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ness.

effectually accomplished, and many

house is there a chair on which the more where the intention to do it is sufferers in asthma or dropsy, or those sincere, though the absence of the fading away slowly in decline, could female element of thoughtfulness for relieve themselves by sitting for a few details and tenderness for infirmity in hours, instead of on the edges of their the very place which the sternest con- beds, gasping and fainting from wearitemners of the sex declare to be woman's Arrangements for washing the proper post, namely, at the bedside of the sick, and for cleanliness generally, are sick and dyingthe absence, we say, of most imperfect. We cannot venture to this element, constantly neutralises the describe the disgusting facts of this good intentions of the Board. Further, kind known to us as existing even in however, than this. The fundamental metropolitan workhouses, where neither system of workhouse management is in- washing utensils are found, nor the rags compatible with proper care of the sick. permitted to be retained which the The infirmary is an accident of the wretched patients used for towels. house, not its main object; and proper Again, in other workhouses, cleanliness hospital arrangements are consequently is attempted to an extent causing endalmost impracticable. The wards are less exasperation of disease to the rheuhardly ever constructed for such a pur- matic sufferers and those with pulpose as those of a regular hospital would monary affections, to whom the perbe, with proper attention to warmth, petual washing of the floor is simply light, and ventilation. In some cases fatal.? In new country workhouses the their position with regard to the other walls of these sick-rooms are commonly buildings entails all sorts of miseries on of stone-not plastered, but constantly the patients—as, for example, the ter- whitewashed- and the floor not seldom rible sounds from the wards for the of stone also. Conceive a winter spent in insane. In the courtyard of one me- such a prison : no shutters or curtains, tropolitan workhouse carpet-beating is of course, to the windows, or shelter to done as a work for the able-bodied the beds, where some dozen sufferers lie paupers. The windows of the sick and writhing in rheumatism, and ten or infirm open on this yard, and during fifteen more coughing away the last the summer cannot be opened because chances of life and recovery. of the dust. In another court a black- But even the unfitness of the wards and smith's shed has been erected close their furniture is second to the question under the windows of the infirmary, of medical aid and nursing. The salaries and the smoke enters when they are usually given to workhouse surgeons opened, while the noise is so violent as are low, the pressure for employment to be quite bewildering to a visitor. in the medical profession being so great Can we conceive what it must be to as to induce gentlemen to accept wholly many an aching head in those wretched rooms ?

charitable ladies at trifling expense to relieve The furniture of the workhouse infir

this last misery. A knitted bed-rest, the shape maries is commonly also unsuited to its of a half-shawl, five feet six inches long, and destination. The same rough beds

two feet deep in the middle, affords the most

wonderful comfort. It should be made of (generally made with one thin mattress

common knitting-cotton, and tied by double laid on iron bars) which are allotted

tapes at the end to the ends of the bed, then to the rude able-bodied paupers, are passed round the patient's back, to which it equally given to the poor, emaciated,

forms a support like a cradle. Any lady who

would send one of these to Miss Louisa bed-ridden patient, whose frame is pro

Twining, 13, Bedford Place, Russell Square, bably sore all over, and whose aching

would be sure to have her work well applied. head must remain, for want of pillows, 2 Ought not the floors of all sick wards to in nearly a horizontal position for

be waxed, so as to obviate the necessity of months together. Hardly in any work

washing? The damp is agony to the rheu

matic patients, and death to those with con* A very simple invention might be used by sumption or erysipelas.

Here a young

inadequate remuneration. But low as is doubled here. Indeed it is rarely they are, with very rare exceptions, grappled with at all; for women hired they are made to include the cost of by the Board are so invariably brought all the drugs ordered to the patients ! into collision with the master and maIt would seem as if the mere mention tron, that even the kindest of such of such a system were enough to con- officials say (and probably say truly) demn it. Underpaid and overworked, that it is best to be content with the it is impossible to expect that the pauper nurses, over whom at least they labour and the cost of exhibiting the can exercise some control. The result more expensive medicines can be ordi- is that, in an immensely large proportion narily undergone. In many cases we of houses, the sick are attended by male believe it would swallow up the whole or female paupers who are placed in such miserable salary of the surgeon,

and

go office without having had the smallest far beyond it, were he to give to the preparatory instruction or experience, pauper sufferers the anodynes they so and who often have the reverse of kindly piteously require, and to the weak, half- feelings towards their helpless patients. starved, scrofulous, and consumptive As payments they usually receive patients the tonics, cod-liver oil, &c., allowances of beer or gin, which aid on which their chances of life must their too common propensity to intoxidepend. Again, there may be the most cation. difficult and intricate cases, requiring A good deal of misapprehension, we all possible skill. In every other hos- believe, exists as to the class of persons pital the most experienced physicians who are inmates of the sick wards of would attend such cases.

our workhouses. They are very freman (necessarily at the outset of his quently quite of another and higher profession, or he would not accept such order than that of the able-bodied paua position) has to decide everything for pers-their disease, not any vice or idlehimself. What would the Board think ness, having brought them to their of being continually called on to pay present condition. Especially among the consultation fees to the leading surgeons women do we find the most piteous cases and physicians in the neighbourhood ? of reduced respectability-widows of

It is the received theory that it is in tradesmen, upper servants, and even the power of the medical officer of each teachers and governesses, joined in one union to order all that his patients re- common lot of sordid poverty, and sleepquire ; and guardians perpetually boasting side by side with poor creatures that they never refuse to countersign whose lives have been passed in a hopesuch orders. The nature of the case, less drudgery of labour-in selling apples however, is pretty obvious. The surgeon in the streets, or in lower avocations still. knows what things will, and what will All the heaviest misery, in fact, of our not be sanctioned, and rarely attempts country drains into the workhouse as to the useless task of collision with the the lowest deep; and only by meeting it Board, in which it almost invariably there can we hope to relieve the worst happens that along with many bene- of our social tragedies. volent guardians are others whose sole A few notes from the memoranda of a object is to “keep down the rates” at dear friend will enable the reader who any cost of human suffering.

has never visited a workhouse infirmary Besides the anomalous arrangements to form some judgment of its inmates. of wards and medical attendance in “ I went first to workhouse to workhouses, which are actually hospitals “ visit an old woman whom I had without proper hospital supervision, « known for some time before she enthere remains a third source of misery

“ tered it. She had been more of a to the inmates—the nurses.

companion than maid to an invalid to understand that the difficulty of ob- “lady, and had the manners of a well

It is easy

ness.

effectually accomplished, and many house is there a chair on which the more where the intention to do it is sufferers in asthma or dropsy, or those sincere, though the absence of the fading away slowly in decline, could female element of thoughtfulness for relieve themselves by sitting for a fer details and tenderness for infirmity in hours, instead of on the edges of their the very place which the sternest con- beds, gasping and fainting from wearitemners of the sex declare to be woman's Arrangements for washing the proper post, namely, at the bedside of the sick, and for cleanliness generally, are sick and dyingthe absence, we say, of most imperfect. We cannot venture to this element, constantly neutralises the describe the disgusting facts of this good intentions of the Board. Further, kind known to us as existing even in however, than this. The fundamental metropolitan workhouses, where neither system of work house management is in- washing utensils are found, nor the rags compatible with proper care of the sick. permitted to be retained which the The infirmary is an accident of the wretched patients used for towels. house, not its main object; and proper Again, in other workhouses, cleanliness hospital arrangements are consequently is attempted to an extent causing endalmost impracticable. The wards are less exasperation of disease to the rheuhardly ever constructed for such a pur- matic sufferers and those with pul. pose as those of a regular hospital would monary affections, to whom the perbe, with proper attention to warmth, petual washing of the floor is simply light, and ventilation. In some cases fatal.? In new country workhouses the their position with regard to the other walls of these sick-rooms are commonly buildings entails all sorts of miseries on of stone—not plastered, but constantly the patients—as, for example, the ter- whitewashed- and the floor not seldom rible sounds from the wards for the of stone also. Conceive a winter spent in insane. In the courtyard of one me- such a prison : no shutters or curtains, tropolitan workhouse carpet-beating is of course, to the windows, or shelter to done as a work for the able-bodied the beds, where some dozen sufferers lie paupers. The windows of the sick and writhing in rheumatism, and ten or infirm open on this yard, and during fifteen more coughing away the last the summer cannot be opened because chances of life and recovery. of the dust. In another court a black- But even the unfitness of the wards and smith's shed has been erected close their furniture is second to the question under the windows of the infirmary,' of medical aid, and nursing. The salaries and the smoke enters when they are usually given to workhouse surgeons opened, while the noise is so violent as are low, the pressure for employment to be quite bewildering to a visitor. in the medical profession being so great Can we conceive what it must be to as to induce gentlemen to accept wholly many an aching head in those wretched rooms?

charitable ladies at trilling expense to relieve The furniture of the workhouse infir

this last misery. A knitted bed-rest, the shape maries is commonly also unsuited to its of a half-shawl, five feet six inches long, and destination. The same rough beds

two feet deep in the middle, affords the most

wonderful comfort. It should be made of (generally made with one thin mattress

common knitting-cotton, and tied by double laid on iron bars) which are allotted tapes at the end to the ends of the bed, then to the rude able-bodied paupers, are passed round the patient's back, to which it equally given to the poor, emaciated,

forms a support like a cradle. Any lady who

would send one of these to Miss Louisa bed-ridden patient, whose frame is pro

Twining, 13, Bedford Place, Russell Square, bably sore all over, and whose aching would be sure to have her work well applied. head must remain, for want of pillows, 2 Ought not the floors of all sick wards to in nearly a horizontal position for

be waxed, so as to obviate the necessity of months together. Hardly in any work

washing ? The damp is agony to the rheu

matic patients, and death to those with con. * A very simple invention might be used by sumption or erysipelas.

Here a young

inadequate remuneration. But low as is doubled here. Indeed it is rarely they are, with very rare exceptions, grappled with at all; for women hired they are made to include the cost of by the Board are so invariably brought all the drugs ordered to the patients ! into collision with the master and maIt would seem as if the mere mention tron, that even the kindest of such of such a system were enough to con- officials say (and probably say truly) demn it. Underpaid and overworked, that it is best to be content with the it is impossible to expect that the pauper nurses, over whom at least they labour and the cost of exhibiting the can exercise some control. The result more expensive medicines can be ordi- is that, in an immensely large proportion narily undergone. In many cases we of houses, the sick are attended by male believe it would swallow up the whole or female paupers who are placed in such miserable salary of the surgeon, and go office without having had the smallest far beyond it, were he to give to the preparatory instruction or experience, pauper sufferers the anodynes they so and who often have the reverse of kindly piteously require, and to the weak, half- feelings towards their helpless patients. starved, scrofulous, and consumptive As payments they usually receive patients the tonics, cod-liver oil, &c., allowances of beer or gin, which aid on which their chances of life must their too common propensity to intoxidepend. Again, there may be the most cation. difficult and intricate cases, requiring A good deal of misapprehension, we all possible skill. In every other hos- believe, exists as to the class of persons pital the most experienced physicians who are inmates of the sick wards of would attend such cases.

our workhouses. They are very freman (necessarily at the outset of his quently quite of another and higher profession, or he would not accept such order than that of the able-bodied paua position) has to decide everything for pers—their disease, not any vice or idlehimself. What would the Board think ness, having brought them to their of being continually called on to pay present condition. Especially among the consultation fees to the leading surgeons women do we find the most piteous cases and physicians in the neighbourhood ? of reduced respectability-widows of

It is the received theory that it is in tradesmen, upper servants, and even the power of the medical officer of each teachers and governesses, joined in one union to order all that his patients re- common lot of sordid poverty, and sleepquire; and guardians perpetually boasting side by side with poor creatures that they never refuse to countersign whose lives have been passed in a hopesuch orders. The nature of the case, less drudgery of labour-in selling apples however, is pretty obvious. The surgeon in the streets, or in lower avocations still. knows what things will, and what will All the heaviest misery, in fact, of our not be sanctioned, and rarely attempts country drains into the workhouse as to the useless task of collision with the the lowest deep; and only by meeting it Board, in which it almost invariably there can we hope to relieve the worst happens that along with many bene- of our social tragedies. volent guardians are others whose sole A few notes from the memoranda of a object is to “keep down the rates” at dear friend will enable the reader who any cost of human suffering.

has never visited a workhouse infirmary Besides the anomalous arrangements to form some judgment of its inmates. of wards and medical attendance in I went first to — workhouse to workhouses, which are actually hospitals “ visit an old woman whom I had without proper hospital supervision, “ known for some time before she enthere remains a third source of misery

“ tered it. She had been more of a to the inmates—the nurses.

“ companion than maid to an invalid to understand that the difficulty of ob- “ lady, and had the manners of a well

It is easy

effectually accomplished, and many house is there a chair on which the more where the intention to do it is sufferers in asthma or dropsy, or those sincere, though the absence of the fading away slowly in decline, could female element of thoughtfulness for relieve themselves by sitting for a few details and tenderness for infirmity in hours, instead of on the edges of their the very place which the sternest con- beds, gasping and fainting from wearitemners of the sex declare to be woman's

Arrangements for washing the proper post, namely, at the bedside of the sick, and for cleanliness generally, are sick and dying—the absence, we say, of most imperfect. We cannot venture to this element, constantly neutralises the describe the disgusting facts of this good intentions of the Board. Further, kind known to us as existing even in however, than this. The fundamental metropolitan workhouses, where neither system of work house management is in- washing utensils are found, nor the rags compatible with proper care of the sick. permitted to be retained which the The infirmary is an accident of the wretched patients used for towels. house, not its main object; and proper Again, in other workhouses, cleanliness hospital arrangements are consequently is attempted to an extent causing endalmost impracticable. The wards are less exasperation of disease to the rheuhardly ever constructed for such a pur- matic sufferers and those with pulpose as those of a regular hospital would monary affections, to whom the perbe, with proper attention to warmth, petual washing of the floor is simply light, and ventilation. In some cases fatal.2 In new country workhouses the their position with regard to the other walls of these sick-rooms are commonly buildings entails all sorts of miseries on of stone-not plastered, but constantly the patients—as, for example, the ter- whitewashed- and the floor not seldom rible sounds from the wards for the of stone also. Conceive a winter spent in insane. In the courtyard of one me- such a prison : no shutters or curtains, tropolitan workhouse carpet-beating is of course, to the windows, or shelter to done as a work for the able-bodied the beds, where some dozen sufferers lie paupers. The windows of the sick and writhing in rheumatism, and ten or infirm open on this yard, and during fifteen more coughing away the last the summer cannot be opened because chances of life and recovery. of the dust. In another court a black- But even the unfitness of the wards and smith's shed has been erected close their furniture is second to the question under the windows of the infirmary, of medical aid and nursing. The salaries and the smoke enters when they are usually given to workhouse surgeons opened, while the noise is so violent as are low, the pressure for employment to be quite bewildering to a visitor. in the medical profession being so great Can we conceive what it must be to as to induce gentlemen to accept wholly many an aching head in those wretched rooms?

ness,

charitable ladies at trilling expense to relieve The furniture of the workhouse infir

this last misery. A knitted bed-rest, the shape maries is commonly also unsuited to its of a half-shawl, five feet six inches long, and destination. The same rough beds

two feet deep in the middle, affords the most

wonderful comfort. It should be made of (generally made with one thin mattress

common knitting-cotton, and tied by double laid on iron bars) which are allotted

tapes at the end to the ends of the bed, then to the rude able-bodied paupers, are passed round the patient's back, to which it equally given to the poor, emaciated, forms a support like a cradle. Auy lady who

would send one of these to Miss Louisa bed-ridden patient, whose frame is pro- Twining, 13, Bedford Place, Russell Square, bably sore all over, and whose aching would be sure to have her work well applied. head must remain, for want of pillows, ? Ought not the floors of all sick wards to in nearly a horizontal position for

be waxed, so as to obviate the necessity of months together.1 Hardly in any work

washing? The damp is agony to the rheu

matic patients, and death to those with con. A very simple invention might be used by sumption or erysipelas.

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