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turbance they gave to the public religion for a course of years was so insufferable, that the magistrates could not avoid punishing them as disturbers of the peace; though of late they are become a more sober and inoffensive people; and by the wisdom of their managers, have formed themselves into a sort of body politic, and are in general very worthy members of society.

[Though Mr. Neal, here and in the sequel of his history, calls that body of christians, of whom he has written in the preceding pages, QUAKERS; and this is the denomination by which they are, to the present day, distinguished from other religious societies; yet it should be noticed, that, as this name was given them in scorn, they do not assume it, but through necessity and for distinction's sake. The name which they adopt amongst themselves, and by which they speak of their own party, is that of Friends. A title undoubtedly to be preferred, as conveying no ludicrous idea in it, and expressive of union, affection, and a common interest. In the use of this term they think themselves sanctioned by the example of the primitive christians; as Acts xxvii. 3; where it is said, that “ Julius, the centurion, courteously entreated Paul, and gave him liberty to go unto the friends:prostous philous: and 3 John 11, The friends, oi philoi, salute thee, and greet the friends, tous philous, by name."

About this time arose a sect, not noticed by Mr. Neal, called Muggletonians, from their founder Lodowick Muggleton, who was by trade a taylor. Mr. Granger calls houses of entertainment, to warn against indulging intemperabee, by supplying their guests with more liquor than would do them good : At schools and in private families, to exhort to the training up of children and servants to sobriety, in the fear of their Maker ; to testify against vain sports, plays, and shows, as tending to draw people into vanity and libertinism, and from that state of circumspection and attentive consideration, wherein our salvation is to be wrought out, forewarning all of the great day of aocount for all the deeds done in the body. This wa certainly insisting on moral duties, and bringing home the principles of righteousness to the various circumstances of human life, with much propriety and energy. Gough's History, vol. i. p. 67,75. Ed.

Sewel's History, p. 696.


him a notorious schismatic. His pretentions were, that lie and one John Reeves were the two wityesses spoken of Rev. xi. 3 ; and though the latter died soon after, the for: mer still advanced bis claims to a prophetic character; asserting, in a paper which he published, “that he was the chief judge in the world, iu passing sentence of eternal death and damnation upon the souls and bodies of men : that in obedience to bis commission he had already cursed and damned many hundreds to all eternity: that, in doing this

, be went by as certain a rule as the judges of the land do when they pass sentence according to law : and that no infinite spirit of Christ, nor any God, could or should be able to deliver from his sentence and curse." Richard Farnsworth, a convert of George Fox, and an active, intelligent minister amongst the quakers, remonstrated with Muggleton, from the press, on the profaneness and criminality of these extravagant claims, but without effect. He is also said to have regarded himself as above ordinances of every kind, not excepting prayer and preaching : to have rejected creeds and all church-discipline and authority; and to have acknowledged but one person in the godhead. He met with followers, who recorded many of his prophecies : but incurred the pillory and six months im. prisonment by his writings, which were burnt by the common hangman. He died March 12, 1697, 8, aged 90.11]

Sewel's History of the quakers, p. 399, 400; and Granger's Histoty of England, vol. iv. p. 209, 10.

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From the Coronation of King Charles II. in Scotland, to the Protectorship of Oliver Cromwell.

1631. THE coronation of king Charles by the Scots, which had been deferred hitherto, being now thought necessary to give life to their cause, was solemnized at Scone on New-years-day 1651, with as much magnificence as their circumstances would admit;$ when his majesty took the following oath : “I Charles, king of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, do assure and declare by my solemn oath, in the presence of Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts, my allowance and approbation of the national covenant, and of the solemn league and covenant; and faithfully oblige myself to prosecute the ends thereof in my station and calling; and that I myself and successors, shall consent and agree to all the acts of parliament enjoining the national covenant, and the solemn league and covenant, and fully establish presbyterian government, the directory of worship, confession of faith, and catechisms, in the kingdom of Seotland, as they are approved by the general assembly of this kirk, and parliament of this kingdom; and that I will give my royal assent to all acts of parliament passed, or to be passed, enjoining the same in my other dominions ; and that I shall observe these in my own practice and family, and shall never make opposition to any of these, or endeavor any change thereof." This oath was annexed to the covenant itself, drawn up in a fair roll of parchment, and subscribed by him in the presence of the nobility and gentry.*

His majesty also signed a declaration, in which he acknowledged the sin of his father in marrying into an idol.

$ The ceremonial of this coronation is given at length by Dr. Grey, vol. iij. p. 111–124. Ed.

* Oldmixou's History of the Stuarts, p. 391.

atrous family; and that the blood shed in the late wars lay at his father's door. He expressed a deep sense of his own ill education, and of the prejudices he bad drunk in, against the cause of God, of which he was now very sensible. He confessed all the former parts of his life to have been a course of enmity to the word of God. He repented of his commission to Montross. He acknowledged his own sins, and the sins of bis father's house, and says, he will account them his enemies who oppose the covenants, both which he had taken without any sinister intention of attaining his own ends. He declares his detestation and abhorrence of all popery, superstition, idolatry, and prelacy, and resolves not to tolerate them in any part of his dominions. He acknowledges his great sin in making peace with the Irish rebels, and allowing them the liberty of their religion, which he makes void resolving for the future rather to choose affliction than sin ; and though he judges charitably of those who have acted against the covenant, yet he promises not to employ them for the future till they have taken it. In the conclusion, his majesty confesses over again his own guilt; and tells the world, the state of the question was now altered, in as much as he had obtained mercy to be on God's side, and therefore hopes the Lord will be gracious, and countenance his own cause, since he is determined to do nothing but with advice of the kirk.

Our historians, who complain of the prevarication of Cromwell, would do well to find a parallel to this in all history; the king took the covenant three times with this tremendous oath, by the Eternal and Almighty God, who liveth and reigneth for ever, I will observe and keep all that is contained herein. Mr. Baxter admits,* that the Scots were in the wrong in tempting the young king to speak and publish that, which they might easily know was con+ History of the Stuarts, p. 387. Burnet, vol. i. p. 78, Edingb. edit.

** It seemed to me and many others,” says Mr. Baxter, “ that the Seots misearried divers ways: 1. In imposing laws upon their king, for which they had no anthority: 2. In forcing him to dishonor the inenory of his father by such confessions: 3. In tempting him to speak and publish that which they might easily know was contrary to his heart, and so to take God's name in vain : 4. And in giving Cromwell occasion to charge them all with dissinulation.” Baxter's Life, p. 66. Ed.

trary to the thoughts of his heart; but surely his majesty was no less to blame, to trample upon the most sacred bonds of religion and society. He complied with the rigors of the Scots discipline and worship: He heard many prayers and sermons of great length. “I remember (says bishop Burnet*) in one fast day, there were six serious preached without intermission. He was not allowed to walk abroad on Sundays; and if at any time there bad been any gaiety at court, as dancing, or playing at cards, he was severely reproved for it, which contributed not a little to beget in him an aversion to all strictness in religion." And the Scots were so jealous that all this was from necessity, that they would suffer none of his old friends to come into his presence and councils, nor so much as to serve in the army.

While the Scots were raising forces for the king's ser. vice, a private correspondence was carried on with the English presbyterians; letters were also written, and messengers sent from London to the king and queen-mother in France, to hasten an accommodation with the Scots, assur, ing them, that the English presbyterians would then declare for him the first opportunity. Considerable sums of money were collected privately to forward an expedition into England ; but the vigilance of the commonwealth dis. covered and defeated their designs. The principal gentlemen and ministers concerned in the correspoudence, were some disbanded officers who had served the parliament in the late wars; as major Adams, Alford and Huntingdon ; colonel Vaughan, Sowton, Titus, Jackson, Bains, Barton; captain Adams, Potter, Far, Massy, Starks; and Mr. Gibbons. The ministers were Dr. Drake, Mr. Case, Wat. son, Heyrick, Jenkins, Jackson, Jacquel, Robinson, Cawton, Nalson, Haviland, Blackmore, and Mr. Lore. These had their private assemblies at major Adams's colonel Barton's, and at Mr. Love's house, and held a correspondence with the king, who desired them to send commissioners to Breda, to moderate the Scots demands, which service he would reward when God should restore him to his king. doms.

But so numerous a confederacy was hardly to be conceal. ed from the watchful eyes of the new government, who

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