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dom of Naples; all Southern Italy once arms or ammunition prohibited ; and a gained over to the national cause through force of volunteers which was collecting, popular action, Venice would be attacked partly in the island of Sardinia, partly by sea and land, in concert with in- on the Tuscan frontier, and intended to ternal insurrection ; it was hoped that act in the Roman provinces and the Victor Emmanuel would be then forced Abruzzi, in concert with popular insurto cast in his lot unreservedly with the rection, was dispersed by order of the Italian people, lest he should lose the Government. But the population of prospect of the Italian crown; and the Umbria and the Marches was ripe for Italians of the North and South, thus insurrection; it might still rise even united, would say to Louis-Napoleon, without assistance, and the Dictatorship “Now deliver up to us our capital.”. of Garibaldi would extend into the The Sicilian insurrection succeeded. The Roman States. There was but one way immense difficulty of a first successful of preventing this for the Piedmontese outbreak—the obstacle before which the Government. The step seemed a bold plans of the party of action had so often one, but no doubt it had the sanction of failed-was overcome. The reader is fa- Louis-Napoleon--to occupy the ground miliar, through our press, with the series itself. Hence the invasion and occupaof successes by which Sicily and Naples tion of the Roman provinces. When have been revolutionized ; and a portion Garibaldi found himself thus shut out

l of the programme, laid down for the from the advance towards Venice, his movement from its commencement, is first idea seems to have been to turn to now fulfilled.

Rome. His proclamations clearly pointed At every step of its advance the party to this, and he still refused immediate of action has encountered the opposition, annexation. In a proclamation to the more or less direct, of the moderati. Palermitans on the 17th September, he When the insurrection first broke out in said : “At Rome only we will proclaim Sicily, they condemned it; but, when “the Italian kingdom. ... The annexasuccess seemed probable, they gave it “tion of Sicily was desired, in order to their approval,- for it is a necessity for “prevent me from passing the Straits: them, whenever, in spite of their teach- “the annexation of Naples is now wished ing, insurrection succeeds and some ad- “ for, that I may not pass the Volturno; vance is made, that they should advance “ but while there are chains in Italy to too in order to secure what is gained to “ break, I will advance.” He soon gave the monarchical interest; then theiroppo- way, however, at the appearance of decisition is directed against the next step. ded opposition from Piedmont. Perhaps Thus the Piedmontese Government per- he feared that, instead of drawing Piedmitted volunteers to embark for Sicily, but mont and its army with him if he adendeavoured to prevent the flame of revo- vanced, he might encounter open hoslution from extending into the kingdom tility. In a few weeks no doubt the of Naples. La Farina was sent to Sicily annexation will take place, and thus the by Cavour, to work in concert with the muderati will have succeeded in arresting local moderate or aristocratic element, the movement towards unity for a time. trying to hasten the vote of annexation, The prominent figure of the party of so as to deprive Garibaldi of Sicily as a action lately on the scene has been Garipoint d'appui for further operations. The baldi. He has advanced irresistible, surking also wrote to him to prevent his rounded by the glorious aureole of the crossing to the mainland. But Garibaldi Italian idea, the gaze of the multitude, was firni'; and, when it became certain the theme of Europe; but those who see that he would cross, the Piedmontese beyond the foreground of the picture, Government resolved at all events to pre- have beheld another figure—that of the vent his advancing into Central Italy. teacher and apostle of the idea of Italian All further enrolment or embarkation of unity, who, yielding to the general imvolunteers was stopped, all collections of pression that by coming forward he

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might excite hostility to the movement of the population of Central Italy, where on the part of Louis-Napoleon, or alarm the national sentiment was thoroughly those who fear the republican principle, awakened, and who saw the path towards has remained in the background, indif- unity in annexation to Piedmont, that ferent to his own position, and merging the danger was warded off. Thus the all thought of self in the great aim of real advance that was made still came his existence, but has still, neverthe- from the people. The party of action, less, inspired, projected, organized, and when raising the Italian banner nearly laboured on at his task.

thirty years ago, taught that a people Within the struggle for Italian na-, of five-and-twenty millions can be intionality we thus see the contest between dependent and united if they resolutely the conservative and the progressive ele- will it ; and they have striven both by ment among the Italians themselves— precept and example to arouse the Italians the latter, from its nature as essentially to a new life of energy. When the connected with any truly national move- brothers Bandiera, in 1844, said, “Italy ment, having been the real power which 6 will live when the Italians know how to has worked onwards towards its realiza- “die ; and to teach them that, there is tion. The Piedmontese monarchy and "nothing like example,” they but exthe moderati float on the summit of the pressed the spirit of self-sacrifice that wave and advance with it; but they have has breathed since in tens of thousands not caused its motion. Those English who have been ready always to risk their writers who assume that Victor Em- lives to form the forlorn hope of any manuel has for years encouraged the attempt at action. national aspiration, that he has led in- Before these pages are presented to the stead of following the movement, do but public, new events may have occurred, place him in an odious light, and confirm and it would be idle to speculate upon the charge brought against him by other the future beyond the anticipation of cerItalian rulers of an unscrupulous ambi- tain general results. At the recent opention, and of deliberately seeking self- ing of the Piedmontese Chamber, Cavour aggrandizement at their expense.

But declared that war against Austria would such a path was too full of danger to be displeasing to the great Powers, and have tempted him. It is only within a that an advance to Rome would be “ few months that Cavour has ventured to strous ingratitude” to Louis-Napoleon ; declare the policy of Piedmont to be for but it may safely be predicted that, should unity. At the congress of Paris in 1856 he attempt to arrest the movement behe spoke of impending revolution in yond the spring, he will fail. Even the Italy, but said nothing of the national attempt would endanger the monarchy. aspiration as its source, and even pro- Victor Emmanuel must advance, or the posed a further division of the Peninsula revolution will advance without him. The by forming the Legations into an eighth party of action will still agitate. Their cry Italian State. The terms of the alliance to the Government will be, “On, on, or arranged at Plombières were undoubtedly else we come.” The volunteers who have a simple increase of territory for each flocked to the side of Garibaldi have ally-Piedmont to be aggrandized at the fought neither for gold, nor a decoration, expense of Austria, France at that of

nor the smile of a prince ; they have but Piedmont or Italy. Though Italian na- one aim-Italian unity and independence. tionality was the war-cry against Austria, On embarking at Genoa their cry was, this meant only a federation of Italian “A Roma ! A Roma !” nor car there be States; and, whether Cavour did or did order or settled government in the south not hold out the prospect of a crown of until all Italy be free. The revolution Tuscany for Prince Napoleon as well as at Naples is not for annexation to Piedpromise Savoy and Nice to France, his mont, but to inerge with Piedmont in policy brought this danger upon Italy, Italy; and there is no Italy without

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city to which alone all others will any desire for liberty, assumes for a yield as a capital, the centre through people is the aspiration for independence, which alone there can be union between and, when this jars with the existing north and south ; and, whether a few organization of the state or government, months or a few years must yet elapse despotism and tyranny are necessary in before Italy shall take her place with self-defence. The aspiration towards sister European nations, in the interval liberty growing up in European popushe can know no repose.

lations is a sense of rights, duties, and Throughout this narrative we have a mission to fulfil in the national or colseen the national feeling gaining strength lective life as in the individual ; and for ever through alternate persecution they tend irresistibly to group themand attempts at conciliation.

selves in large masses or nationalities,

such as God suggests to them through And this is but the type of the na- an instinct in their hearts. This movetional thought that broods over Europe. ment is a progressive step for humanity. The Italian question cannot be isolated; It is the preparation of a soil in Europe the great struggle does but commence in which political liberty will at length in Italy.

The Italian cause, perhaps, take root securely ; it heralds the inmost deserves our sympathy and study troduction of a new and better public as the exemplar of a wider movement. law—a law arising from this awakened Our statesmen, diplomatists, and others, understanding and moral sense, which who look to some local or transitory reject the doctrine that conquest or cause for insurrection or discontent, decrees of princes can entail any moral rather than to the working of great obligation of submission on the people principles, contrive to ignore the inhe- thus subjected or disposed of; and, inrent evils of the present European sys- stead of contriving an equipoise between tem, by assuming that the working of rival ambitions by giving some strong governments for good or evil does not place to one to balance some strong depend upon the construction of the place held by another, it would tend to state, or upon the just or unjust origin the formation of states having a defenof the ruling power; but the first form sive strength from an innate and natural that any sense of their own dignity, or cohesion in one collective life.

NOTE ON THE ARTICLE ON “THE AMMERGAU MYSTERY," IN LAST

NUMBER OF THE MAGAZINE. In the account of the Ammergau represen- P. 465. I am told that both in Spain and Italy tation, contained in the last number of this dramatic representations of sacred subjects are Magazine, there were two or three errors (the still frequent. But in its leading characteristics result of its being transmitted from foreign the Ammergau Mystery is probably unique. parts), which it may be well to correct.

P. 465. The versified prologues of the P. 463. A complete collection of all the chorus were composed by Allioli, Dean of accounts of the Mystery, from 1820 to 1850, Augsburg, known as the author of the most has been published by Deutinger, Dean of popular Roman Catholic translation of the Munich.

Bible into German. P. 463. It was not till after this account P. 475. The last representation of the Amwas written, that I had the pleasure of seeing mergau spectacle in this year was on the 30th the excellent description of the spectacle by of September, in the presence of the King of a well-known hand in a letter to the Times, Bavaria of September 4th, signed G. G.–Written at P. 477. The sentence at the foot of the the moment, and almost at the place, it con- page should run thus :veyed, more fully than could be the case with The more striking the representation, the any later narrative, the strength of the effect more salutary its effect on those for whom it produced. In all essential points I am glad is intended, the more forcibly we may be our. to find its coincidence with my own impression. selves impressed in witnessing it ;-so much

P. 464. A general view of the first origin the more pointed does the lesson become, of of these mysteries given in the very inte- the utter inapplicability of such a performance resting section on that subject in Dean Milman's to other times and places than its own.” "History of Latin Christianity," vol. vi p. 433.

A. P. S.

s.

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE.

DECEMBER, 1860.

A POPULAR EXPOSITION OF MR. DARWIN ON THE ORIGIN

OF SPECIES.

BY HENRY FAWCETT.

us

No scientific work that has been pub- of Species suggests for solution. And lished within this century has excited this cannot be done unless we possess a so much general curiosity as the treatise distinct conception of the words we of Mr. Darwin. It has for a time di- employ. Let therefore inquire, vided the scientific world into two great what is the meaning of the word contending sections. A Darwinite and species? The necessity of classifying an anti-Darwinite are now the badges the various objects in the animal and of opposed scientific parties. Each side vegetable kingdoms was fully recognised is ably represented. In the foremost by Socrates when he applied his dialectranks of the opposition against Dar- ical mode of investigation to test the win have already appeared Professor meaning of general terms. The object Owen, Mr. Hopkins, Sir B. Brodie, and of classification was to carve out the Professor Sedgwick; whilst Professor organic world into distinct groups, each Huxley, Professor Henslowe, Dr. Hooker, of which possessed some common proand Sir Charles Lyell, have given the perty. Family” was the most comnew theory a support more or less de- prehensive, then “Genus,” then “Specided. We shall endeavour most care- cies,” and then “Variety.” A Family fully to avoid the partiality of partisan- would thus include many Genera, a ship ; and, as our object is neither to Genus many Species, and a Species attack nor to defend, but simply to

These divisions are expound, we shall have no necessity to to some extent arbitrary and artificial ; assume the tone of ungenerous hostility for in nature many of the distinctions, exhibited in the Edinburgh Review, which in certain cases seem most marked or to summon from theology the aspe- and decided, are not universally prerities contained in the Quarterly. Such served, but fade gradually away. .

Thus may be appropriate to controversy, but no distinction might appear to be more can give those who are unacquainted easily recognisable than that which with Mr. Darwin's work no idea of his exists between animals and vegetables ; theory; which, all must agree, has been but, as we descend to the less highlystated with the most perfect impartiality, organised forms of creation, the most and is the result of a life of most careful distinctive characteristics of animals and scientific study.

vegetables become fainter, and at length It will be, in the first place, advisable we meet with organisms with regard to to enunciate, as clearly as possible, the which even the highest scientific acumen problem which the treatise on the Origin finds it difficult to decide whether they

many Varieties.

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city to which alone all others will any desire for liberty, assumes for a yield as a capital, the centre through people is the aspiration for independence, which alone there can be union between and, when this jars with the existing north and south ; and, whether a few organization of the state or government, months or a few years must yet elapse despotism and tyranny are necessary in before Italy shall take her place with self-defence. The aspiration towards sister European nations, in the interval liberty growing up in European popushe can know no repose.

lations is a sense of rights, duties, and Throughout this narrative we have a mission to fulfil in the national or colseen the national feeling gaining strength lective life as in the individual ; and for ever through alternate persecution they tend irresistibly to group themand attempts at conciliation.

selves in large masses or nationalities,

such as God suggests to them through And this is but the type of the na- an instinct in their hearts. This movetional thought that broods over Europe. ment is a progressive step for humanity. The Italian question cannot be isolated; It is the preparation of a soil in Europe the great struggle does but commence in which political liberty will at length in Italy. The Italian cause, perhaps, take root securely ; it heralds the inmost deserves our sympathy and study troduction of a new and better public as the exemplar of a wider movement. law—a law arising from this awakened Our statesmen, diplomatists, and others, understanding and moral sense, which who look to some local or transitory reject the doctrine that conquest or cause for insurrection or discontent, decrees of princes can entail any moral rather than to the working of great obligation of submission on the people principles, contrive to ignore the inhe- thus subjected or disposed of; and, inrent evils of the present European sys- stead of contriving an equipoise between tem, by assuming that the working of rival ambitions by giving some strong governments for good or evil does not

place to one to balance some strong depend upon the construction of the place held by another, it would tend to state, or upon the just or unjust origin the formation of states having a defenof the ruling power; but the first form sive strength from an innate and natural that any sense of their own dignity, or cohesion in one collective life.

NOTE ON THE ARTICLE ON “THE AMMERGAU MYSTERY," IN LAST

NUMBER OF THE MAGAZINE. In the account of the Ammergau represen- P. 465. I am told that both in Spain and Italy tation, contained in the last number of this dramatic representations of sacred subjects are Magazine, there were two or three errors (the still frequent. But in its leading characteristics result of its being transmitted from foreign the Ammergau Mystery is probably unique. parts), which it may be well to correct.

P. 465. The versified prologues of the P. 463. A complete collection of all the chorus were composed by Allioli, Dean of accounts of the Mystery, from 1820 to 1850, Augsburg, known as the author of the most has been published by Deutinger, Dean of popular Roman Catholic translation of the Munich.

Bible into German. P. 463. It was not till after this account P. 475. The last representation of the Amwas written, that I had the pleasure of seeing mergau spectacle in this year was on the 30th the excellent description of the spectacle by of September, in the presence of the King of a well-known hand in a letter to the Times, Bavaria. of September 4th, signed G. G.–Written at P. 477. The sentence at the foot of the the moment, and almost at the place, it con- page should run thus :veyed, more fully than could be the case with “ The more striking the representation, the any later narrative, the strength of the effect more salutary its effect on those for whom it produced. In all essential points I am glad is intended, the more forcibly we may be our. to find its coincidence with my own impression. selves impressed in witnessing it ;-80 much

P. 464. A general view of the first origin the more pointed does the lesson become, of of these mysteries is given in the very inte- the utter inapplicability of such a performance resting section on that subject in Dean Milman's to other times and places than its own.” "Iistory of Latin Christianity," vol. vi p. 493.

A. P. S.

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