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So, when the boatmen ceased, and watery slips,

Red-glazed with sunset, faded in the sands,
Grey Ronald stood apart with murmuring lips;

Then, smit with passion, raised his voice and hands :
“Within the awful midnight of the sea,

“Where nothing moves, these twain have found a grave : “ Was it for this on windless nights to me

“The fatal glow-worms glimmered on the wave ? “Though not for us that tender cure of grief,

“ When the red naked grave that jars and stings “ Falls from its shape, and, greening leaf by leaf,

“Melts in the mass of long-familiar things, “Until, upon a sunny Sabbath day,

“ Within the grassy churchyard friends will stand,
“ With no sharp pang that the low-mounded clay

“Once laughed aloud and gave a friendly hand-
“Though from our hearts Time never thus will lure

“Remembrance, yet we know the twain that fled,
" Happier than we, inherit the secure

And measureless contentment of the dead ;
“That they, knit up by death from strokes of ill,

“Are with us, fairer, nobler than before,
“Sweet Oona in the sunrise on the hill,

“ Brown Torquil in the murmur of the shore.
“When the innumerous snow-flake blinds the vale,

"And wreaths are spinning o'er the huddled sheep,
“When the long reef of breakers in the gale

“Roars for men's lives, they dwell in happy sleep. “Think of them when the summer sunset flares

“Down through the world of waters in the west, “ And when from shore to shore the ocean wears

“A mesh of glittering moonlight on its breast."

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The history of Italy for nearly half a intelligence, and worth, perishing on the century presents a picture of continued scaffold, cast into dungeons, or driven revolutionary agitation. In the intervals into exile. But, while we have watched between open insurrection, repeated con- with attention the superficial phenomena spiracies have still shown the volcanic —the facts as they occurred—the ideas fire smouldering under compression; and, that generate these facts, the true springs periodically, our sympathy and indigna- of action that work beneath the surface, tion have at once been raised by be- have been but little understood or Her fathers slept within a desert isle,

The dreariest mustering place of sullen waves, In midst whereof a grey religious pile

Looks through the misty wind that shrills and raves. A broken wall surrounds the field of dead ;

The gate stands open for no man to pass;
And carven crosses with their runes unread

Lie sunken in a sea of withered grass.
And thither will they bear her; for the Celt,

Although his track comes reddening down with feud From out the sunrise, evermore has felt,

Like a religion, ties and dues of blood. The simple people stood around the doors,

And, in the splendour of the morn, a line Of drying nets flapped round the idle shores ;

Brown dulse-beds glistened in the heaving brine. The kinsmen bore the body to the strand;

Within the boat full tenderly 'twas laid,
And, lying there, some reverential hand

Around the coffin wrapt her lover's plaid.
And onward sailed the bark, the while the crowd,

Ranged on the shore, a decent silence kept;
And, while it hung a speck ’twixt wave and cloud,

A mother, lingering, sea-ward looked and wept.
And, when the day along the splintered line

Of purple Coolin sank divinely fair,
And homeward lowed the mighty-uddered kine,

And the long rookery creaked through coloured air, The men returned. As at a witch's call

A tempest rose, they told, and, as it came Blackening, it broke, and through the solid squall

Fluttered the linked and many-sheeted flame; And some one cried, “ 'Tis Torquil claims the dead ;"

And how, when in the wave the corse they threw, The darkness cracked in sunshine over head,

And ocean glittered ’neath the sudden blue. And one stood listening to the simple folk

Old Ronald, by a century of woe Made hoary as a lichen-bearded rock,

Bent like a branch beneath a load of snow. He once beheld along the making tide

Pale death-fires burning for a boat, which then Waited, safe-moored, for bridegroom and for bride,

Grave priest, and troops of dancing maids and men. Oft sitting by the fire on winter nights,

When round the huts the wind a descant sung Of wrecks and drowning men, disastrous sights

And ancient battles lived upon his tongue.

So, when the boatmen ceased, and watery slips,

Red-glazed with sunset, faded in the sands,
Grey Ronald stood apart with murmuring lips ;

Then, smit with passion, raised his voice and hands :
“Within the awful midnight of the sea,

“Where nothing moves, these twain have found a grave : “ Was it for this on windless nights to me

“The fatal glow-worms glimmered on the wave ? “Though not for us that tender cure of grief,

“ When the red naked grave that jars and stings “Falls from its shape, and, greening leaf by leaf,

“Melts in the mass of long-familiar things, “Until, upon a sunny Sabbath day,

“ Within the grassy churchyard friends will stand, “With no sharp pang that the low-mounded clay

“Once laughed aloud and gave a friendly hand“Though from our hearts Time never thus will lure

“Remembrance, yet we know the twain that fled,
"Happier than we, inherit the secure

“ And measureless contentment of the dead;
“That they, knit up by death from strokes of ill,

Are with us, fairer, nobler than before-
"Sweet Oona in the sunrise on the hill,

“ Brown Torquil in the murmur of the shore.
“When the innumerous snow-flake blinds the vale,

“And wreaths are spinning o'er the huddled sheep, ,
“When the long reef of breakers in the gale

“Roars for men's lives, they dwell in happy sleep. “Think of them when the summer sunset flares

“Down through the world of waters in the west, “And when from shore to shore the ocean wears

A mesh of glittering moonlight on its breast."

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ITALIAN UNITY AND THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT IN EUROPE

BY JOHN SALE BARKER.

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“Il bel paese ch’ Apennin parte
Il mar circonda e l'Alpe."

PETRARCH. The history of Italy for nearly half a intelligence, and worth, perishing on the century presents a picture of continued scaffold, cast into dungeons, or driven revolutionary agitation. In the intervals into exile. But, while we have watched between open insurrection, repeated con- with attention the superficial phenomena spiracies have still shown the volcanic the facts as they occurred—the ideas fire smouldering under compression; and, that generate these facts, the true springs periodically, our sympathy and indigna- of action that work beneath the surface, tion have at once been raised by be- have been but little understood or been led astray by applying to Italy of aggrandisement dictated; and it was ideas formed on the traditions and considered that a right of possession was wants of their own country. While the thus conferred which was good, not Italians have been yearning for national merely against a fresh invader, or other existence and for redemption from the princes who had been parties to such yoke of the foreigner and the priest, treaties, but against any resistance or they have been accustomed to hear from assertion of independence on the part England the reiterated recommendation of the people thus disposed of. It was to imitate the English form of govern- a principle of public law invented by ment. It is only of late that our states- conquerors for their own advantage only; men and our press have yielded to the and it aimed at the equalization, not the irresistible evidence of events, and begun prevention, of conquest. It was not to recognise the truth that this prolonged even an improvement on the past. The revolutionary agitation is not mere rest- conqueror of an earlier epoch might iveness under oppression, but has been boast that what he had won by the working always towards a definite goal. sword he would keep by the sword; but

Not only has every movement, in even here the evil resided in a man whatever part of the peninsula, during rather than a system. It was the fact the last thirty or forty years, sprung of conquest; but European diplomacy more or less directly from one common invented possession by right of consource, but the Italian movement itself quest. In the name of the balance is only the most advanced manifestation of power, a system of public law was of one which is extending over half the introduced by which the principle that Continent, and which we know as the the ruling power should come from movement for nationality.

within and not be imposed on a people

from without—the principle which is For the origin of the national move- not only the foundation of political ment in Europe, we must turn for a liberty, but which evidently constitutes moment to consider the nature of those the only moral restraint upon conquest principles or agencies which have pre- —was not merely evaded or broken sided in the construction of states and through, but intended to be superseded. establishment of governments through- Not only has the effect of this system out a great part of Europe. Some three in working been to sanction, and even centuries ago

rival conquerors in Europe extend foreign domination in its most hit upon the expedient of making peace direct and offensive form; but generally, between themselves by a partition of throughout those parts of Europe which their spoil and an equalization of their have been most frequently the scene of respective strength. This “balance of

the central struggle between rival conpower” gradually became recognised as querors, it has led to the arbitrary imthe public law of Europe ; and, as its position of the ruling dynasties upon necessary basis, it caused the introduc- their subjects, and tended to promote tion of the doctrine that two or more such a formation of states as never could great sovereigns, by agreement with each have grown up spontaneously, from other, might arrange states, appoint similarity either of race, language, or relirulers, and dispose of the peoples of gion, or from geographical boundaries. Europe as they pleased. As often as These states, thus existing by no law peace was made upon this principle, it from within, are only maintained artibecame in effect å coalition of a few ficially in existence by pressure from great sovereigns, whose joint decrees without. They are, in fact, but royal were irresistible. European populations dynasties at the head of military estawere awarded as prizes or divided as a blishments ; and whatever modifies this prey-exchanged, sold, distributed, and character weakens the only ingredient re-distributed, as the mutual jealousy of in the composition which keeps the rest these sovereigns or their common desire in combination, or prevents the whole from merging in some other state. In length to pass into the heart of the the construction of these states, the people as a consequence of the changes populations have been regarded as little which took place in Italy during the else than the passive human material sixteenth century—which may be said, or the means of revenue for the main- speaking generally, to be the epoch of tenance of armies; and, wherever they the loss of independence for the Italians. have awakened into life and begun to The excess of vitality, the individual think, or their voice is permitted to be energy, the love of liberty which characheard, a revolutionary tendency to new terised the Italians of the middle ages, arrangements immediately shows itself. and which were the source of their

The movement for nationality is marvellous genius and their rapid growing up as a reaction against this strides in civilization, tended to impede system in those populations which have their union by the formation of many been treated only as prizes to be fought centres of activity. In other parts of for in the field, and intrigued for in the Europe, as the feudal system declined, cabinet. It is at once the effect and the vast military despotisms were forming symbol of progress—a re-awakening in by conquest or absorption out of more some races, a first awakening in others, passive or servile materials ; and in the

a of a sentiment of self-respect. Slowly, sixteenth century the armies of Austria, but surely, has the day of settlement France, and Spain burst at once upon been coming on, and the Europe of the Italy—a fresh irruption of barbarians, future now clashes with the Europe of attracted by a civilization superior to the past. The movement is based essen

their own.

In the same century, also, tially upon the aspiration after freedom Clement VII. commenced the alliance from foreign domination, direct or indi- of the Papacy with European despotism. rect; it is for nationality and indepen- Then foreign domination fell upon the dence, the former as the safeguard of the Italians, crumbling by its weight their latter. The love of liberty in the middle old animosities into dust, and the work ages sometimes led to a municipal rather of amalgamation into one people inthan a national spirit; but, in the pre- stinctively began. Italy writhed and sence of the existing system, and of the struggled for a time under the iron heel great military empires that have grown of her tormentors, and then sank into up, an instinctive sense of what gives the apathy of exhaustion or despair. strength and independence leads to the For nearly three centuries her populacomposition of masses strong enough for tion seemed resigned to be alternately self-defence, but still having a spon- torn as a prey and distributed as prizes taneous cohesion of their parts.

by foreign powers, with scarcely vitality

enough remaining for a consciousness of Let us now turn from the principle to their degradation. But under this stillits practical illustration in one part of ness the germs of a new life were formEurope, and trace the gradual develop- ing. Their moral union was hastened ment of the national tendency among by the arbitrary divisions and redivithe Italians. From the Consul Crescenzio sions that were forced upon them; to Julius the Second, from Dante to they learnt that union was a necessity Machiavelli, many of the profound for self-defence, the safeguard of indethinkers among the Italians of the mid- pendence; and, wherever a sentiment of dle ages

cherished the idea of the one- self-respect, a thought of liberty, or a ness of Italy, and felt that their country, longing for independence revived, some bounded by the Alps and the sea, was vague aspiration towards Italian nationmarked by the hand of God to become ality rose with it. the abode of one people. The national After the last distribution of the Itaaspiration had thus early taken some lians by the congress of Vienna in 1815, form in the conception of great men of the general discontent found vent in con

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