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new species ; and thus a new species man's investigations, by supposing that has to be regarded as the offspring of a every species has been produced by miraculous birth. We are as powerless ordinary generation from the species to explain by physical causes this mira- which previously existed. Such a supcle as we are any other. To hope for position is the only alternative for those an explanation would be as vain as for who reject the doctrine of creative the human mind to expect to discover by fiats. philosophy the agency by which Joshua We shall now proceed to expound the made the sun and moont stand still. Our

agency by which Mr. Darwin conceives ignorance, therefore, of the origin of that this development of new species species is absolute and complete, if every from previous ones has taken place. new species is supposed to require a dis- We think our exposition will indicate tinct and independent act of the will of the great difference between the specuan Omnipotent Creator. When it was lations of Mr. Darwin and those of other supposed that every heavenly body had theorisers upon the transmutation of its path guided by a direct omnipotent species, such as Lamarck and the author control, all are now ready to admit that of the “Vestiges of Creation.” But it the cause of the motion of these bodies

may perhaps conduce to clearness to rewas unknown, and that this want of mark beforehand upon a very unfair and knowledge was not the less complete very erroneous test which has been apbecause it was disguised under such ex- plied to Mr. Darwin's work. Every pressions as the harmonies of the uni- hostile criticism repudiates the theory, verse. Those, therefore, who attempt to because, as it is asserted, it is not based render unnecessary the belief in these upon a rigorous induction. There is continuously-repeated creative fiats, seek much philosophic cant about this rito explain hitherto unexplained pheno- gorous induction. An individual who mena of the highest order of interest is supremely ignorant of science finds no and importance in natural history. difficulty in uttering some such salvo as, Whenever this explanation shall have “This is not the true Baconian method.” been given, a similar service will have Such expressions, which too frequently been done to this science, as was per- are mere meaningless phrases, were reformed by Newton for astronomy, when peated ad nauseam at the British Assohe enunciated his law of gravitation. ciation. They are revived in an article Newton's discovery is now found in on Mr. Darwin in the Quarterly Review. numerous religious works as a favourite There we find it reiterated, “This is not illustration of the wisdom of the Cre- a true Baconian induction.” In reply to ator ; and it is now considered that a all this, it should at once be distinctly hymn of praise is sung to God when stated that Mr. Darwin does not pretend we expound the simplicity of the New- that his work contains a proved theory, tonian laws. The day will doubtless but merely an extremely probable hypocome when he who shall unfold, in all thesis. The history of science abuntheir full simplicity, the laws which dantly illustrates that through such a regulate the organic world, will be held, stage of hypothesis all those theories as Newton is now, in grateful remem- have passed which are now considered brance for the service he has done not most securely to rest on strict inductive only to science, but also to religion. principle. Dr. Whewell has remarked,

Aptly, indeed, has the origin of spe- “that a tentative process has been the cies been described as the mystery of first step towards the establishment of mysteries; for, as long as a phenomenon scientific truths.” Some association peris accounted for by creative fiats, it is chance, as the falling apple, first aroused enshrouded in a mystery which the hu- in Newton's mind a suspicion of the man mind is powerless to penetrate. existence of universal gravitation. He Mr. Darwin has endeavoured to bring then had no proof of the particular law this subject within the cognisance of of this gravitating force; he made several guesses. The inverse square was the special part in the controversy will only one which caused calculation to render science a great service if they agree with observation; the inverse resent bigoted prejudice, and earnestly square was therefore assumed to be the seek to give both parties in the dispute true law. The most complicated calcula

a fair hearing. tions were based upon this assumption; It has been previously remarked they have been carefully corroborated by that every species is composed of indiobservation, and in this manner the law viduals, which are grouped into varieties, of gravitation has been proved true be- these varieties being distinguished from yond all dispute. Those who attack the each other by a varying amount of difphilosophic method of Mr. Darwin ought ference. For instance, all the breeds of explicitly to state how they would pro- dogs are varieties of the same species. ceed to establish a theory on the origin The characteristic points of these breeds of species by what they term a rigorous strike the most casual observer. There is induction. Is such an example to be the utmost diversity in size; the heads vary found in the doctrine of creative fiats ? in form, the coats in colour and texture, The greatest of logicians has remarked, the legs in length; and animals varying “ The mode of investigation which, from in these respects inherit also different “the proved inapplicability of direct constitutions and different capabilities. “ methods of observation and experi- But all these breeds are considered to “ment, remains to us as the main source belong to the same species, because each “ of the knowledge we possess, or can variety of dog is perfectly fertile with “ acquire, respecting the conditions and every other. Now that it is found that “ laws of recurrence of the more complex a fertile cross can be with facility ob“phenomena, is called in its most gene- tained between the wolf and the dog, “ral expression the deductive method, these animals are classed in the same “and consists of three operations—the species. A less difference may very

first, one of direct induction; the reasonably be thought to exist between “second, of ratiocination; and the third, the horse and the ass than between the “ of verification.” The method here in- poodle and the mastiff ; but the mule, dicated Mr. Darwin has most rigorously which is the offspring of the horse and observed. A life devoted to the most the ass, is sterile, and therefore these careful scientific observations and experi- animals are regarded as distinct species. ments, and to the accumulation of a most The various breeds of dogs have been comprehensive knowledge of the details produced by a method with which, as of natural history, has suggested to Mr. applied to the varieties of other species, Darwin's mind a certain hypothesis with every agriculturist and gardener is perregard to the origin of species. The re- fectly familiar. Mr. Darwin supposes that sults which have been deduced from this a similar method is at work throughout hypothesis he has endeavoured to verify the whole range of animated nature. He by a comparison with observed phe- has himself for years made most care

Mr. Darwin has been himself ful experiments upon the breeding of most careful to point out that this veri- pigeons, and the art may be thus exfication is not yet complete. Until it plained :-Suppose a breeder is anxious becomes so, Mr. Darwin's theory must to produce pigeons with some particular be ranked as an hypothesis. The emi- characteristic, for instance, a short beak. nently high authorities who have already It is a law which is always in operation, welcomed Mr. Darwin's theory as a but which, at the same time, cannot be probable hypothesis, should induce the explained, that the offspring of the same general public to welcome it as a legiti- parents possess some individual differmate step towards a great scientific dis- ences. The most casual observer must covery; and those who cannot take any have remarked the many points of dif

ference which the same litter of pups 1 Mill's Logic, vol. i. book iii. chap. xi. p. 491. presents. Similarly, when a number of

nomena.

pigeons, the offspring of the same pa- variety of geranium is the result. Then rents, are minutely examined, it will be there will be no difficulty in perpetuating invariably found that there are already this variety by means of cuttings, which existing some slight points of diversity always produce plants true to the one in the particular organ which it is sought from which they have been taken. And still further to modify. If the object,

.

thus the horticulturists and the breeders therefore, is to produce short beaks, those of animals avail themselves of two uniyoung pigeons must be selected which versal laws of nature, which arehave the shortest beaks. Another univer- 1st. The constant tendency towards sal but still inexplicable law can be enun- individual variations. ciated, that individual peculiarities are 2dly. The constant tendency to ininheritable, and thus the young pigeons, herit individual peculiarities. which are bred from those which have These resources are supplied to man been previously selected for their short in the original constitution of organic beaks, will, on the average, possess shorter life, and enable varieties to be produced beaks than those which have been bred when the selection is directed by man's from unselected parents. A second se- intelligence. In nature, a selection canlection is now made. The shortest-beaked not be thus directed. Is there, therefore, birds are again reserved; and thus at in nature any such selection regulated last, by continuing the process, these by fixed laws ? Mr. Darwin maintains small differences will be constantly ac- that this power of selection is supplied cumulated, until at length the shortened by the struggle for life; and the main beak becomes a decided characteristic, fundamental object of his theory is, to and a new breed or variety will have been show that this struggle for existence is thus established. In this manner all our ever at work, constantly tending to probreeds of domestic animals and all our duce and to perpetuate, by definite laws, varieties of plants and flowers might varieties of organisms no less distinct have been produced. Thus a gardener and decided than those which man may have raised a plot of seedling gera- creates amongst domesticated animals niums from seed all taken from the and cultivated plants. same plant. The flowers and leaves of There are those who dispute whether these seedling geraniums will in all pro- the struggle for existence is capable bability present some points of difference of effecting all that Mr. Darwin attriin colour and size. It

may

butes to it; but the reality of this dener's object to produce a flower of struggle for existence throughout the some particular colour. Amongst his whole of nature is a demonstrated truth. seedlings he selects those which approach Mr. Darwin remarks : “ This struggle most nearly to this colour. Very possibly “ for existence inevitably follows from out of many hundreds he may find very “the high geometrical ratio of the infew which offer a sufficient approxima- "crease of all organic beings throughout tion. Let us suppose that he has selected “ the world.” This is the doctrine of two. As plants are more prolific when Malthus applied to the whole animal not fertilized with their own pollen, he and vegetable kingdoms. The mention fertilizes one of these geraniums with of Mr. Malthus will, we fear, not induce the pollen of the other. Amongst the

conviction ; for our leading public jourgeraniums which are raised from this nal, no doubt very accurately, re-echoed seed, only a few will probably possess the popular ignorance and prejudice any tendency towards the colour which with regard to Mr. Malthus, when he it is sought to produce. Those which was lately described as that “morose, exhibit the strongest tendency towards “hard-hearted old man, whose theories this colour are again preserved; the pro- now are entirely exploded.” But the cess is again repeated, until at length the intensity of the struggle for existence, skill of the gardener is rewarded, the necessitated by the laws of propagation

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guesses. The inverse square was the special part in the controversy will only one which caused calculation to render science a great service if they agree with observation; the inverse resent bigoted prejudice, and earnestly square was therefore assumed to be the

seek to give both parties in the dispute true law. The most complicated calcula- a fair hearing. tions were based upon this assumption; It has been previously remarked they have been carefully corroborated by that every species is composed of indiobservation, and in this manner the law viduals, which are grouped into varieties, of gravitation has been proved true be- these varieties being distinguished from yond all dispute. Those who attack the each other by a varying amount of difphilosophic method of Mr. Darwin ought ference. For instance, all the breeds of explicitly to state how they would pro- dogs are varieties of the same species. ceed to establish a theory on the origin The characteristic points of these breeds of species by what they term a rigorous strike the most casual observer. There is induction. Is such an example to be the utmost diversity in size; the heads vary found in the doctrine of creative fiats ? in form, the coats in colour and texture, The greatest of logicians has remarked, the legs in length; and animals varying “ The mode investigation which, from in these respects inherit also different “the proved inapplicability of direct constitutions and different capabilities. " methods of observation and experi- But all these breeds are considered to “ment, remains to us as the main source belong to the same species, because each “ of the knowledge we possess, or can variety of dog is perfectly fertile with "acquire, respecting the conditions and every other. Now that it is found that “ laws of recurrence of the more complex a fertile cross can be with facility ob“phenomena, is called in its most gene- tained between the wolf and the dog, “ral expression the deductive method, these animals are classed in the same " and consists of three operations—the species. A less difference may very “ first, one of direct induction; the reasonably be thought to exist between “second, of ratiocination; and the third, the horse and the ass than between the “ of verification.” The method here in- poodle and the mastiff ; but the mule, dicated Mr. Darwin has most rigorously which is the offspring of the horse and observed. A life devoted to the most the ass, is sterile, and therefore these careful scientific observations and experi- animals are regarded as distinct species. ments, and to the accumulation of a most The various breeds of dogs have been comprehensive knowledge of the details produced by a method with which, as of natural history, has suggested to Mr. applied to the varieties of other species, Darwin's mind a certain hypothesis with every agriculturist and gardener is perregard to the origin of species. The re- fectly familiar. Mr. Darwin supposes that sults which have been deduced from this a similar method is at work throughout hypothesis he has endeavoured to verify the whole range of animated nature. He by a comparison with observed phe- has himself for years made most carenomena. Mr. Darwin has been himself ful experiments upon the breeding of most careful to point out that this veri- pigeons, and the art may be thus exfication is not yet complete. Until it plained :-Suppose a breeder is anxious becomes so, Mr. Darwin's theory must to produce pigeons with some particular be ranked as an hypothesis. The emi- characteristic, for instance, a short beak. nently high authorities who have already It is a law which is always in operation, welcomed Mr. Darwin's theory as a but which, at the same time, cannot be probable hypothesis, should induce the explained, that the offspring of the same

, general public to welcome it as a legiti- parents possess some individual differmate step towards a great scientific dis

The most casual observer must covery ; and those who cannot take any have remarked the many points of dif

ference which the same litter of pups 1 Mill's Logic, vol. i. book iii. chap. xi. p. 491. presents. Similarly, when a number of

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pigeons, the offspring of the same pa- variety of geranium is the result. Then rents, are minutely examined, it will be there will be no difficulty in perpetuating invariably found that there are already this variety by means of cuttings, which existing some slight points of diversity always produce plants true to the one in the particular organ which it is sought from which they have been taken. And still further to modify. If the object, thus the horticulturists and the breeders therefore, is to produce short beaks, those of animals avail themselves of two uniyoung pigeons must be selected which versal laws of nature, which arehave the shortest beaks. Another univer- 1st. The constant tendency towards sal but still inexplicable law can be enun- individual variations. ciated, that individual peculiarities are 2dly. The constant tendency to ininheritable, and thus the young pigeons,

herit individual peculiarities. which are bred from those which have These resources are supplied to man been previously selected for their short in the original constitution of organic beaks, will, on the average, possess shorter life, and enable varieties to be produced beaks than those which have been bred when the selection is directed by man's from unselected parents. A second se- intelligence. In nature, a selection canlection is now made. The shortest-beaked not be thus directed. Is there, therefore, birds are again reserved; and thus at in nature any such selection regulated last, by continuing the process, these by fixed laws ? Mr. Darwin maintains small differences will be constantly ac- that this power of selection is supplied cumulated, until at length the shortened by the struggle for life ; and the main beak becomes a decided characteristic, fundamental object of his theory is, to and a new breed or variety will have been show that this struggle for existence is thus established. In this manner all our ever at work, constantly tending to probreeds of domestic animals and all our duce and to perpetuate, by definite laws, varieties of plants and flowers might varieties of organisms no less distinct have been produced. Thus a gardener and decided than those which man may have raised a plot of seedling gera- creates amongst domesticated animals niums from seed all taken from the and cultivated plants. same plant. The flowers and leaves of There are those who dispute whether these seedling geraniums will in all pro- the struggle for existence is capable bability present some points of difference of effecting all that Mr. Darwin attriin colour and size. It

may

butes to it; but the reality of this dener's object to produce a flower of struggle for existence throughout the some particular colour. Amongst his whole of nature is a demonstrated truth. seedlings he selects those which approach Mr. Darwin remarks : “ This struggle most nearly to this colour. Very possibly “for existence inevitably follows from out of many hundreds he may find very “the high geometrical ratio of the infew which offer a sufficient approxima- crease of all organic beings throughout tion. Let us suppose that he has selected “ the world." This is the doctrine of two. As plants are more prolific when Malthus applied to the whole animal not fertilized with their own pollen, he and vegetable kingdoms. The mention fertilizes one of these geraniums with of Mr. Malthus will, we fear, not induce the pollen of the other. Amongst the conviction ; for our leading public jourgeraniums which are raised from this nal, no doubt very accurately, re-echoed seed, only a few will probably possess the popular ignorance and prejudice any tendency towards the colour which with regard to Mr. Malthus, when he it is sought to produce. Those which was lately described as that “morose, exhibit the strongest tendency towards “hard-hearted old man, whose theories this colour are again preserved; the

pro

now are entirely exploded.” But the cess is again repeated, until at length the intensity of the struggle for existence, skill of the gardener is rewarded, the necessitated by the laws of propagation

be the gar

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