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the matter for the spinning of them bit Then there was a moment, one of those by bit out of his conversation, as of direst confusion, of what other old woman might pick out of a long than such soldiers as fought that fight hedgerow, at great intervals, wool enough would have reckoned a moment of disto furnish worsted for her knitting may,—a moment wherein regimental needles to work up into a stocking or a order itself was in part broken and conpair of mits.

fused ; guardsmen mingled with linesHe had been under fire continuously, men, linesmen with blue-coated artillery. for seven hours and more, on one of the There had been fearful havoc among most hard-fought days of all that hard- those noble servants of the deep-voiced fought struggle, and, as he rode away cannon, and men were wanted to hand at evening towards the camp, rode bare- out the shells from a cart he had himheaded, in reverent acknowledgment to self brought up, replenished, to a breastHeaven for the marvel that he was work. He called in some of the linesriding out of that hail of iron himself One of them stood by him foot to Junhurt.

foot, almost or actually in contact. They As for the unobserved incidents of were handing ammunition, from one to that day's danger, from which so merci- other, as men do fire-buckets when fires ful a preservation had been vouchsafed, are blazing in a street. He leant in one they would be hard to reckon ; but direction to pass on the load he had just upon

three several occasions during those taken from the soldier's hand; the solseven exposed hours, it really seemed dier was bending towards the next man that the messengers of death avoided in the chain ; a Russian shell came him, as in some legend they turn aside bounding with a whirr, then burst and from the man who bears a charmed life. scattered its deadly fragments with There was a six-pound shot, which he terrific force. One of its great iron saw distinctly coming, as a cricketer eyes shreds passed—there was just room for the projectile which threatens his middle it-between his leg and the soldier's wicket. It pitched right in front of that stood next him. They looked each him, and rose as a cricket-ball when the other in the face. turf is parched and baked, bounding A near shave that, sir !” said the clean up into the air, and so passing man,

“ Nearer than you think for, perright over his untouched head. It fell haps," he answered; for he had felt the behind him, and he looked at it more rounder surface of the fragment actually than once that day, and, but for its in- bruise him as it passed, whereas its convenient bulk, thought of carrying it ragged edge had shaven, with a marvelaway for a memento. There was a four- lous neatness, from his trouser, part of and-twenty-pound shot next, a sort of the broad red stripe upon the outer twin-brother to that which, some three weeks before, had actually torn his I venture to give these minute details, forage-cap from off his head; but it because they may help other civilians, came too quick for sight. He was at as they helped me, to realise," as they that moment backing towards the shafts call it now-a-days, more vividly the of an ammunition eart a horse, whose risks of a day of battle, and the large reins, he held close to its jaw, as he drafts they draw upon a man's fund of spurred on his own to make it give way nerve and composure, just as he stands, in the right direction. Smash ! came the without coming into any close engreat globe of iron, and as the bones counter. and blood and brains bespattered him, But at last the firing was done ; and, he almost himself fell forward; for bareheaded, as I have said, he turned the poor brute was restive no longer : and rode back towards the camp. headless horses don't strain against the It was before the famine period there, bit, although 'tis just as hard as ever to and though there was no superfluity of þack them into the shafts.

food, there was food to be had, and that


came in.

80 ?

long day's fighting-men were in sore portant crisis of decision. If apparitions need of it.

and visions of things unearthy be indeed It was dusk, and he was lighting a mere fictions of men's brain, such aftercandle to sit down to his meal, when the hours are just those wherein the mind is voice of a French soldier called some- readiest to yield to the power of illusion, thing like his name from the outside. Illusion or reality more startling, more He was himself a perfect master of that unaccountable by far than it? Whether language, as the “Soldat-du-train ” who of the two was this ? stood outside found to his great relief There entered at the curtain of his upon his first utterance of inquiry. tent the dead man, towards whom, in

The Frenchman held a mule by the some few minutes more, he should have bridle, and across the creature's back been showing the last sad kindnesses. lay something which looked like a The light fell full and clear upon his heavily filled parti-coloured sack. It was face. He took off his forage cap as he a far otherwise ghastly burden. The

The broad white forehead body of an officer, stripped bare all but showed no longer any trace of the murthe trousers, the dark clothed legs hang- derous incrash of the ball which had ing way, the fair skinned naked slain him. Into the poor dull glazed shoulders and arms the other, the face eyes the gleam had returned-could it towards the ground.

indeed be the gleam of returned life? “I was directed, mon officier, to bring Or do the eyes of ghosts gleam life-like this poor gentleman's corpse to you. They say you were a friend of his-his “What made you send that Frenchname is Captain X

man witn my corpse to me? At least, Even at that early stage of the cam- he would insist that it was mine.” paign such shocks had lost the startling “X-! Good heaven! Can it be effect of novelty; nevertheless, there

you, indeed ?" were few names among those of his « Who should it be? What ails you, friends and comrades which it could man? Why do you stare at me so ?” shock and grieve him more to hear pro- “I cannot say, what ails me; but I nounced under such circumstances. The am surely under some strange delusion. light was fetched. He raised the poor It is not half an hour surely, since I body; then, with a sigh, let it once more saw you stretched lifeless across a mule's gently down. There was a small round back, with a rifle bullet between your hole in the very centre of the forehead, eyes. What can this mean? You are wbereat the rifle ball had darted into the not even wounded." brain of his hapless friend.

“No, thank God ! nothing has touched He called an orderly, and directed me for this once ; but that French him to accompany the Frenchman soldier-did you then send him up, to the dead man's tent. He would indeed ?” himself soon follow and see to his “Indeed I did.” receiving a soldier's obsequies. His Hideous comico-tragic episode in the weariness and exhaustion were such as awful drama of war! They discovered byto render it imperatively necessary that and-by that their slain brother soldier he should first take his food, to which was no comrade of their own corps, but he returned, with what increased weight a brave officer of another arm. Neither at heart, who shall rightly tell ? It needs of them had known him personally, nor not that the tension of a man's nerves had they heard before that between him should have been strung tight by the and X existed, in his lifetime, the hand of battle, for him to know, from most remarkable and close resemblancehis own experience, what is the strange, such an identity of feature as is rarely and awful, and weird feeling of the first seen save in twin-brothers. Now, it has relaxation of them in the early after- struck me sometimes as I have turned story, that there may have been among his very self-as they needs must have that wearied host that night men to reckoned it-pass by them, in the gleam whom indeed what happened appeared of their tent's lantern, through that a demonstration of the truth concerning November mist;—pass by them, though ghostly visitants ; men who may have they had been dear friends and comknown only the gallant man that fell, rades, without a word, a nod, a sign of as my kinsman only knew the man for recognition ;-pass by them upon some whom he was mistaken ; they may have unearthly errand, on his way back, perseen him fall, or have known of his haps, to answer, in the ghost-world, to fatal misadventure ; and then they, the roll-call of the dead. too, may have seen his perfect image,


A CAREFUL study of the colonial history ministers of George III. Indeed, the of the British Empire would suggest countries named are already far more many grave and strange reflections. For important than America at the period a period of more than three centuries we she declared herself independent. The have been a colonizing nation; yet, until whole exports of that country at the Sir William Molesworth and various po- period named were under a million, litical writers who may be said to have while those of one of our Australian been connected with the party in politics colonies alone (Victoria) amount to fifand literature that looked up to that teen millions. In 1790 Boston, the megentleman as its leader, forced the ques- tropolitan city of the American colonies, tion upon public attention, the most numbered no more than 18,000 citizens, profound ignorance prevailed amongst while Melbourne with its suburbs conour statesmen in reference to coloni- tains above 100,000 inhabitants, or zation upon systematic principles. It considerably more than five times the was not alone the Tudors and Stuarts number that the city of the pilgrim who neglected this great question, but fathers could boast at the revolution. even the present family, until a recent We shall very soon have many great period, are liable to the same charge ; and and populous communities starting into the obstinate pertinacy of the third existence over the whole of Australia George, in oppressing the finest colonial and the adjoining islands of Tasmania dependency ever possessed by any nation and New Zealand. The Imperial authoin modern times, lost it to Britain, and rities have now wisely allowed the completely divided the Anglo-Saxon race, colonists a fair share of self-governthereby materially weakening the in- ment, and the indomitable perseverance fluence it would have had as one great and energy of the Anglo-Saxon are fast

Now, colonization has covering those great lands with the come to be considered one of the great appliances of civilized life. The South social and political questions of the Seas, long silent and solitary, are now day; in those great trans-Pacific colonies traversed by busy merchantmen, carrywhich have recently been planted, our ing away the treasures of those new statesmen have treated their compatriots but wealthy communities recently who have settled in them with frank planted in Australia and California. and candid consideration; and Australia Many persons are disposed to think and New Zealand are upon the whole con- that the serious disturbances amongst tented under British rule, and promise the New Zealand natives will seriously to become a colonial dominion scarcely impede the progress of the new setsecond to that so foolishly lost by the tlements in the south. They have

united power.

naturally excited considerable attention George Gipps, how far the claimants, or amongst those who take an interest in any of them, might be entitled to concolonization; and they also deeply con- firmatory grants, and on what terms cern the large class of persons who have such confirmations ought to be made. friends or relations settled in Australia Had the New Zealanders been a poor, and New Zealand. These troubles have ignorant race, like the aborigines of originated in the peculiar circumstances Australia, they would soon have been under which New Zealand was taken driven to the wall in the bustle of possession of and colonized by Britain, settling the new colonies there; but and are of a peculiar character, such as the Maories were found to be alive to never has been experienced, and, in their interests, and they have defended fact, could never occur in Australia or their supposed rights inch by inch with any of our other colonies.

the British settlers. They have never Previous to any effort at colonization even hesitated to resort to arms in cases in New Zealand, at the period when where they deemed themselves aggrieved. there had been a threat to seize it for The majority of the Maories have viewed France, we acknowledged its inde- with extreme dissatisfaction the increase pendence under the chiefs of the tribes. of European population ; and, although The latter merely looked up to Britain the authorities have strictly adhered to as the parent of their little state, and the principle of purchasing every foot its protector from all attempts upon of ground from the legitimate owners its independence. The Committee of before allowing it to be used for the the House of Commons, which sat in purposes of colonization, yet the native 1836, perceived the difficulties of colo- chiefs have felt keenly the alienation of nizing under such circumstances, and so vast a portion of the lands of their reported that the increase of national ancestors. Many of the larger tracts of power and wealth promised by the land had been disposed of before the acquisition of New Zealand would be Maories had begun to realize the fact a most inadequate compensation for that it would be occupied by a race the injury which must be reflected superior to them in civilization. They upon the kingdom by embarking in a were well disposed to the British so measure essentially unjust, and but too long as they were but a few scattered certainly fraught with calamity to an settlers dependent upon them; but they inoffensive people, whose title to the soil had never conceived it possible that the and general title was not only indisputa- time would come when they would cease ble, but had been solemnly recognized by to

to be the dominant race. The growing the British nation. In 1839, however, jealousy of the European people has our Government was induced to send exhibited itself upon various occasions, Captain Hobson to the country in the the ostensible cause of quarrel being the two-fold character of Consul and Lieu- right of the purchasers to the land which tenant-Governor. Many Englishmen had been bought from time to time. The had, by this time, purchased large tracts Land Commissioners, having found that of land of the natives ; such sales as many of the purchases made by private had been made at an unduly low rate persons from Maories had been obtained were declared void; and a commissioner by improper representations and for inwas sent to the country to ascertain what adequate prices, declared them void ; amount of land was held in New Zealand and great doubts existed for many years by British subjects under grants from about the legality of all the titles to the natives ; how far such grants were law- land, not excepting that of the New fully acquired and ought to be respected, Zealand Company which encouraged and what might have been the price or the native chiefs to maintain claims over other valuable consideration given for territory that had been fairly sold. them. It was ultimately to be decided by Before we consider the present unesting to glance at previous outbreaks in cold blood. In this collision, there amongst the New Zealanders during our fell Captain Wakefield, the agent of the occupation of the country.

Company; Captain England, 12th regiA lamentable tragedy occurred in June, ment; Mr. Thompson, Local Judge ; Mr. 1843, at Cloudy Bay, in Cook's Straits. Howard, the Company's storekeeper; It arose out of a disputed claim to land Mr. Packett, merchant; Mr. Cotterel, on either side of Cook's Strait, and we surveyor; and about twenty other fear the New Zealand Company were British emigrants. There were eleven quite as much to blame as the natives of the party who fortunately reached a in raising and exciting the collision. A small vessel and got out of reach of the party of surveyors were sent to Wairow natives. It has been urged, with what to portion the land out into allotments. degree of truth we do not know, that They erected a couple of rush huts on the wife of Rangibaiata, and daughter the ground. Two native chiefs, Ranpa of Ranparaha, had been killed by a raha, and his son-in-law, Rangihaiata, random ball, and that this circumstance burnt them down, in consequence of the had irritated those two chiefs, and dispute then pending. The natives, how- excited them to perpetrate the coldever, wished the matter in question refer- blooded massacre of those who had red to Mr. Spain, the Land Commissioner surrendered. There appears to be little of the country, whose conscientious de- doubt that the proceedings of the Comcisions had inspired them with great confi- pany's servants were most injudicions, dence. Unfortunately, however,instead of and it has been generally supposed that waiting for the arrivalof Mr.Commissioner they expected to intimidate the natives Spain, Mr. Thompson, a civil servant into giving up the land without any of the Government, who held the post of appeal to Mr. Commissioner Spain, Judge of the County Court and Prose- which they did not by any means cutor of the Aborigines, at the solicita- desire. tion of Captain Wakefield, the chief In the year 1845 Honi, Heki, and vaagent of the New Zealand Company at rious other chiefs began to be very Nelson, issued an order to apprehend troublesome to the settlers; and a severe the two chiefs. . The British party, collision took place on the 11th March, numbering forty-six persons, under the the natives attacking Kororarika, in the command of Captain Wakefield and Bay of Islands, the oldest town in the Captain England, of H.M. 12th regi- colony, which they completely destroyed, ment, advanced

upon the native driving out the military and a party of encampment to enforce Mr. Thompson's sailors and marines of H.M.S. Hazard order. The nature of the warrant after a brave resistance by the latter, who having been explained to the natives had the misfortune to have their comby means of an interpreter, the chiefs set mander severely wounded early in the their party at defiance, and Thompson, action. This disaster was chiefly caused who was, it appeared, a very excitable by the behaviour of the military offiman, ordered an advance. The chiefs cer in charge of the block house; who, were posted upon a highly advantageous on hearing guns fired, quitted that fortiposition, near the source of the Wairow, fication, the key of the position of the and the British had to pass a rivulet in Europeans, to proceed towards the spot their front in a canoe, under a heavy from whence the sound proceeded ; and fire. They were thrown into confusion, thus this most important post fell into but were rallied by Captains England the hands of the natives. In this enand Wakefield, and made a stand on the counter there were thirteen Europeans brow of a hill close by, where they killed and eighteen wounded; of the were attacked by the chiefs and dis- New Zealanders fifty were killed and a persed. Some escaped, and others put large number wounded. At a public forth a flag of truce and surrendered to meeting held in Auckland a resolution Ranparaha. The latter were butchered was passed by acclamation, giving Com

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