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city to which alone all others will any desire for liberty, assumes for a yield as a capital, the centre through people is the aspiration for independence, which alone there can be union between and, when this jars with the existing north and south ; and, whether a few organization of the state or government, months or a few years must yet elapse despotism and tyranny are necessary in before Italy shall take her place with self-defence. The aspiration towards sister European nations, in the interval liberty growing up in European popushe can know no repose.

lations is a sense of rights, duties, and Throughout this narrative we have a mission to fulfil in the national or colseen the national feeling gaining strength lective life as in the individual ; and for ever through alternate persecution they tend irresistibly to group themand attempts at conciliation.

selves in large masses or nationalities,

such as God suggests to them through And this is but the type of the na- an instinct in their hearts. This movetional thought that broods over Europe. ment is a progressive step for humanity. The Italian question cannot be isolated; It is the preparation of a soil in Europe the great struggle does but commence in which political liberty will at length in Italy. The Italian cause, perhaps, take root securely ; it heralds the inmost deserves our sympathy and study troduction of a new and better public as the exemplar of a wider movement. law—a law arising from this awakened Our statesmen, diplomatists, and others, understanding and moral sense, which who look to some local or transitory reject the doctrine that conquest or cause for insurrection or discontent, decrees of princes can entail any moral rather than to the working of great obligation of submission on the people principles, contrive to ignore the inhe- thus subjected or disposed of; and, inrent evils of the present European sys- stead of contriving an equipoise between tem, by assuming that the working of rival ambitions by giving some strong governments for good or evil does not place to one to balance some strong depend upon the construction of the place held by another, it would tend to state, or upon the just or unjust origin the formation of states having a defenof the ruling power; but the first form sive strength from an innate and natural that any sense of their own dignity, or cohesion in one collective life.

NOTE ON THE ARTICLE ON “THE AMMERGAU MYSTERY,” IN LAST

NUMBER OF THE MAGAZINE. In the account of the Ammergau represen- P. 465. I am told that both in Spain and Italy tation, contained in the last number of this dramatic representations of sacred subjects are Magazine, there were two or three errors (the still frequent. But in its leading characteristics result of its being transmitted from foreign the Ammergau Mystery is probably unique. parts), which it may be well to correct.

P. 465. The versified prologues of the P. 463. A complete collection of all the chorus were composed by Allioli, Dean of accounts of the Mystery, from 1820 to 1850, Augsburg, known as the author of the most has been published by Deutinger, Dean of popular Roman Catholic translation of the Munich.

Bible into German. P. 463. It was not till after this account P. 475. The last representation of the Amwas written, that I had the pleasure of seeing mergau spectacle in this year was on the 30th the excellent description of the spectacle by of September, in the presence of the King of a well-known hand in a letter to the Times, Bavaria. of September 4th, signed G. G.–Written at P. 477. The sentence at the foot of the the moment, and almost at the place, it con- page should run thus :veyed, more fully than could be the case with The more striking the representation, the any later narrative, the strength of the effect more salutary its effect on those for whom it produced. In all essential points I am glad is intended, the more forcibly we may be ourto find its coincidence with my own impression. selves impressed in witnessing it ;-80 much

P. 464. A general view of the first origin the more pointed does the lesson become, of of these mysteries is given in the very inte- the utter inapplicability of such a performance resting section on that subject in Dean Milman's to other times and places than its own.” "History of Latin Christianity," vol. vi p. 493.

A. P. S.

S.

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE.

DECEMBER, 1860.

A POPULAR EXPOSITION OF MR. DARWIN ON THE ORIGIN

OF SPECIES.

BY HENRY FAWCETT,

us

No scientific work that has been pub- of Species suggests for solution. And lished within this century has excited this cannot be done unless we possess a so much general curiosity as the treatise distinct conception of the words we of Mr. Darwin. It has for a time di- employ. Let therefore inquire, vided the scientific world into two great what is the meaning of the word contending sections. A Darwinite and species? The necessity of classifying an anti-Darwinite are now the badges the various objects in the animal and of opposed scientific parties. Each side vegetable kingdoms was fully recognised is ably represented. In the foremost by Socrates when he applied his dialectranks of the opposition against Dar- ical mode of investigation to test the win have already appeared Professor meaning of general terms.

The object Owen, Mr. Hopkins, Sir B. Brodie, and of classification was to carve out the Professor Sedgwick; whilst Professor organic world into distinct groups, each Huxley, Professor Henslowe, Dr. Hooker, of which possessed some common proand Sir Charles Lyell, have given the perty. Family” was the most comnew theory a support more or less de- prehensive, then “Genus," then “ · Specided. We shall endeavour most care- cies," and then “Variety.” A Family fully to avoid the partiality of partisan- would thus include many Genera, a ship ; and, as our object is neither to Genus many Species, and a Species attack nor to defend, but simply to

These divisions are expound, we shall have no necessity to to some extent arbitrary and artificial ; assume the tone of ungenerous hostility for in nature many of the distinctions, exhibited in the Edinburgh Review, which in certain cases seem most marked or to summon from theology the aspe- and decided, are not universally prerities contained in the Quarterly. Such served, but fade gradually away. Thus may be appropriate to controversy, but no distinction might appear to be more can give those who are unacquainted easily recognisable than that which with Mr. Darwin's work no idea of his exists between animals and vegetables ; theory; which, all must agree, has been but, as we descend to the less highlystated with the most perfect impartiality, organised forms of creation, the most and is the result of a life of most careful distinctive characteristics of animals and scientific study

vegetables become fainter, and at length It will be in the first place, advisable we meet with organisms with regard to to enunciate, as clearly as possible, the which even the highest scientific acumen problem which the treatise on the Origin finds it difficult to decide whether they

many Varieties.

city to which alone all others will any desire for liberty, assumes for a yield as a capital, the centre through people is the aspiration for independence, which alone there can be union between and, when this jars with the existing north and south ; and, whether a few organization of the state or government, months or a few years must yet elapse despotism and tyranny are necessary in before Italy shall take her place with self-defence. The aspiration towards sister European nations, in the interval liberty growing up in European popushe can know no repose.

lations is a sense of rights, duties, and Throughout this narrative we have a mission to fulfil in the national or colseen the national feeling gaining strength lective life as in the individual ; and for ever through alternate persecution they tend irresistibly to group themand attempts at conciliation.

selves in large masses or nationalities,

such as God suggests to them through And this is but the type of the na- an instinct in their hearts. This movetional thought that broods over Europe. ment is a progressive step for humanity. The Italian question cannot be isolated; It is the preparation of a soil in Europe the great struggle does but commence in which political liberty will at length in Italy. The Italian cause, perhaps, take root securely ; it heralds the inmost deserves our sympathy and study troduction of a new and better public as the exemplar of a wider movement. law—a law arising from this awakened Our statesmen, diplomatists, and others, understanding and moral sense, which who look to some local or transitory reject the doctrine that conquest or cause for insurrection or discontent, decrees of princes can entail any moral rather than to the working of great obligation of submission on the people principles, contrive to ignore the inhe- thus subjected or disposed of; and, inrent evils of the present European sys- stead of contriving an equipoise between tem, by assuming that the working of rival ambitions by giving some strong governments for good or evil does not place to one to balance some strong depend upon the construction of the place held by another, it would tend to state, or upon the just or unjust origin the formation of states having a defenof the ruling power; but the first form sive strength from an innate and natural that any sense of their own dignity, or cohesion in one collective life.

NOTE ON THE ARTICLE ON “THE AMMERGAU MYSTERY,” IN LAST

NUMBER OF THE MAGAZINE. In the account of the Ammergau represen. P. 465. I am told that both in Spain and Italy tation, contained in the last number of this dramatic representations of sacred subjects are Magazine, there were two or three errors (the still frequent. But in its leading characteristics result of its being transmitted from foreign the Ammergau Mystery is probably unique. parts), which it may be well to correct.

P. 465. The versified prologues of the P. 463. A complete collection of all the chorus were composed by Allioli, Dean of accounts of the Mystery, from 1820 to 1850, Augsburg, known as the author of the most has been published by Deutinger, Dean of popular Roman Catholic translation of the Munich.

Bible into German.
P. 463. It was not till after this account P. 475. The last representation of the Am-
was written, that I had the pleasure of seeing mergau spectacle in this year was on the 30th
the excellent description of the spectacle by of September, in the presence of the King of
a well-known hand in a letter to the Times, Bavaria
of September 4th, signed G. G.-Written at P. 477. The sentence at the foot of the
the moment, and almost at the place, it con- page should run thus :
veyed, more fully than could be the case with “The more striking the representation, the
any later narrative, the strength of the effect more salutary its effect on those for whom it
produced. In all essential points I am glad is intended, the more forcibly we may be our-
to find its coincidence with my own impression. selves impressed in witnessing it ;--80 much

P. 464. A general view of the first origin the more pointed does the lesson become, of
of these mysteries is given in the very inte- the utter inapplicability of such a performance
resting section on that subject in Dean Milman's to other times and places than its own.”
“History of Latin Christianity," vol. vi p. 493.

A. P. S.

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S.

MACMILLAN'S

MAGAZINE.

DECEMBER, 1860.

A POPULAR EXPOSITION OF MR. DARWIN ON THE ORIGIN

OF SPECIES.

BY HENRY FAWCETT.

us

No scientific work that has been pub- of Species suggests for solution. And lished within this century has excited this cannot be done unless we possess a so much general curiosity as the treatise distinct conception of the words we of Mr. Darwin. It has for a time di- employ. Let therefore inquire, vided the scientific world into two great what is the meaning of the word contending sections. A Darwinite and species? The necessity of classifying an anti-Darwinite are now the badges the various objects in the animal and of opposed scientific parties. Each side vegetable kingdoms was fully recognised is ably represented. In the foremost by Socrates when he applied his dialectranks of the opposition against Dar- ical mode of investigation to test the win have already appeared Professor meaning of general terms.

The object Owen, Mr. Hopkins, Sir B. Brodie, and of classification was to carve out the Professor Sedgwick; whilst Professor organic world into distinct groups, each Huxley, Professor Henslowe, Dr. Hooker, of which possessed some common proand Sir Charles Lyell, have given the perty. “Family” was the most comnew theory a support more or less de- prehensive, then “Genus,” then “Specided. We shall endeavour most care- cies,” and then “Variety.” A Family fully to avoid the partiality of partisan- would thus include many Genera, a ship; and, as our object is neither to Genus many Species, and a Species attack nor to defend, but simply to

many Varieties.

These divisions are expound, we shall have no necessity to to some extent arbitrary and artificial ; assume the tone of ungenerous hostility for in nature many of the distinctions, exhibited in the Edinburgh Review, which in certain cases seem most marked or to summon from theology the aspe

and decided, are not universally prerities contained in the Quarterly. Such served, but fade gradually away. Thus may be appropriate to controversy, but no distinction might appear to be more can give those who are unacquainted easily recognisable than that which with Mr. Darwin's work no idea of his exists between animals and vegetables ; theory; which, all must agree, has been but, as we descend to the less highlystated with the most perfect impartiality, organised forms of creation, the most and is the result of a life of most careful distinctive characteristics of animals and scientific study.

vegetables become fainter, and at length It will be, in the first place, advisable we meet with organisms with regard to to enunciate, as clearly as possible, the which even the highest scientific acumen problem which the treatise on the Origin finds it difficult to decide whether they are vegetables or animals. And, similarly, sight, appear to be a dispute about an it is impossible accurately to define the arbitrary classification, and it may natuexact amount or the exact kind of differ- rally be asked, Why, therefore, does the ence which is sufficient to place two problem of the Origin of Species assume organisms in two distinct Families or an aspect of supreme scientific interest ? two distinct Genera. This difficulty and The common assumption that species doubt increases as we descend to the are infertile with each other, and that lower classificatory divisions, and it is the descendants of any particular species admitted that it is impossible to frame always belong to that species, at once any exact definition of a specific differ- suggests this difficulty :—How can a new ence. This difficulty is strikingly ex- species be introduced into the world ? hibited in botany. A most eminent There is abundant evidence that new botanist, Mr. Bentham, maintains that species have been introduced. If we go there are only one thousand two hundred back to a comparatively modern geolospecies of English plants. An equally gical epoch, it will be found that all the high botanical authority, Mr. Babington, fossil animals belong to undoubtedly affirms that there are two thousand spe- distinct species from any which exist at cies. A similar difference of opinion the present time. This is admitted by exists amongst naturalists. For instance, every naturalist and geologist, whatever it was long a disputed point whether or may be his opinion on the origin of not the dog and wolf were varieties of species. The geological record shows one species.

us that past species have died out, and The following definition of a species that existing species have been gradually is sometimes given: that two animals introduced. What is the cause which or vegetables belong to different species has produced this extinction of species? when they are infertile with each other. What is the agency by which the new This hardly deserves the name of a defi- species have been placed upon the earth? nition. It is enunciated in deference to These are the questions to which Mr. pre-conceived notions, and assumes the Darwin has sought to give an answer. incorrectness of the theory which it is The same question has been asked again afterwards used to disprove. This defi- and again, and it admits only two kinds nition can manifestly have little influ- of answers. If the ordinary assumption ence in diminishing that difficulty, which is admitted that no two members of difhas been above alluded to, of deciding ferent species can be the progenitors of what is a specific difference ; for it re- a mixed race, and if it is also supposed quires a test which can rarely be applied that the descendants of any varieties of to the existing organic world, and is a particular species must always be entirely inapplicable to those numerous considered as belonging to this species, species which have passed away. Thus and that, however much in succeeding it would be almost impossible to ascertain ages such descendants may differ from whether different molluscs, or insects, or the parent stock, this difference can testacea, are fertile with each other; and, never entitle them to be ranked as manifestly, such an imperfect experiment distinct species--if these propositions in breeding cannot be made upon those are admitted, it then becomes quite animals and plants of which we have manifest that the statement that a new solely a geological record. Therefore it species has appeared is tantamount to would seem that the classification of the assertion that a living form has species must remain so arbitrary, that been introduced upon the earth which equally high scientific authorities may cannot have been generated from anycontinue to dispute whether the plants thing previously living. It therefore of a limited area like England should becomes necessary to suppose that the be held to constitute two thousand or same effort of Creative Will, which one thousand two hundred species. The originally placed life upon this planet, question of species may thus, at the first is repeated at the introduction of every

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