Machinery and Processes of the Industrial Arts: And Apparatus of the Exact Sciences

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1869 - 669 Seiten
 

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Seite 31 - B with the sound velocity where y is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume, and p is the gas pressure.
Seite 306 - After tliis the stone is placed, for a longer or shorter time, according to the size of the object, under a shower bath of cold water. This is not, by bathing, to convert it into Bath stone, although were the Bath stone a sand stone instead of an oolitic formation, this name would do as well as any. The salt, or chloride of sodium, deposited throughout the interstices, is sought out and washed away, in brine, by the water, and were it not that a portion of undecomposed chloride of calcium is also...
Seite 89 - ... each exerts its effort in an opposite direction to the other. The power applied is the same in both cases, since it is the pressure of the steam on the equal surfaces of the pistons ; the arm of the lever on the side of the power is also the same for both. The effect, however, is generally unequal, because the arm on the side of the resistance is usually greater for one than for the other, and, moreover, the distance of the point of application of the force from the axis of the working-shaft...
Seite 8 - ... enveloped before going to wrestle with some whiteheat forging, sometimes on men nearly naked, with the perspiration pouring from them, who had come to rest for a moment from the puddling furnaces, and to take a long drink of the thick oatmeal and water, which is all that they venture on during their labor, and which long experience has proved to be the most sustaining of all drinks under the tremendous heats to which they are subjected.
Seite 304 - Rausome made one of the most unexpected discoveries in chemistry, viz., that when boiled in a caustic solution, under pressure, flints would melt almost like tallow before the fire. But we are not about to give the long history of the invention. With flint soup, or silicate of soda as a liquid, the question was what other liquid would, in mixing with it, turn both into an enduring solid ! What other liquid would turn both into silicate of lime, the substance he was seeking ? When he found that chloride...
Seite 351 - ... given to the other vital part of the furnace, the two names having no correspondence of meaning. The gas producer is a brick chamber about six feet wide by twelve feet long, with its front wall inclined at an angle of 45° to 60°, according to the nature of the fuel used. The inclined plane is solid about half way down, and below this it is constructed as a grate with horizontal bars. The openings for introducing the coal into the...
Seite 10 - ... feet long sweep off whatever little scraps of oxidation may have taken place. Thus every time the plate passes through the mill the sand is scattered, the water thrown, and the surface swept, and at every roll the chief roller of the establishment runs forward, and, under the shelter of wet cloths, measures with a gauge its thickness from end to end.
Seite 354 - Siemens furnace with the bottom, formed into two separate parts, each hollowed out like a dish, and with a bridge between them upon which the pigs introduced into the furnace receive a preliminary heating. The flame is maintained with a surplus of oxygen, and a quantity of pig iron is melted in one of the chambers or dishes. The oxidizing action of the flame decarburizes and refines the pig iron, and, after a certain time, a second quantity of pigs is thrown into the second dish and melted there....
Seite 479 - One, two, three, four, and. five are respectively expressed by a, e, i, o, and u, having the short or stopped sound -as heard in bat, bet, bit, hot, hut ; and six, seven, eight, nine, and ten by the same vowels having a long or full sound. In foreign languages, it may be best to designate the long sound by a sign placed over the vowel; but in our language it is found by experience more convenient to place e before each of the vowels, which invariably indicates their long or full sound, as heard in...
Seite 102 - ... novelties, which hardly at first view produce a favorable impression. The essential parts of the engine are a cylinder and a double-acting piston. The motion is communicated to a working shaft in the ordinary way. The peculiarities consist in the manner of admitting and discharging the water. This is effected through openings at each end of the cylinder which occupy the greater part of its circumference and form a sort of annulus ; there being left only enough solid metal to connect the end of...