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weru ne-established with new vigour. Together with monarchy, episco. pacy was restored in Scotland. A form of government so odious to the people, required force to uphold it, and though not only the whole rigour of authority, but all the barbarity of persecution, were employed in its support, the aversion of the nation was insurmountable, and it subsisted with difficulty. At the revolution, the inclinations of the people were thought worthy the attention of the legislature, the presbyterian government was again established, and, being ratified by the union, is still maintained in the kingdom.

Nor did the influence of the accession extend to the civil and ecclesias. ' tical constitutions alone; the genius of the nation, its taste and spirit, things of a nature still more delicate, were sensibly affected by that event. When learning revived in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, all the modern languages were in a state extremely barbarous, devoid of elegance, of vigour, and even of perspicuity. No author thought of writing in language so ill adapted to express and embellish his sentiments, or of erecting a work for immortality with such rude and perishable materials. As the spirit which prevailed at that time did not owe its rise to any original effort of the human mind, but was excited chiefly by admiration of the ancients, which began then to be studied in every part of Europe, their compositions were deemed not only the standards of taste and of senti ment, but of style, and even the languages in which they wrote were thought to be peculiar, and almost consecrated to learning and the muses. Not only the manner of the ancients was imitated, but their language was adopted, and, extravagant as the attempt may appear to write in a dead tongue, in which men were not accustomed to think, and which they could not speak, or even pronounce, the success of it was astonishing. As they formed their style upon the purest models, and were uninfected with those barbarisms which the inaccuracy of familiar conversation, the affectation of courts, intercourse with strangers, and a thousand other causes introduced into living languages, many moderns have attained to a degree of eloquence in their Latin compositions which the Romans themselves scarce possessed beyond the limits of the Augustan age. While this was almost the only species of composition, and all authors, . by using one common language, could be brought to a nearer comparison, the Scottish writers were not inferior to those of any other nation. The happy genius of Buchanan, equally formed to excel in prose and in verse, more various, more original, and more elegant than that of almost any other modern who writes in Latin, reflects, with regard to this particular, the greatest lustre on his country,

But the labour attending the study of a dead tongue wis irksoine; the unequal return for their industry which authors met with, who could be read and admired only within the narrow circle of the learned, was mor." tifying ; and men, instead of wasting half their lives in learning the language of the Romans, began to refine and to polish their own. The modern tongues were found to be susceptible of beauties and graces which, if nut equal to those of the ancient ones, were at least more attainable. The Italians having first set the example, Latin was no longer used in works of taste, but was confined to books of science; and the politer nations have banished it even from these. The Scots, we may presume, would have had no cause to regret this change in the public taste, and would still have been able to maintain some equality with other nations, in their pursuit of literary honour. The English and Scottish languages, derived from the same sources, were at the end of the sixteenth century in a state nearly similar, differing from one another somewhat in orthog. raphy, though not only the words, but the idioms, were much the sanie. The letters of several Scottish statesmen of that age were not interior in elegance, or in nurity, to those of the English ministers with whom they

corresponded. James himself was master of a style far from contempti. ble, and by his example and encouragement the Scottish language might have kept pace with the English in refinement. Scotland might have had a series of authors in its own, as well as in the Latin language to boast of; and the improvements in taste, in the arts, and in the sciences, which spread over the other polished nations of Europe, would not have been unknown there.

During the whole of the seventeenth century, the English were gradually refining their language and their taste ; in Scotland the former was much debased, and the latter alniost entirely lost. In the beginning of that period, both nations were emerging out of barbarity ; but the distance between them, which was then inconsiderable, becanie, before the end of it, immense. Even after science had once dawned upon them, the Scots seemed to sink back into ignorance and obscurity, and active and intelligent as they naturally were, they continued, while other nations were eager in the pursuit of fame and knowledge, in a state of langour. This, however, must be imputed to the unhappiness of their political situation, not to any defect of genius; for no sooner was the one removed in any degree, than the other began to display itself. The act abolishing the power of the lords of the articles, and other salutary laws passed at the revolution, having introduced freedom of debate into the Scottish parliament, eloquence, with all the arts that accompany or perfect it, became imme. diate objects of attention; and the example of Fletcher of Salton is alone sufficient to show that the Scots were still capable of general sentiments, and, notwithstanding some peculiar idioms, were able to express them. selves with energy and 'with elegance.

At length, the union having incorporated the two nations, and rendered them one people, the distinctions which subsisted for many ages gradually wore away; the same manners prevailed in both parts of the island ; the same authors were read and admired; the same entertainments were frequented by the elegant and polite; and the same standard of taste and of purity in language was established. The Scots, after being placed, during à whole century, in a situation no less fatal to the liberty than to the taste and genius of the nation, were at once put in possession of privileges more valuable than those which their ancestors had formerly enjoyed ; and every obstruction that had retarded their pursuit, or prevented their acquisition of literary fame, was wholly removed. There were seven Scottish parliaments called after the accession of James, wherein he presided by a commissioner. An act was was passed in 1606 for the restoration of the estate of bishops, which was followed by a great variety of laws for giving proper effect to the genera, principle; and there were also many laws enacted for promoting domestic economy. After governing Scotland with considerable success during his occupation of the throne of England, he died on the 27th of March, 1625, and was succeeded by his son, Charles I., then in the 25th year of his age.

CHAPTER V. FROM THE ACCESSION OF CHARLES I. TO THE DEATH OF WILLIAM III. During the first ten years of Charles' reign nothing occurred in Scot. land calculated to disturb the serenity of his rule ; but this calm was succeeded by frequent broils and contentions, arising from many causes, but chiefly originating in ecclesiastical matters. Among many laws of a salutary tendency, they passed an act, reserving to the crown those lands which the baronage had wrested from the church; the clergy were thus benefitted, the people were relieved, but the barons were offended

Charles, who was attached to episcopacy from sincere religious, convictions, as well as from views of political expediency, formed tne scheme of assimilating in all respects the churches in England and Scotland. With this view he determined to introduce a liturgy, which in Scotland nad never been regularly used; and he insisted upon the reception of a set of canons abolishing the control over ecclesiastical measures which the inferior church judicatories had been permitted to exercise. The violence with which all this was resisted was carried to the most extravagant pitch, the clergy were insulted, and episcopacy was again contemplated as the engine of popery and despotism. The dissensions which soon arose in England cherished this state of mind; the discontented in Scotland made common cause with the disaffected in the southern part of the island ; they bound themselves by the extraordinary deed which they entitled "the solemn league and covenant,” to exterminate prelacy as a corruption of the gospel ; and they took an active part in those violent scenes which ended in the death of Charles and the erection of the commonwealth. Tớ describe the battles which took place between royalists and roundheads, or to make comments on the hypocrisy and faithlessness of the times, would be to repeat that which has already found a place in this volume, and which must remain the foulest blot in the annals of England. We shall therefore merely observe, that after the execution of Charles I., in 1648, the Scots proclaimed his son king, under the title of Charles II.; and that some months after his defeat at Worcester, Scotland was incorporated into one commonwealth with England.

On the restoration of Charles II., the Scottish parliament assembled, under the earl of Middleton, the king's commissioner, on the 1st of January, 1661. : He declared the king's resolution to maintain the true reformed protestant religion, as it had been established during the reigns of his father and grandfather; intimating, however, that he would restore the episcopal government, though he allowed, meanwhile, the administration of sessions, presbyteries, and synods. This endeavour to establish episcopacy was violently opposed, and led to the most cruel persecution of the presbyterians, which lasted with more or less severity, during the whole of the reign. Numbers were executed; others were fined, imprisoned, and tortured; and whole tracts of the country were placed under a military despotism of the worst description. Driven to desperation, the presbyterian party had several times recourse to arms, and, although in some cases successful, they were finally defeated and scattered at Both. well-bridge.

A. D. 1685.-On ascending the throne, James II. professed his intention to support the government, in church and state, as by law established ; yet his predilection for the catholic religion was evident in his very first acts. Compliant as the Scottish parliament was in what related to their civil liberties, they were resolved to adhere to their religious principles On this point, indeed, the people of Scotland were unanimous, and wher, they heard of the landing of the prince of Orange, and read his declaration in favour of liberty and in support of law, they hailed his advent with joy. The nobles began to intrigue, the populace, in their zeal, broke out into insurrection against the catholics at Edinburgh, and all classes looked

dominion. William consulted several of the Scottish nobles, clergy, and gentry, regarding the state of their country, and issued circular letters, summoning a convention at Edinburgh, on the 22d of March, 1689. When they met they decided that king James, by his abuse of power, had forfeited the rights to the crown, and immediately declared the prince and princess of Orange to be king and queen of Scotland. This act, which » involved such mighty consequences, was attended by a declaration of their wrongs and rights. Former insurrections, though accompanied by


many mischiefs, passed away without any advantage to the nation.

Though the revolution of 1689 brought with it a civil war, it was the means of strengthening the constitution', of preserving public liberty, and securing private rights. The presbyterian church was now erected on the ruins of episcopacy, the prerogative was restrained to its proper Cunctions, and many salutary laws for promoting domestic economy were enacted.

Although the great bulk of the people were in favour of the revolution, it must, not be forgotten there was a considerable party that remained attached to the exiled family of the Stuarts; and it was found to be no easy matter to reconcile the Highlanders to the expulsion of their ancient race of monarchs. Many of them were in open state of rebellion. However, in August, 1692, a proclamation of indemnity had been passed to such insurgents as would take the oath of allegiance to the new government on or before'the last day of December. The last man to submit was Macdonald of Glencoe, and he, owing to the shows and other interruptions which he met with on the road, did not reach Inverary, the county town, in time, and the benefit of the indemnity was therefore strictly forfeited. William was informed, and fully believed that Macdonald of Glencoe was the chief obstacle to the pacification of the Highlands, and a warrant of military execution was procured from him against the unfortunate chief and his whole tribe. A detachment of soldiers, one hundred and twenty in number, commanded by Captain Campbell, was ordered on the 1st of February, to repair to Glencoe, where they were quartered for a fortnight among the inhabitants of that sequestered vale. On the evening of the 13th orders arrived to attack the Macdonalds while asleep at midnight, and not to suffer a man to escape their swords; an order which the soldiers obeyed with ruthless barbarity. Thirty-eight persons, among whom were Glencoe and his wife, thus mercilessly perished; the rest, alarmed by the report of the musketry, escaped to the hills, and were only preserved from destruction by a tempest that added to the horrors of the night. The carnage was succeeded by rapine and desolation; the houses were burned to the ground, and women and children, stripped naked, were left to die of cold and hunger. This horrible massacre excited universal execration, and, naturally enough, rendered the government of William odious to the Highlanders.


UNION OF THE TWO KINGDOMS. WILLIAM III. died in 1702, by which the crowns of the two nations devolved on Anne, who assured the parliament that she would support the government as then established. But they refused to tolerate episcopacy, and they declined in concur in adopting the protestant succession for the crown; nay, they issued a declaration which intimated a purpose, in case of the demise of the crown, to appoint a different sovereign from whomsoever might be the English king. The English statesmen, forseeing what this was likely to produce, recommended the appointment of commission. ers to treat of a union between the two kingdoms. Instead of regarding it as an identification of the interest of both kingdoms, the people generally considered it as a total surrender of their independence into the hands of a powerful rival. Addresses against it were presented from all quarters, and in several places the populace rose in arms, and formed themselves into regiments of horse and foot in order to oppose the union. Nor were the commercial part of the community, who were supposed to benefii argely by it, satisfied by its terms. Notwithstanding every opposition

however, the treaty of union was ratified by both parliainents, and on the 1st of May, 1707, the legislative union of England and Scotland was ratified.

For several years the union was unproductive of those advantages which were at first expected; no new manufactories were attracted to Scotland, and commerce grew more languid than before. But by a considerable assimilation of the laws to those of England, the courts of justice were better regulated, and legal redress more easily obtained, while the barbarous practice of subjecting prisoners to the torture was abolished. It was stipulated by the treaty that no alterations should be made in the church of Scotland; that the commercial laws and customs should be the same in all parts of the united kingdom ; that the Scotch royal burghs should retain all their ancient privileges; and that no person should be deprived of those hereditary rights and offices which they had enjoyed by the laws of Scotland. Looking at these and other conditions of the union, it is certain that if the Scotch would abandon prejudices that ought to be obsolete, and resolve to profit by the connexion, they would soon have ample opportunity of so doing; while, on the part of England, it was evident that the zealous Co-operation of her northern neighbour in times of war must tend to the security of the whole island, and in peace contribute to its commercial importance. Queen Anne died on the 1st of August, 1714, and, under the act of settlement, the united crown was transferred to George I.

We conceive it to be unnecessary to carry the general narrative beyond this period ; the affairs of Scotland being henceforth detailed, in common with those of England, in the history of that country. But, in concluding this sketch, it appears requisite to give a brief account of the peculiarities which attach to matters ecclesiastical. In 1560, the Roman catholic religion was abolished, and the reformation was sanctioned by act of par.. liament; the distinguishing tenets of the Scotch church having been lirst embodied in the formulary of faith attributed to, John Knox, who had adopted the doctrines of Calvin, established at Geneva. General assemblies at that time began, and continued to meet twice every year, for the space of twenty years; after which they were annual. From 1572 to 1592, a sort of episcopacy prevailed in the church, while the ecclesiastical form of government was presbyterian. Meantime, the dignitaries of the church and the nobility monopolized the revenues of the church, and left the reformed clergy in a state of indigence. After much deliberation, the protestant leaders resolved to provide a state-maintenance for their teachers, and the following plan was adopted. Two-thirds of all ecclesi astical benefices were reserved to the present possessor, and to the crown the rernainder was annexed, out of which a competent subsistence was to be assigned to the protestant clergy. But the revenue thus appropri ated, instead of being duly applied, was diverted into other channels. In 1587, all the unalienated church lands were 'annexed to the crown; and the tithes alone were reserved for the support of the clergy. Bishops continued till 1592, when presbyterian government was established by an act of parliament, and a division was made of the church into synods and presbyteries. But the king, desirous of having the power of the bishops restored, as a balance to the nobles in parliament, prevailed on a majority of the clergy, in 1597 and 1598, to agree that some ministers should represent the church in parliament, and that there should be constant moderators in presbyteries. By an act of parliament in 1606, the tempo. ralities of bishops were restored, and they were allowed a seat in parliament; and thus the presbyterian government was overturned. But episcopacy at length grew so obnoxious to the people, that in 1689, prelacy was declared, by a convention of estates, to be a national grievance, which ought to be abolished; and in the following year the presbyter in

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