sun's present mass, a finite number (which may probably enough be something between 4 x 109 and 140 X 105) as easily understood and imagined as number 3 or number 123. The im

mediate antecedent to incandescence DE NARTO

may have been the whole constituents in the extreme condition of subdivision —that is to say, in the condition of separate atoms; or it may have been any smaller number of groups of atoms

making up minute crystals orgroups of 94 centimetres

- ]

crystals-snowflakes of matter, as it were; or it may have been lumps of

matter like a macadamising stone; or thousands of years of outward and inward | like the stone (Fig. 1) on page 264, which you oscillatory motion, may settle into an oblate might mistake for a macadamising stone, and rotating nebula extending its equatorial ra- which was actually travelling through space dius far beyond the orbit of Neptune, and till it fell on the earth at Possil, in the neighwith moment of momentum equal to or ex- bourhood of Glasgow, on April 5, 1804 ; or ceeding the moment of momentum of the like that (Fig. 2) on page 265, which was solar system. This is just the beginning found in the Desert of Atacama, in South postulated by Laplace for his nebular theory America, and is believed to have fallen there of the evolution of the solar system ; which, from the sky-a fragment made up of iron founded on the natural history of the stellar and stone, which looks as if it has solidified universe as observed by the elder Herschell, from a mixture of gravel and melted iron in and completed in details by the profound a place where there was very little of heavidynamical judgment and imaginative genius ness; or this splendidly crystallised piece of of Laplace, seems converted by thermo- iron (Fig. 3), a slab cut out of the celebrated dynamics into a necessary truth, if we äerolite of Lenarto, in Hungary;t or this make no other uncertain assumption than • Even in this, and all the properties of matter which it that the materials at present constituting involves, there is enough, and more than enough, of mystery the dead matter of the solar system have beyond our understanding than is a gaseous nebula. existed under the laws of dead matter for a terian Museum of the University of Glasgow, and the wood.


Fig. 3.

[graphic][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

wonderfully-shaped specimen (Figs. 4 and 5), of Argyll and the Isles : “Do you imagine a model of the Middlesburgh meteorito that piece of matter to have been as it is (kindly given me by Professor A. S. Her- from the beginning; to have been created schel), with corrugations showing how its as it is, or to have been as it is through all melted matter has been scoured off from the time till it fell on the earth ?” I had told front part of its surface in its final rush him that I believed the sun to be built up of through the earth's atmosphere when it was meteoric stones, but he would not be satisfied seen to fall on March 14, 1881, at 3.35 P.M. till he knew or could imagine, what kind of

For the theory of the sun it is indifferent stones. which of these varieties of configurations of I could not but agree with him in feelmatter may have been the immediate ante- ing it impossible to imagine that any one of cedent of his incandescence, but I can never these meteorites before you has been as it is think of these material antecedents without through all time, or that the materials of the remembering a question put to me thirty sun were like this for all time before they years ago by the late Bishop Ewing, Bishop come together and became hot. Surely this

stone has an eventful history, but I shall not cuts, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, have been executed from the actual tax the patience of readers of GOOD WORDS specimens kindly lent for that purpose by the Keeper of the museum, Professor Young. The specimen represented by by trying just now to trace it conjecturally. Fig. 1 is contained in the Hunterian collection, that by Fig. 2 I shall only say that we cannot but agree in the Eck collection, and that by Fig. 3 in the Lanfine collection—the scale of' dimensions is shown for each. It may with the common opinion which regards be remarked that Fig. 2 represents a section of the meteorite taken in the plane of the longest rectangular axes; the bright meteorites as fragments broken from larger markings being large and well-formed crystals of olivine, embedded in a matrix of iron. In Fig. 3 is depicted the masses, but we cannot be satisfied without beautiful Widmanstätten marking characteristic of all trying to imagine what were the antecedents

shown meteorite.

of those masses.


MLOUD rolls up from the west,

Cloud rolls off to the east,
Blotting the sun in the sky;

Sun shines out afresh;
Rain pours down from its breast,

All things, greatest and least,
Stone nor leaf is dry.

Laugh in a diamond mesh.


[merged small][merged small][graphic]



On the day after Balmaine's first appearCHAPTER XVIII. - LEYLAND AND MAYO.

ance in the office, Leyland and Mayo were R. LEYLAND, the proprietor of the engaged in conversation in the former's room,

Helvetic News, was a tall, good-looking a handsome, luxuriously furnished apartment, man, with a heavy moustache, dark hair, which one side of which was covered with a great he parted in the middle, an imposing presence, map of Europe, the other adorned with valuand a plausible tongue. He neither wrote for able engravings. the paper nor paid much attention to the de- “Has anything come in this morning ?" tails of the business, but he was great at giving asks Leyland as he leans back in his fauteuil orders, drawing cheques, entertaining people and lazily smokes a fine Havanna cigar. of distinction, and giving the coup de grâce "Nothing to mention orders for a thouto hesitating advertisers; yet he did not sand francs from Paris and eight hundred from commit the error of making himself too com- Baden.” mon, never interfering unless "some big "Nothing from Bevis ?” thing” was at stake, when his grand manner "I did not expect anything-he has only and amazing statements about the circulation just got to work." of the paper were generally successful. He “Late, is he not ?" was equally clever at raising the wind, and “Very. I have been urging him to start on several occasions, when the paper seemed for a month past, both by letter and telegram; to be at the last extremity, had contrived by but when he once gets down to that villa of some bold stroke or ingenious combination his in the Riviera he is hard to move, and to give it new life. His latest feat of the whatever you say or do he always takes his sort was persuading the American banker own time. mentioned by Gibson to take an interest in “Always; but for all that he is the best the paper (albeit the fact was not generally canvasser we have." known) and grant the proprietor an almost “Rather. I don't know what we should unlimited over-draft.

do without him. I wish he was not quite so Mayo, Leyland's manager and second in expensive, though. I have just been looking command, was a slightly built young fellow up his account, and his commission last year with sharp grey eyes, blonde complexion, and amounted to fifteen thousand francs, and his a quick, vivacious manner. He was full of fire travelling expenses to eight." and energy, and as industrious as Leyland "Nearly a thousand pounds sterling-rather was the reverse, conducted all the business stiff that; but he gets more advertisements correspondence of the paper, looked after the than all the other fellows put together, so we accounts, and kept his eye on everything. must not complain. Where is he now ?" Like his chief, he was nothing if not enter- “At Florence. It is no use going farther prising, and their enterprise generally took south at this time of the year-hardly any the form of spending money. If profuse out- use going even to Florence, I am afraid. Then lay could insure success then might the Hel- by Milan and Turin to the Italian lakes Lovetic News count on a brilliant future. carno and Bellinzona, and over the Gothard

[ocr errors]

to Lucerne. Then he will do the Bernese Balmaine would do the work for half his Oberland, call at Basel and Berne, and be here, screw. I expect, in about six weeks.”

“I dare say. But you forgot that Gibson “A good programme.

He should do a has a three years' agreement. lot of business.”

“No, I don't; but it is a queer agreement “Sure to do. He always does. He has that one cannot get out of, and I have no three of the best qualifications for an adver- doubt we shall find a way of getting out of tising canvasser a man can have—fine man- this when the time comes. Hallo! there's a ners, ready tact, and a tongue that would whistle, put your ear to the spout, Mayo.” almost talk a knot out of a tree, as Harman “Mr. Robert Harman would be glad to would say. I know nobody to be compared see Mr. Leyland,” says Mayo, still holding with him, except you, Leyland—if you would the tube to his ear. work.”

The next moment the door opens and in “I'll take care I don't,” answered Leyland walks the American banker. A large man with a laugh. “I know a trick worth two of all over-hair long, hat tilted back on his that, Mayo. I would rather watch others head, eyes all aglow with excitement, clean work. That reminds me, though I really shaven, fresh-coloured face, and an eager don't see why it should, that I had a question look, as if he had just conceived some new to ask about finance. How do we stand idea and was burning to bring it forth. with Harmans ?

“Good day, gentlemen, good day," he ex“Sixty thousand francs to our debita Will claimed, in a loud and hearty voice, shaking they stand it, do you think?"

hands with both Leyland and Mayo at the "What a question, Mayo! They have same time, “how is the Helvetic News tostood it, or we shouldn't have got the day ?” money.

“First rate,” says Leyland with his most “Will they let it stand, I should say urbane smile. " We had several thousand

“What else can they do? And if we want francs worth of advertisements this morning, more they will let us have it; and the more and the season is only just beginning. Now we owe them the safer we are. They cannot Bevis has got to work we shall have as many afford to pull us up, and we cannot afford to every day.

“Glad to hear it. Nothing like going “That is quite true; especially the latter," a-head. And you do go a-head, there is no returned Mayo with an amused smile, “and mistake about that, we cashed drafts yesterI assure you I never thought of anything so day that make your account more than sixty absurd as paying them off. I only feared that thousand on the wrong side.” they might possibly bother us with ques- "So Mayo was saying just now," quietly tions and request us to reduce the account.” observes Leyland, "and to tell you the truth,

“Not they; there is no reason why they I am surprised it is not more. You have no should, at any rate at present; and I have idea what the expenses of a daily paper are; got the length of Robert Harman's foot. He and we are only just emerging from winter, called last night.

which, as you know, is our worst time, a “ About business ?"

great deal going out and very little coming “No; he wanted to introduce an Ameri- in. But now the tide is turning, and in a can general and his wife to our family circle, few weeks we shall be flush. I dare say, as he put it; and we asked them all to din- though, we shall have to ask you for another ner for next Monday. By the way, have ten thousand francs or so in the meantime." you seen the new assistant editor yet? Har- “The devil you will! Well, draw it as mild man was asking about him.”

as you can, for though we want to give your “Not yet. The fellow may be useful if enterprise all the support in our power we he has anything in him."

are not quite made of money, and I have Of course he may, but now we have got partners. So far as I am personally conMilnthorpe we might have done without cerned I look on a daily paper here as a grand

fact, and the Helvetic News, properly worked, “That is true ; but don't you see what a is destined, I do believe, to become a great pull it gives us over Gibson í This new fel- power. It will help in the realisation of low, Balmaine, will always be ready to slip my design of making Geneva the centre of into the other's shoes; and, to tell the truth, European travel for the English-speaking I am getting rather out of conceit with Gib- people of three continents. We are adding

He is lazy, his leaders are stale, and l å large news-room and lounge to our offices,

pay them off.



« ZurückWeiter »