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servant of the infamous Surajah Dowlah. used as a class-book, compulsory on all When about forty years old his belief the pupils ; whereas the Government in Hinduism was shaken, and he gave college is supported by larger fees, and 500 rupees to the erection of a new by the funds of the state, and the church in Calcutta. After recovering Bible may only be taught to voluntary from a serious illness he resolved, as a classes, either before or after the regular token of thankfulness, to found a school school hours. There are other schools at Benares, and, by the advice of Arch- for Christian children only, which with deacon (afterwards Bishop) Corrie, made the missionaries' bungalows and native it over to the diocesan committee of the Christian cottages form a group

of Church Missionary Society as its trus- buildings clustering round the mission tees and governors.1

The building, church. The staff of Church of England though of no architectural pretensions, missionaries at Benares is large. They yet, with its separate class-rooms opening divide among themselves the work of into verandahs, is better adapted to its education, of vernacular preaching in purpose than the Gothic aspirations of the bazaars and native villages, of conthe Government college. The first class versation with inquirers, and of the was decidedly inferior to the Govern- pastoral superintendence of their conment pupils in English literature, but verts; and to these labours their whole acquitted themselves well in the plain time, and sometimes more than their parts of Scripture and English history. whole strength, are devoted in the true The school, or lower department, is spirit of willing self-sacrifice. At their under a native Christian head master, head is one of the best Urdu and Hindi who seemed well suited for his work, scholars in India, an author in both lanand is highly spoken of by the mis- guages. His last work is a lively and sionaries and by the Government in- fanciful sketch of a dream, in which an spector, who examines Jay Narain's old inhabitant of Benares sees India conperiodically. The map drawing and verted to Christianity ; hears a sermon English writing were here remarkably by the Bishop of Ghazipur, who is on good.

a visit to his brother of Benares ; adAnother educational institution of mires the various institutions which importance is the school for native girls have arisen since the city became Chrisin the city, superintended by the wife tian – the cathedral, the university, the of the senior missionary. She painfully blind asylum, the museum ; and combut most laudably gathers them into pares the evils of the old religion with her fold by paying women to go daily

the fresh life infused into India by the from house to house and bring them. The process is necessary, for while But, though this is a consummation female education is perhaps the greatest for which all Christians must watch and want of India, there is no institution of pray, it seems at present but a dream. the Feringhis which the Hindus regard The converts of Benares form a fair with greater suspicion. Yet till some congregation, chiefly from the peasantry, progress is made in it life is poisoned at but are as a drop to the ocean when its very source, and the mother is a mere compared with the followers of Shiva spring of moral evil to her child. The and of Mohammed. Doubtless there is average attendance at this school is about among these poor native Christians eighty. These two missionary schools much ignorance and much sin, just as are for all comers of all creeds, and are there is in an English country village. supported by Jay Narain's endowment, Yet it is a great thing that the true by subscriptions, by small fees from a rule of life, and the true ground of hope, portion of the pupils, and by a grant in is placed before them and their children. aid from Government—the Bible being And there are among them some for

whose life and conversation any Chris

new.

less degradation! First, something, it might be. The whole length of the may be hoped, is effected by the vigor- building is occupied by one large handous maintenance of law and order. We some schoolroom, with class-rooms openhave taught the professors of the two ing out of it on either side, the partitions great rival religions of India, that theo- being only carried up half-way, so that logical discussions are not to be carried the noise of the great school distracts on by flinging beef down the wells the class-rooms, and of the class-rooms attached to Hindu temples, or

rk into

the great school. We found the first the Mussulmans' mosques. We have class deep in Macbeth. Their English shown them that tumult and disorder was not very fluent, but they seemed will not succeed in lowering the price to understand the language well, for of grain. We set them an example of they explained to us very readily that the undaunted performance of duty, puzzling passage :when in the time of greatest danger, in 1857, no magistrate would consent to

“If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere

well abandon his post, and a missionary

It were done quickly : if the assassination volunteered to perform the functions of Could trammel upon the consequence, and the vacant chaplaincy, and to remain in catch, Benares for the purpose of administering

With his surcease, success : that but this blow

Might be the be-all and the end-all here, comfort, help, and divine counsel to the

But here, upon this bank and shoal of time, English soldiers and residents. At the

We'd jump the life to come. time when the sepoy huts were blazing on the maidan, and the green flag float- A very interesting part of the instituing in the city, and the 37th Native tion was the Sanscrit department, where Infantry refused to pile their arms, we

aged Pandits with white beards were showed them that active courage was

teaching just as they did before the another essential element in national English ráj was thought of; the pupils greatness, by restoring the British au- all seated on the ground, working mathority in three hours, and driving from thematics on sanded boards, or reading the station the remnant of the mutineers, poetry and philosophy on long loose in terror-stricken flight. Whatever may strips held together by two pieces of be the faults of our courts of justice, wood. Some sway their bodies backarising from ignorance of the native wards and forwards as they work, and character, and our confidence in dis- repeat the poetry in a monotonous singhonest subordinates, it is at least some- song. Into this branch of the college thing that the Hindus feel a European reform has to be introduced warily : the civil officer to be absolutely incorrupti- stricter Pandits regard even the knowble. Again, native hospitals and dis- ledge of English as profane. Yet some pensaries prove that our Government consent to learn it. One of them, a does not neglect the bodily sufferings of teacher of mathematics, is translating its subjects, and, above all, our care for into English for the Bibliotheca Indica them is shown by education and mis- a Sanscrit work on astronomy, and sionary work, though in the latter the showed us the proof-sheets. “What is Government properly refuses to take its date ?” asked one of our party. The part.

English professor who was with us inThere are two great colleges in Be- terposed, and told us in a low voice that nares, the one administered by Gover- this was an awkward question to put to ment, the other by the Church Missionary him, for the Pandits taught that the Society. The first is a somewhat pre- treatise had been revealed by the Sun tentious Gothic building, with a dumpy himself, and was anterior to all time. tower in the middle. The internal The other college is called Jay arrangements are not so good as they Narain's. Its founder was a wealthy

native, unbaptized, but inclining to 1 Bishop Heber's Journal, ch. xiii. Christianity, born A.D. 1752, and a

a group of

servant of the infamous Surajah Dowlah. used as a class-book, compulsory on all When about forty years old his belief the pupils; whereas the Government in Hinduism was shaken, and he gave college is supported by larger fees, and 500 rupees to the erection of a new by the funds of the state, and the church in Calcutta. After recovering Bible may only be taught to voluntary from a serious illness he resolved, as a classes, either before or after the regular token of thankfulness, to found a school school hours. There are other schools at Benares, and, by the advice of Arch- for Christian children only, which with deacon (afterwards Bishop) Corrie, made the missionaries' bungalows and native it over to the diocesan committee of the Christian cottages form Church Missionary Society as its trus- buildings clustering round the mission tees and governors.1

The building, church. The staff of Church of England though of no architectural pretensions, missionaries at Benares is large. They yet, with its separate class-rooms opening divide among themselves the work of into verandahs, is better adapted to its education, of vernacular preaching in purpose than the Gothic aspirations of the bazaars and native villages, of conthe Government college. The first class versation with inquirers, and of the was decidedly inferior to the Govern- pastoral superintendence of their conment pupils in English literature, but verts; and to these labours their whole acquitted themselves well in the plain time, and sometimes more than their parts of Scripture and English history. whole strength, are devoted in the true The school, or lower department, is spirit of willing self-sacrifice. At their under a native Christian head master, head is one of the best Urdu and Hindi who seemed well suited for his work, scholars in India, an author in both lanand is highly spoken of by the mis- guages. His last work is a lively and sionaries and by the Government in- fanciful sketch of a dream, in which an spector, who examines Jay Narain's old inhabitant of Benares sees India conperiodically. The map drawing and verted to Christianity ; hears a sermon English writing were here remarkably by the Bishop of Gházipúr, who is on good.

a visit to his brother of Benares ; adAnother educational institution of mires the various institutions which importance is the school for native girls have arisen since the city became Chrisin the city, superintended by the wife tian – the cathedral, the university, the of the senior missionary. She painfully blind asylum, the museum ; and combut most laudably gathers them into pares the evils of the old religion with her fold by paying women to go daily the fresh life infused into India by the from house to house and bring them. The process is necessary, for while But, though this is a consummation female education is perhaps the greatest for which all Christians must watch and want of India, there is no institution of pray, it seems at present but a dream. the Feringhis which the Hindus regard The converts of Benares form a fair with greater suspicion. Yet till some congregation, chiefly from the peasantry, progress is made in it life is poisoned at but are as a drop to the ocean when its very source, and the mother is a mere compared with the followers of Shiva spring of moral evil to her child. The and of Mohammed. Doubtless there is average attendance at this school is about among these poor native Christians eighty. These two missionary schools much ignorance and much sin, just as are for all comers of all creeds, and are there is in an English country village. supported by Jay Narain's endowment, Yet it is a great thing that the true by subscriptions, by small fees from a rule of life, and the true ground of hope, portion of the pupils, and by a grant in is placed before them and their children. aid from Government—the Bible being And there are among them some for

whose life and conversation any Chris

new.

a

especially, a Mahratta Brahman, who was known to some persons in England when he visited it as the Pandit of the Maharaja Dhulip Singh, and now works under the Benares missionaries as catechist, unites the most earnest conscientiousness and simple-minded humility to varied and thoughtful learning. Truly such men are in Hindostan the salt of the earth and the light of the world ; and though as yet perhaps their influence is little felt, yet to increase their number must be the earnest effort of our missionaries, or rather of all true Christians, for to them we niust look as the instruments through whom the English nation may hope to accomplish the noblest and holiest work which God has given us to do—the conversion of India to the faith of Christ.

G. E. L. C.

Note on Jay Narain's Foundation.The following extracts from a letter, dated August, 1818, and preserved in the records of Jay Narain's College, are interesting as recording some of the feelings and struggles of an educated Hindu, desirous of enlightenment for himself and his countrymen. The writer never made up his mind publicly to profess Christianity, and died without baptism.

“ It is now many years since I fell “ very ill, and, leaving Calcutta, came to “ reside at Benares, where I used every

possible means known to Hindus in “ order to get well. Mr. Duncan, who

was at that time Resident at Benares, " and was my particular friend, pro" cured for me also the assistance of “ several European surgeons, who were “ not able to afford me relief. At length "a Hindu, who had been very ill, pro“cured some medicine and advice from “ a merchant, Mr. Wheatly, by which “ he obtained a

On this I “ also sought acquaintance with Mr. " Wheatly.

He gave me a New Tes“tament, and I bought of him a Book “ of Common Prayer. He often passed “ much time with me in explaining the

meaning of these books, and wrote many letters also to me on the subject

" of the Christian religion. In respect “of my complaint, he recommended "some simple medicines, but advised, “ above all, that I should apply myself “ to God in prayer, to lead my mind “ into the truth, and to grant me bodily “ healing. I complied with his advice, , " and obtaine a perfect cure. I then “ asked him what I should do for the

name of Jesus Christ. He advised " that as I had felt the benefit of the “ advice which he had given, I ought to “ consult the benefit of my countrymen, " and with this view found a school for “ education in English, Bengali, Per

sian, and Hindi. In compliance with “Mr. Wheatly's advice, I set about " establishing such a school, and with “ the help of my friends raised a fund " to supply 200 rupees a month for the “ endowment of it. Afterwards, Mr. “ Wheatly, failing in business, became “ himself the first schoolmaster. His “ plan was first to instruct my family “ in Christianity, and pray with them; " and then to teach the English lan“guage to the scholars who attended. “He continually taught me that from "joining in prayer and reading the

scriptures no loss of caste was in

volved, but piety would be increased. “ After a short time Mr. Wheatly “ died. ... I had heard through him “ of the Rev. Mr. Corrie, and through “ him had sent a small donation with a “ letter to the British and Foreign Bible

Society. I often prayed that he might come to Benares ; and at length he

came to reside at this place. From “ the information communicated by him “respecting the Church Missionary So“ ciety . . . I determined upon making “ the Calcutta committee of that society “ the trustees of my school, . . . and “ legal measures are in progress for “ transferring the school endowment “ permanently into their hands. In the “ meantime, my house in Bengali Tolah, “ which cost me 48,000 rupees in build

ing, has been appropriated for the “school-house, and Mr. Adlington has “ begun to give instruction in the

1 He afterwards increased it to nearly double this amount.

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cure.

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“ English tongue. . . . But I long most urgently request the honourable “ greatly that the most effectual means “ Church Missionary Committee to take " may be used for enlightening the measures for sending a printing" minds of my countrymen.

press to Benares, with one or two “ therefore, anxious to have also a « suitable missionaries to superintend “printing-press established at Benares, " it-men of learning, who may be able “ by which school-books might be “ to satisfy the learned of this ancient

speedily multiplied, and treatises on city on matters of science and history “ different subjects printed and dis- “ as well as of religion. . . . As the "persed throughout the country. With- “ Society liberally expends its funds for “out this the progress of knowledge “ the benefit of mankind, there is no “ must be very slow, and the Hindus place where their labours are likely to “ long remain in their very fallen state, “ be more beneficial than at Benares. “which is a very painful consideration (Signed) “JAY NARAIN GHOSAL.“ to a benevolent mind. I therefore

case.

MORE POLITICAL ETHICS: THE NEAPOLITAN REVOLUTION,

AND THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW.

BY THE REV. F. D. MAURICE. In the last number of this Magazine I My own remarks have made me ventured to make some comments on a suspected by very kind and just critics passage in Mr. Froude's “History." They of holding opinions which would be at touched upon a very grave question of least as dangerous as any that I could public morality. They were intended have attributed to him. I am parto vindicate what I conceive was the ticularly thankful that my

observations spirit of Mr. Froude's note—at all events, should be brought to the test which I what I am sure is the spirit of the myself demanded for them, that of their writer—from a misconstruction to which application to our own times. If they his words seemed to me to be liable. My will not bear that test they must be first complaint of them was, that, by draw- wrong, and I hope that I shall be ing too sharp a distinction between the most ready to confess that they are ethical maxims of the sixteenth century wrong. and of the nineteenth, they threatened If I were merely continuing an old to deprive us of some of the valuable topic, still more if I were merely justifylessons from the history of the former ing myself, I should feel that I had no which no one had more successfully business to occupy more space in the drawn out than Mr. Froude. My second columns of a magazine which is bound was, that, by too hastily adopting a pre- to seek for variety, and the readers of valent confusion between the claims of which cannot be interested in the conscience and the claims of private opinions of a particular man. But the judgment, the writer had suggested the criticisms to which I have alluded in thought that the duties of a citizen, and troduce new and stirring questionsespecially of a soldier, must be tried by questions that are of the profoundest a different law from that which we interest to us all at the present moment. apply to the highest questions of all. The tone in which they have been ex

Since the article appeared, I have had pressed can cause nothing but gratitude proofs that I should have been most in the person who is the object of them, unjust as well as most uncharitable, if and the principle which they involve is I had pronounced judgment upon Mr. so serious that it deserves all the reflecFroude for what appeared to me an in- tion that can be bestowed upon itaccuracy in his method of stating his all the light that can be brought from

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