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The 2nd mode is to drive the Seaman from the Ship, by hard words, and harder blous, the latter of which frequently endanger his life. He, of course, applies to the Consul, who sends for the Captain ; the Captain complains that the Sailor does not do his duty, and may return to the Ship when he pleases: the Consul orders the man to return to the Ship; he does so ;-again is beat, and again returns to the Consul; till, finally, the Seaman becomes a charge on the ConsuJate, and the Ship sails without the Consul's having the power to compel the Master to a settlement of the arrearages due to the Seaman, or to make any provision to defray the expense of his return to The United States.

A 3rd mode is, after a long series of abuse to the Seaman, to instruct some of the Under Officers of the Ship to hire him to run away, giving him, generally, about the amount of wages due to bim at the time.

This Seaman soon becomes a charge on the Consulate; and the Consul has no power to enforce the payment of the 3 months' advauce, (as provided by the Act in case of discharge in Foreign Ports,) as the Man has not strictly been discharged by the Master.

From these and other causes, for the last 15 months, The United States' Consulates at London and Liverpool, have been thronged with destitute American Seamen. The Consuls, of course, have put on board of every American Vessel bound to the United States, 2 Seamen to every 100 tons burden of such Vessel ; for which, the Captain receives 10 dollars per man. But, as the amount of United States' Shipping was not sufficient to take all the Seamen off of the hands of the Consuls, it was found necessary, either to take up Transports for the purpose, or to make Contracts with the Masters of American Vessels, to take an additional number to those put on board under the authority of the Act. At London, both courses were necessarily adopted. Transports were procured at an average of £12 sterling per Man; and American Masters generally took a surplusage of hands, at an average of £10 sterling per Man.

You will at once perceive, Sir, how much it was for the interest of the Master of an American Vessel to get rid of a Crew engaged at from 12 to 20 dollars per month, and get one equally good on the terms above mentioned.

I will now, Sir, call your attention to 2 cases much complained of by American Captains in Foreign Ports. The first, is that in which the Captain arrives, (say at London,) with a full Crew, all of whom remain with him. On his departure, he is compelled by the Consul to “ take on board 2 men to every 100 tons burden of his Vessel, and transport them to the United States, at a sum not exceeding 10 dollars per Man." These Men are, in fact, Supernumeraries;-they are of no use to the Ship, but, in fact, an injury, as they generally produce some difficulty on the passage among the original Crew. And the compensation allowed will not defray the extra expence of laying in water for them on the passage; to say nothing of their provisions, &c. Whereas, if a Seaman is brought home, from a Port where there is no Consul or Agent, the Master is “ entitled to such sum as the Comptroller of the Treasury shall deem equitable." Why, they ask, are they not entitled to the same from a Port where there is a Consul or Agent? This is considered by the Consuls as a hard case, and one which requires the attention of Congress.

The second case, is that of a Seaman becoming sick and unable to perform his duty. The Captain is ready to sail, the Man is unable to go, and the Consul requires the 3 months advance pay to meet the expenses of sending the Man to America, as in the case of a discharged Seaman. The Masters contend, that if they pay to the Consuls the arrearages of pay due to the Seamen, that should be sufficient to cancel the Bond given to the Collector, to return the Man to The United States.

But, Sir, the most important subject remains yet to be considered; and that is, what description of Persons ought to be considered as destitute Seamen, and as such entitled to the protection and liberality of the American Government ? At present, those who come within that denomination are, first, a Class of Seamen who make it a practice to engage on board of Foreign Vessels in American Ports, to go to Europe, by the run, as it is called, for which they generally receive more wages, in proportion, than those who go for a voyage out and back. One half the sum agreed upon is generally paid down, the remainder on the arrival of the Vessel at the Port of destination. The Seaman spends his money, and, not finding a Ship that will give him wages home, he goes to the nearest Consul, and demands subsistence and a passage. I have thus known some Seamen sent to The United States, from London, 3 tiines within the last year.

The next Class are those who, without any just cause, leave their Ships in Foreign Ports; and they are of 2 descriptions :—first, Negroes, who, from the particular notice taken of them by the lower Classes of Whites, (and particularly White Women) in England, very frequently leave their Ships, and almost as frequently marry White Women, and after 2 or 3 weeks' dissipation, demand of the Consul subsistence and a passage

home. The last Class are those Seamen who go where they can get the most wages. Many of our Seamen have from this cause engaged from time to time, in the East India Company's employ; and when, from a reduction of wages in those Ships, higher wages being given in America, or any other cause which induces them to wish to return to their Country, they will nine times out of ten put The United States to the expense of their passage. Seamen, from the foregoing causes, are now thronging the Offices of The United States Consuls in Europe.

You will, Sir, be convinced of this when I inform you that, at the usual allowance of 22 cents for each Man per day while in Port, necessary clothing, medical aid, and passage home, the expenditure of the Consulate at London alone, will be, for the year 1816, about 40,000 dollars !

The facility with which Foreigners procure Protection in this Country, as American Citizens, tends, in a great measure, to render useless that part of the Law relative to Protections. I can affirm with confidence, that scarcely a Day passed, when I was in the Office at London, but I destroyed Protections, granted by our Collectors to Seamen, who, on a close examination, acknowledged themselves to be Foreigners. It would, in my opinion, be much better to repeal the Law on that subject, in preference to its remaining on the present footing.

Permit me, Sir, at the close of this long Letter, to call your attention to the beggarly condition of our Consuls, under the present Regulations.

Liverpool and Bordeaux are the only Consulates in Europe worth holding. The whole amount of Receipts in the Consulate at London, from June 1st, 1815, to June 1st, 1816, (a period of uncommon activity in commerce,) was only £183 sterling. As I have no idea that Salaries could be procured for the Consuls, I would beg leave to suggest, whether the objects of Fees might not be multiplied, and those already established increased ?

With great consideration, &c. The Hon. John Forsyth,

J. B. STUART. Chairman, Committee Foreign Relations.

CONVENTION betn'een The Netherlands and Prussia, for

the reciprocal Abolition of the Droit de Détraction," and the Tax upon Emigration.Brussels, 16th June, 1817.

Convention conclue entre les Royaumes des Pays-Bas et de Prusse, a

l'égard de l'Abolition réciproque du Droit de Détraction et de l'Impôt d'Emigration.

Art. I. Il ne doit être levé lors de l'exportation de biens, argent, ou effets quelconques, hors des Etats du Royaume des PaysBas, dans les Etats de Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, ou hors de ces derniers dans les Etats des Pays-Bas, soit que cette exportation provienne d'émigration, die succession, legs, dot, donation, ou d'autres titres quelconques, aucun Droit de Détraction (Gabella Hercditaria), ni Impôt d'Emigration, (Census Emigrationis); de manière que les Personnes intéressées à ces translations de biens ne seront assujetties à d'autres impositions, ou taxes, qu'à celles qui, soit à raison de Droit de Succession, de vente, ou mutation de propriété quelconque, seront acquittées par les Habitans des Pays Bas ou de la Prusse mêmes, d'après les Lois, Réglemens, et Ordonnances, existans, ou à émaner dans la suite.

II. Cette exemption s'étend, non-seulement sur le Droit de Détraction et l'Impôt d'Emigration susmentionnés, à verser dans les Caisses du Souverain, inais aussi sur ceux à verser dans les Caisses des Villes, Bourgs, Communes, Abbayes, Couvens, Fondations Pieuses, Jurisdictions Patrimoniales et Corporations. Les Propriétaires de Terres Seigneuriales dans les 2 Etats respectifs sont en conséquence soumis, ainsi que tous les autres Particuliers dans lesdits Etats, à la présente Convention, et ne peuvent exiger ni lever aucuns Droits susmentionnés sur les biens, argent ou effets quelconques, à exporter des Etats respectifs.

III. L'exemption des Droits susdits, dont il est parlé aux Articles I et II, a trait aux biens, argent, et effets quelconques, mais les Lois respectives émanées dans les Etats de Sa Majesté le Roi des Pays Bas, et dans ceux de Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, touchant la Personne de l'Individu émigrant, ses devoirs personnels, sa sujétion au service militaire, Lois par lesquelles il est enjoint à tout Sujet qui souhaite d'émigrer, d'en demander la permission à son Souverain, suivant l'ordre établi, seront maintenues en pleine vigueur, nonobstant la présente Convention.

A l'égard du service militaire, et des autres devoirs personnels de l'Emigrant, aucun des 2 Gouvernemens n'est restreint, par la présente Convention, dans le maintien de l'exercice de ses Lois, et Ordonnances, ni dans sa future Législation sur ces objets.

IV. La présente Déclaration, expédiée en double et de même teneur, signée par les Ministres respectifs, au nom de Sa Majesté le Roi des Pays Bas et de Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, sera échangée mutuellement; et il sera enjoint aux Autorités respectives dans les 2 Etats de s'y conformer, et de veiller à l'exécution de cette Convention.

Fait à Bruxelles, ce 16 Juin, 1817.

Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères déclare, que la Convention précitée, sans avoir été formellement ratifiée, a été approuvée par les 2 Souverains.

A. W. C. DE NAGELL.

CONVENTION between The Netherlands and Bavaria, for

the reciprocal Abolition of the Droit de Détraction," and the Tax upon Emigration.Brussels, 26th August, 1817.

1

Convention conclue entre les Royaumes des Pays Bas et de Bavière,

relativement à l'Abolition réciproque du Droit de Détruction et de l'Impôt ďEmigration,

Art. I. Les Droits connus sous le nom de Jus Detractus, Gabella Hereditaria et Census Emigrationis, ne seront plus exigés ni perçus à l'avenir, lorsqu'en cas de succession, legs, donation, vente, émigration ou autre, il y a lieu à une translation de biens du Royaume des Pays Bas, dans les Etats Bavarois, ou de ceux-ci dans les Etats des Pays Bas, toutes les Impositions de cette nature étant abolies entre les 2 Pays

II. Cette disposition s'étend, non-seulement aux droits et autres Impositions de ce genre, qui font partie des Revenus publics, mais encore à ceux qui jusqu'ici pourroient avoir été levés, par quelques Provinces, Villes, Jurisdictions, Corporations ou Communes; de manière que les Personnes intéressées à ces exportations de biens, de seront assujetties à d'autres Impositions ou Taxes qu'à celles, qui, soit à raison de Droit de Succession, de vente ou mutation de propriété quelconque, sont acquittées par les Habitans des Pays Bas ou de la Bavière mêmes, d'après les Lois, Réglemens et Ordonnances existans, ou à émaner dans la suite.

III. La Convention susdite est applicable, non-seulemeut à toutes les Successions à écheoir à l'avenir, mais encore à celles déjà dévolues, mais dont la translation n'a pas encore été effectuée.

IV. Comme cette Convention ne regarde que les Propriétés et leur libre exportation, toutes les Lois relatives au Service Militaire restent en pleine vigueur dans les 2 Pays, et les Gouvernemens Contractans ne sont nullement restreints, par la présente Déclaration, dans leur future Législation sur cet objet.

V. Cette Convention sera délivrée en double de la même teneur, et aura force et valeur dans les Etats respectifs.

Bruxelles, ce 26 Août, 1817.

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Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères déclare, que la présente Convention a été ratifiée par le Gouvernement de Bavière, le 24 Sep. tembre, 1817, et par celui des Pays Bas, le 28 Octobre de la même année.

A. W. C. DE NAGELL.

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