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mander Robertson and the men of the recalled, and his successor tried to soothe Hazard the greatest credit for their gal- the natives. Heki, however, continued for lantry in defending the place at such nearly two years to disturb the peace of dreadful odds. Indeed, they did not the country—the affair at Wanganai being abandon the town until the magazine in the last of these outbreaks. So expenthe stockade blew up and the ammuni- sive, however, had been the operations of tion failed, when the order was given Government for exterminating this spirit for the troops and inhabitants to embark of rebellion against British authority and The native chief who commanded on this protecting the English residents, that it occasion, Ehara, murdered nine English was calculated their safety cost the Empeople who fell into his hands after the pire at the rate of 15l. a-head per annum. embarkation had been effected.

The present contest between the British Much alarm was caused by the anni- Government and the national or Maori hilation of our settlement at the Bay of party is clearly to be traced to the jealIslands - not so much to be deplored for ousy of the latter of the power of the the sacrifice and the destruction of pro- English settlers. The avowed objects of perty as for the loss of prestige that the confederation of native chiefs who had now for the first time really fallen acknowledge the Waikato prince, Te on the British power; and great fears Whero Whero (or, as he is more genewere entertained that the excited abori- rally named, Potatan) as king of the gines would everywhere rise and mas- northern island of New Zealand, are the sacre our defenceless fellow-countrymen, subversion of the authority of Queen scattered up and down from the North Victoria, and the prohibition of further to the South Cape. It was deemed ne- alienation of territory to the Crown for cessary to enrol the white inhabitants purposes of colonization. The present and drill them daily. It was known Taranki war has been caused by the that Heki had fortified a new pah native king movement, and the real which he had six guns to defend,' while issue is, whether Victoria or Potatan in his rear was an interminable forest to shall be the future sovereign of New fall back upon if driven from his stock Zealand. The settlement of New Plyade; the natives throughout the country mouth, where the present outbreak has were quietly waiting the result of the taken place, was founded in 1841, by attack of the British on the prime mover the Plymouth Company of New Zealand, in this insurrection, and ready, if Heki who had purchased a large tract of land, were successful, to rise everywhere and of the extent of 60,000 acres, from the expel the colonists from the country. The · only natives then resident in the district. stronghold of this predatory chief was These were Waikatos, who had conattacked on the 1st July, and our troops quered it from another tribe named were repulsed with heavy loss, one-third Ngatiaws, the great majority of whom of them having fallen before the order had been enslaved by the victorious to retreat was given. The British had tribe, who now ceded their right to the no guns that could be of service; and, British. The title of the Company was although they repeatedly pulled down investigated by Mr. Spain, the Commisportions of the outer stockade or pah, sioner for the purpose, who reported in yet there was an inner stockade lined favour of the Company's claim; but with men firing through loopholes Governor Fitzroy, instigated by some of which resisted all their efforts. Having the missionaries of the district, refused obtained some guns and ammunition to confirm their title, holding that the from the Hazard, our troops enslaved tribe of Ngatiaws had the real veyed them to the top of a hill property in the soil

. The European which commanded the pah, which was population at the settlement were consethen abandoned by the natives in the quently confined to a block of 3,500 night.

acres, which they had purchased from


blocks which they were afterwards able along the coast. Backed by the so-named to purchase. It was from one of those native king party and the native antitransactions that the present disturbance selling land league and some of the arose, and it occurred in this way :-In missionaries, William King insolently March, 1859, the governor of the colony, defied the Crown, and, rather than allow being at New Plymouth, offered to pur- another native chief to sell his land, chase land to extend the settlement, in took up arms, and, having been joined a proclamation or notice to the effect by all the disaffected natives, openly that he thought the Maories would be resisted the government. It has become wise to sell land they did not require, a fight for British supremacy in this as it would enhance the value of what island; and, surely, our nation could they retained; he would buy no man's never abandon 90,000 of our compaland without his consent, and he would triots, who have successfully colonized require an undisputed title. In reply to and civilized it. At the period of the this notice a Waitara chief offered to sell outbreak there were said to be 5,000 a block of land. No person disputed his Maories in arms, and they have been right to sell the property, with the able to set the British authority at exception of one native, named Paora, defiance for several months. The first who said he would not allow the sale; severe skirmish arose out of an exthe land was in his hands, and he would pedition sent to bring in some British not give it up. This chief, however, did settlers who had clung too long to not deny that the right to sell the land their homes, and had been cut off by belonged to the native who had offered the natives from communication with it; but said he would not let him sell it, their friends at head-quarters. The pretending that his position as a chief brunt of the engagement was chiefly gave him power to veto the transaction, born by the civilians, and the military and forgetting the conquest of the country took very little share in the struggle. by the Waikatos, who had transfered The fight took place at the mouth of their rights to the Crown in 1842; for, the Waireka, amongst the flax gullies, although Governor Fitzroy had refused to where the Maories were posted at the act upon this, and reversed the decision bottom of the ridge on which their pah of the Land-Court, his act has been was erected, in order to oppose the deemed an error by all his successors, passing of our men. The soldiers reand by those competent to give an mained at long range, a small party only opinion on the question. It is necessary being detached to support the civilians. here to mention that, in 1853, there So vastly did the Maories outnumber arose a new contest about the land at

their foe that they swarmed the Waireka New Plymouth amongst the Ngatiaws gully, enclosing our militia and volunthemselves, as to what portions of it teers on the right and rear; and, the belonged to the different chiefs of the detached party of sixty-five having been tribe. In 1854 a chief, Rawri, was recalled, the British were hemmed in on murdered, for offering to sell a portion of every side, except on the flank toward land to the government, by Katatore, a the beach. Their ammunition having leader of the anti-selling land league. become spent, their position was very This feud has been at work since then, critical ; but here, as at Kororarika, the and so much afraid have the natives blue-jackets saved them from ruin. become of Katatore and of his successor The men of the Niger came up at the William King that no attempt was made, critical moment, headed by Captain from this occurrence in 1854 up to 1859, Cracroft, and rushed on the natives to dispose of land to the government; with cutlass, bayonet, and revolver, and, notwithstanding that there are in that having carried the pah, extricated the fine province 3,000,000 acres which troops, with whom they returned to about 3,000 natives profess to own, only head-quarters. cultivating a few patches here and there The military rendered but little assistance in this affair; and, without a portion of the rebels on the 6th professing to throw any blame on the November, at a place named Mahoetahi, officers in command, we may say that it and that their leader Wetini had was unfortunate that the rebellious been slain. The engagement is renatives were not better enlightened ported to have been very severe, the upon this occasion as to the power and Maories fighting, as they generally appear efficiency of our troops. The result to do, with great courage and resolution, was, that they treated us with scanty while the conduct of our officers and respect, and the disaffection still spread men was beyond praise. The natives amongst the various tribes in the have been accustomed hitherto to undernorthern island. The officer in com- value British prowess, and it is to be mand at this period did not seem to hoped that they have now received a possess any great amount of energy, and salutary lesson, which will not fail of little was attempted by him beyond restoring our prestige. Our ultimate holding his position. The arrival of triumph cannot be doubted, but in the Major - General Pratt, who held the mean time many colonists are suffering office of commander of the forces in severely in consequence of the risks and Australia, with large reinforcements, put losses which this disturbance has brought it in the power of the British to assume upon them; and it is absolutely necessary offensive operations; and we are very that the outbreak should be quelled and happy to learn by the last mail that à peace restored as quickly as possible. complete victory had been obtained over

T. McC.



The distress of the poor in London has to create the Distress movement, by been recently brought before the whole opening its columns to appeals and reworld with unusual prominence, through porting donations, with the occasional the space devoted by the T'imes to va- stimulus of a thorough-going leading rious attempts to relieve it. There is article. It is a striking, and in many always a lamentable amount of distress respects a hopeful, fact, as a sign of the prevailing in London, and especially tendency of the public mind, that this during the winter season; and the dis- great power should have been applied tress has lately been much aggravated directly to the help of the needy and by the bitterly cold weather, and the miserable ; but, unfortunately, the good suspension, through the frost, of many is not gained without grievous injury to kinds of labour. It is not without good our social order, and without the danger reason that hearts have been touched of inflicting permanent damage upon the and purses opened in behalf of the poor. class it is designed to benefit. But it is important to understand that There is one injustice which the Times the Charity columns of the Times fur- has itself committed, and encouraged nish no safe criterion of the compara- others to commit, which ought not to tive pressure of distress. “Metropolitan be left without a protest. We are told Distress” had already assumed appal- that our Poor-Law administration has ling dimensions in the columns of the evidently failed. The proofs of that Times before the hard weather set in ; failure are the appeals in the Times, the and yet at Christmas time it was shown crowds at the police-courts, and the parby the average statistics of all the Lon- ties of “frozen-out” labourers asking don workhouses, that there was no un- relief in the streets. That contributions usual degree of suffering amongst the should be asked for, and should still

to the fund for Mr. Douglas's District inapplicable to the St. Marylebone Board. after the frank announcement that many In the first place, the members of it are thousands in each case are being in not all shopkeepers. If the reviewer vested for the benefit of posterity, may were to attend any ordinary meeting of be surprising, but it proves nothing the Board, he would find there two against any Board of Guardians. It is baronets, who have justly earned the quite certain, again, that if the magis- respect and goodwill of their colleagues trates are found willing to distribute and fellow-parishioners; the Rector of crowns and shillings promiscuously, they St. Marylebone, who devotes a main will have plenty of applicants till their part of at least two days in every week fund is exhausted. That the lowest class to the workhouse; gentlemen of indeof labourers, when thrown out of work, pendent means, and of the military, the will beg in the streets, if they can get legal, and the medical professions, reanything by it, is also certain. I have tired men of business, and tradesmen just heard, on good authority, of a large, of all degrees,—working together with number of labourers having refused work much zeal and industry. Not one of which was offered to them, preferring these would think of taxing any section the chances of relief in the streets. But of the Board with hardness or inhuthe existence of such a degree of want manity. Nor is the popular or demo as is implied in these applications does cratic feeling in favour of a harsh not sustain the attacks which have been parsimony, but decidedly against it. If made on the Metropolitan Boards of the Poor-Law Commissioners exercised Guardians. These attacks have been complete control over the parish, hunsingularly reckless and unfounded.

dreds of pounds would be saved to the The Times, with its usual breadth, rates. The salaries of certain officers assumes that the parishes and unions in would be paid out of national funds, London are quite inoperative as regards the out-door relief would be contracted, the relief of the poor, and that the poor and other reductions secured. But the rates are paid for nothing. The Satur- popular feeling is strongly against the day Review believes all London guar- Poor-Law Board, and one reason for it dians to be a set of niggardly shop is the belief that, under their rule, there keepers, privately employed in scraping would be less indulgence towards the together small gains, and dealing in a poor. I may say generally, that no ex“barbarous” manner with the poor. It pense is spared which the most humane is very different, we are told, in the of the guardians are satisfied would be country and in Manchester, where the legal and beneficial. Poor-Law works admirably. Now, as Every Board of Guardians, moreover, regards this contrast between London acts under many checks. The reporters and the country, it will probably be know very well that any complaint or allowed that no place, unless it be Liver scandal makes better reading in their pool, presents so many difficulties to newspapers than the most exemplary Poor-Law administration as London, freedom from reproach. The Poor-Law with its unsettled colluvies gentium. This Board makes inquiry upon every appeal being considered, it is probable that an addressed to it, even from a single poor average London Board would not be at person. Clergymen and philanthropists all behind any country Board either in are jealously on the watch to protest intelligence or in humanity.

against any cruel treatment of their If we take the parish of St. Maryle neighbours. In ninety-nine cases out bone as an illustration, it will not be of a hundred the complaints which are supposed, by Saturday Reviewers at brought to the notice of the Board are least, to be too favourable a specimen. disposed of by correcting the alleged I speak with a prejudice in favour of a facts. In any exceptional case, redres; body of which I am a member; but the is instantly given. language I have referred to is manifestly I admit, however, that, notwithstand

ing the good intentions of the Board, distress.

distress. The causes of physical misery, ; the results of their administration are whilst they remain, make that misery by no means of a kind that would defy inevitable. In those instances of uncriticism. Not to speak of the insuper- doubted destitution which have been able difficulties of a

constant weary

detailed before the magistrates and elsestruggle against vice, and idleness, and where, we do not know how much is fraud, the management of so vast a due to drunkenness, that plague and business as that of the St. Marylebone curse of our poor.

And how can you workhouse requires great administrative keep a drunkard out of want ? Another capacity and constant vigilance; and a cause of distress is scarcely less difficult board of thirty perfectly equal members, to cope with—the imbecility and want elected every year, does not promise of energy which infects some persons much efficiency in government. The like a disease. Then there is the downnumbers of in-door poor at this moment right idleness of not a few, which keeps (January 18th), amounting to 2,039, them from seeking work, and throws would people a small town; whilst them out of occupation when they get there are 3,332 “on the books" receiv- it. The destitution which arises from ing out-door relief; and, in addition to sickness and misfortune—the character these numbers, 2,851 have had casual of the sufferers having been reasonably relief during the last week. The cost of good—ought to be relieved humanely the relief of the poor during the year by the workhouse, if not more indulhas been 53,5001. This does not look gently cared for, as one might surely as if the guardians of the poor in the hope it would be, by the kindness of metropolis were doing nothing. It is friends and by Christian charity. inevitable that, in the execution of so Let me add, somewhat abruptly, the enormous a task, we should be too much following suggestions :in the hands of our paid officers, so long 1. It seems to be necessary to revive as the power and the responsibility are the old warnings against unguarded and diffused equally through thirty members. too ambitious almsgiving. Of course, the If a salaried chairman were appointed, magistrates who have laboured so geneto give his whole time to the business rously during the last few days in the of the workhouse, he would probably summary relief of crowds of applicants, soon save his salary by the economies he will be compelled to discontinue those might introduce, besides guarding the unprofitable labours. It is a very inconparish from frequent troubles and scan- siderate benevolence which has imposed dals.

so hopeless a task upon them. But there But even if such blots were more is great fear lest societies, rich in means numerous and discreditable than they and eager to help the needy, should be are, it is obvious—and no well informed tempted to stimulate mendicancy and person could forget it—that the sub- vagabondage. No greater harm can be stantial relief of the poor is, and must done than this to our labouring popube, the work of the guardians, and that lation. the better this work is done the less the 2. In dealing directly with distress, public hear of it. At the same time, the the efforts of charitable persons should public have ample opportunities of be based as far as possible upon personal knowing what is going on at the work- knowledge, and should chiefly aim, I house, through the meetings, open to submit, at assisting with judgment and ratepayers and reporters, at the work- delicacy those whom a temporary gift or house and the vestry, and through the a little pension may save from pauperism, reports in the local newspapers. But and make more comfortable, without enthe Poor-Law administration does not couraging vice or idleness ;-not at supexterminate distress, nor pretend to do plying the wants indiscriminately of the it. No system of relief, however chari- needy or unemployed. Exceptional dis

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