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ters. Then, among the buildings, is characteristic names. Then there are “Keën-tsing-kung” or

or “the Tranquil many temples and altars-among which palace of Heaven,”—the Emperor's are noted “Tae Meaou,” or “the Great private palace; the loftiest, richest, and Temple,” dedicated to the ancestors of most magnificent of all the palaces; in the present dynasty, the outer wall of the court before which is a small tower which is said to be 3,000 feet in circuit; of gilt copper, adorned with a great Shay-tseih-tan," or the altar of the number of figures, beautifully executed, gods of land and grain ; a temple to and on the east side of the tower a the discoverer of the silk-worm ; and large vessel, likewise of gilt copper, “ Chen-fu-tse," or " the Temple of in which incense is burnt day and Great Happiness ”—which is a large night. The Chinese descriptions men- Buddhist temple, with a copper statue tion also, as of note, "Kwan-ning-kung," of Buddh, sixty feet high. Here also or "the palace of the Earth's Repose,"

stores and

governmenti.e. the palace of the Imperial Con- offices. But much of the space is laid sort; "Fung-seen-teen," or "the temple out in pleasure-grounds for the wealthier of Imperial Ancestors," where the Em-, inhabitants. Here is “Kingshan,” an peror sacrifices on great occasions ; also artificial mountain, 150 feet high, with "Ching-hwang-meaou," or “the temple terraces, walks, pavilions, and plantations of the Guardian Deity of the City ;' in which are birds, hares, rabbits, &c. also “Nan-heun-teen," or 'the hall of Here also is an artificial lake, with a portraits of the Chinese emperors and bridge of white marble, of nine arches, sages, arranged according to their de- and an island called “The Marble Isle, grees of merit ; also "Nuy-ko," or which is a hill of groves, temples, and the council-chamber, the treasury, and summer-houses. Here also is “Tseaouother offices; also “Chuen-sin-teen,” or. yuen,” or “the Plantain Garden,” full “the hall of intense mental, exercises.”. of fruit-trees, shrubs, &c. and contain--which the reader might suppose, from ing a lake on which there is yachting in the name, to be the hall devoted to the summer and skating in winter. Civil Service examinations of which he (3). The General City. It is in this has heard as universal in China, but city, forming a wide hollow rectanglewhich seems rather to be a place sacred between the Imperial city and the to the memory of Confucius; also “ Wan- outer walls, that the general bustle of yuen-ko," or "the hall containing the Pekin is to be seen, and the great mass of literary abyss,” i.e., the Imperial library; Pekin life is lodged. Here are most of and "Woo-ying-teen," or the Imperial the public offices including the six Printing Establishment, whence is issued supreme tribunals or boards, known as, daily the Imperial or Pekin Gazette, for the Board of Civil Offices, the Board of circulation exclusively among the man- Revenue, the Board of Rites and Ceredarins and officials throughout the em-monies, the Board of War, the Board of pire. There are, besides, gardens and Public Works, 'and the Board of Punishpleasure grounds; the most notable of ments; also, “ Le-fan-yuen," or the which is the Imperial flower garden, office of Foreign Affairs ; “Too-chacontaining beautiful walks, groves, foun- yuen," or the Imperial Censorate; tains, and shrines,

" Kung-yuen," or the office for examin, (2), The Imperial City. In the hol- ing Candidates for Degrees ; also, “ Hanlow rectangle, so named, interposed be- lin-yuen,” or the Grand National Coltween the central palatial block, and the lege; also, “Tae-e-yuen," or the Great, outer rim of the town, are many of the Medical College ; also, the Observatory, palaces of princes of different ranks, of the Police office, &c. Here, too, are which there are said by Father Hyacinth the Russian Mission, the Mohamedan to be about 700 in all throughout the Mosque, and buildings for the recepwhole city of Pekin. The gates here tion of Deputies from the Asiatic powers are also objects of interest, and have visiting Pekin. There are, besides,

many palaces of the princes, and many What of the general city does not contemples and shrines-the large Bud- sist of these great streets of shops, is one dhist temple called “the Temple of vast network of narrow streets and lanes, Eternal Peace ;” another magnificent containing, as we have said, many of the Buddhist temple called “the White public offices, temples, and also manuPagoda ;” the Temple of the Successive factories and stores of various kinds, and Generations of Kings and Emperors; the dwelling-houses of the populace. the Temple of the Deity protecting the Here are the names of some of these Imperial family; and an Altar to the inferior streets and lanes, culled from Pole-Star. Here also is the enclosure Major Jervis's facsimile of the native for the Imperial Elephants.

map-
“ Fetid Hide Street,” “

Dog'sThe main streets which intersect the tooth Street,”: “Cut-asunder Street," general city-some of them from north “Barbarian Street," “ Board of Punishto south through its entire length, others ment Street,” “Dog's-tail Street,” “Boat broken short by the inner block of the Plank Street," * Obedience Street," Imperial city, and others running at “Water-wheel Street," "Cow's Horn right angles, as connexions from east to Bend,"

Bend," "Newly opened Street," “ Pay west-are described as great thorough- and Rations Street," “ Goddess of fares, from 140 to 200 feet wide, not Mercy Temple Street,” “Mutton Street," paved, and constantly watered into a state "Sugar Place Street," "Old Screen of muddiness, to keep down the dust. Street," " Pine Street," “Immeasurably It is not in these main streets that the Great Street," “ Proboscis Street," public offices, the temples, and the “ Handkerchief Street,” “Stone Tiger dwelling-houses of the bulk of the in- Street." Along these streets, the numhabitants, are situated. They are con- berless lanes connecting them, and intinuous lines of shops, painted red, blue, deed all through Pekin, the houses are green, &c., with flaunting signs and ad- generally but of one storey, built of brick, vertisements, and a profusion of gilt cha- with the roofs of a grey colour, or painted racters, and the wares exposed in front. red, or (the imperial houses only) yellow. The great streets proceeding from the Owing to the deficiency of water-supply gates, and named after them--as "the -all the water in the town being from Great Street of the Sze Chih Gate,” “the the one Imperial canal—and also owing Great Street of the Tih Shing Gate," &c. to what Barrow calls the “frowsy -are from morning to night incessant habits of the Chinese, the lanes and streams of clamorous life. At the sides narrow streets are by no means savoury; are the shopkeepers recommending and and Father Hyacinth speaks of the vending their wares, pedlars, mounte- “insupportable odour," meeting one banks, quack-doctors, and policemen everywhere in walking through the with bamboo canes pushing about among more thickly peopled parts. them to keep order; while up and down II. WAI-TCHING, OR THE SOUTHERN at a slow rate in the midst, through all City.—This second division of Pekin, the interruptions, go vehicles, foot-pas- also known as the outer or Chinese city, sengers, strings of dromedaries, men on is more thickly built on than the northhorseback, and occasionally Tartar horse- ern division-resembling it in its main women-for the Tartar women go about features where it is occupied by houses, more freely than the Chinese, and do but distinguished chiefly as the quarter not compress their feet. At the inter- where there are the theatres and other section of these main streets with the places of public amusement for the cross streets, are curious structures look- Pekinese, and as having a large portion ing like triumphal arches, which are of its space occupied by two great temreally monuments to illustrious persons, ples. One of these is

One of these is “Teen-Tan," At night the roar of the great streets or “the Temple to Heaven," occupying, continues, and torches and painted paper with its grounds, a circuit of three Temple to Earth,” within the circuit of would rescue or release their captured which the Emperor performs every year fellow-countrymen, and that 5th of the national ceremony of ploughing with November to which, while we write, the his own hands.

last despatch carries us back—what a

The

story of striking transactions ! In the vicinity of Pekin, both in the suburbs close to the walls, and at some

resolute advance of the allies-Lord distance along the paved roads which Elgin showing himself nobly equal to lead from the gates, there are many ob

the emergency; the occupation and jects of interest—temples, shrines, &c.

looting " of the Imperial summerFrom the east side of the Chinese city

palace of Yuen-men-yuen ; the preparagoes the Imperial canal, and from the

tions for an assault on Pekin itself; the same side of the Tartar city a broad,

inch-by-inch yielding of the Imperial

officials under the terror of these prelevel, granite-paved road—both joining Pekin with the town of Tung-chow, about parations; the cession of two of the twelve miles off, situated on the Peiho.

gates of the city to the Allies ; their enAnother road, leaving Pekin on the

campment on the walls, and the raising

there of the British and French flagsnorth side, leads to the great Chinese wall, at a place called Keu-pi-keu, and

the rumour of which event, as of nothing

less than the fall of Pekin and the overthence to the imperial residence of Yeh

throw of the rule of the Flowery Emhol, in Tartary, 136 miles north-east from Pekin. Hither it was that Lord

peror, may even now be flying through Macartney followed the Emperor in his

the Asiatic populations; the dispersion embassy of 1792-3. Much nearer to

of the Tartar army, and the flight of the Pekin—distant, indeed, but a few miles Emperor to Yeh-hol ; the subsequent in a north-west direction—is the famous

negotiations, and their consummation in “Yuen-men-yuen,” or summer residence

a new, and, it is to be hoped, lasting of the Chinese Emperors. The grounds treaty, equal to that of Tientsin, if not of “Yuen-men-yuen,” says Barrow,

of larger scope; the evacuation of are at least ten English miles in dia- Pekin, leaving the Emperor free to remeter, and consist of waste and wood

turn, and undertake his dominions again, lands, in part not unlike Richmond

a wiser and a better man, under the new

conditions which the barbarians from the Park, with canals, streams, sheets of water, hills, pleasure-houses, gardens,

west had imposed of all this the and thirty distinct places of residence

newspapers have recently informed us, for the Emperor, with attached offices though we still expect the details. Minfor his ministers, eunuchs, &c. Here gled with all this is the thought of the Chinese landscape-gardening and Chinese

sufferings, and the deaths, of those of architecture were to be seen to perfec

our fellow-countrymen whose capture is tion. Mr. Barrow, however, does not

the incident round which the rest censeem to have thought much of either,

tres. Of these men, martyrs in this last or indeed of the boasted splendour of enterprise of British arms, we ought to Yuen-men-yuen generally.

hold the memory sacred ; and, not the

least, of that one among them who (if Respecting all this remote region of our fears prove true) has fallen a victim Eastern Asia, including Pekin and its in a peculiar career of literary servicevicinity, we shall, doubtless, soon learn

upon whom his countrymen at home a great deal that will supersede or an- depended for the fullest reports from tiquate much that has been here set those scenes of quaint interest and of down. For, in the interval between danger-and from whom, had he lived that 22nd of September, when the and been at liberty, they would by this British and French forces were still at time have had pictures, such as some short distance from Pekin, with hardly now be looked for soon, of “ the their blood roused for any course that Chinese capital, Pekin.”

can

MACMILLAN’S MAGAZINE.

FEBRUARY, 1861.

THE LAST OF THE PROTECTIONISTS: A PASSAGE OF PARLIA

MENTARY HISTORY.

BY W. SKEEN,

more

curse

The annals of our party dissensions do of society as a repeal of the Corn not supply an instance where the Laws, has been fulfilled in a still wider victory of the conquerors was sense than even he perhaps meant it. complete, or the submission of the van- The clamours of the poor against the quished more prompt and decided, than rich have been stilled; the gladiators in the case of the great fight that was who fought front to front in the arena fought out within the

walls of Parliament have long since shaken hands. It fourteen years ago.

The beneficent would be a strange thing now to hear fruits of the Corn Law Repeal were so

either farmer or squire

the palpable in their evidence, and so rapid treachery of Sir Robert Peel; and those in their growth, that the men who pro- who enjoy the fruits of the victory he phesied all manner of evil from the won for them may afford to look back measures of 1846 have since that time with interest, and even with a certain been left without a single pretext for the degree of admiration, on the struggles of maintenance of their opinions. The the men who did their best to withhold great majority, indeed, have with grace them, and who, taken all at unawares, ful candour confessed their error; and, still made so gallant a defence, and though here and there one of the old fought so desperately on behalf of what Protectionists—the “cannon balls,” as they at least believed to be the cause of they have been designated-may still the country: be encountered, it is well understood They undoubtedly fought at a disadthat his consistency in the face of light vantage. The men in whom they had is due quite as much to the obstinacy of been accustomed to repose' their confipride, or to the idiosyncrasy of the indi- dence suddenly moved from their side, vidual, as to the convictions of the poli- and went over to the camp of their tician. The country has reaped the adversaries. It was not the ministers advantages of this in every way. The alone, though that would have been material prosperity which followed with aggravation enough ; but almost every a full flood the repeal has not only man of their party who had been accusincreased the national resources to an

tomed to address the House with anyamazing extent, but it has put the thing like acceptance announced his different classes of the community into intention of following in the ministerial good humour with each other. Dr. track. Upon the bulk of the party the Chalmers's prediction, expressed in his new doctrines had made no impression ; own terse language, that nothing would but then they were of the class whom tend so much “ to sweeten the breath nature had formed for the lobby rather than the floor of the House, and who in- out in stronger relief than was manifluenced divisions rather than debates- fested by the county members in the men who would shrink from the echoes hour of their surprise. With the chaof their own voices if they heard them racter of the arguments they used we within the walls of St. Stephen's ex- have here nothing to do. History can pressing any more articulate sounds charitably afford to forget them ; but than " Hear, hear.

That their rage

those who would most condemn their was at the highest all knew, but many perversity will ever be forward to addoubted whether even then it would mire the courage with which, believing boil over in words. Many excruciating what they said and did to be right, jokes were made against the poor Pro- they devoted themselves to their task, tectionists, in those days left guideless the energy they flung into their cause, as a flock of their own sheep when the and the pertinacious resistance which bellwethers have been removed. It contested to the last inch of ground was exultingly proclaimed in Free what was from the first a manifestly Trade circles, how each squire at the hopeless battle. Carlton was urging his bucolic brother After all, there was found to be no to stand up in the House, and make a lack of speakers. Out of the wreck of martyr of himself in the cause of his the party a few tolerable orators were country and protection, and how each, still found remaining on their side, as the honour was offered him, passed among whom Mr. Disraeli

, having an it round, and professed his willingness envenomed personal quarrel to fight out to undertake any part but that.

He

with the Minister, was then as now would attend in his place; he would facile princeps ; and there were plenty shout himself hoarse in cheering what- of youthful aspirants for fame ready to ever the orators on his side might fill up the gaps caused by the desertions. advance, without at all inquiring into The men who had been for years in the quality of the address ; but as for the House of Commons and the men making a speech himself, that he neither who entered yesterday were in some could nor would do! The Free Traders respects on a level ; a short and direct therefore hugged themselves in the ex- way to distinction was open to any one pectation of an easy and rapid victory, who might have the boldness to snatch not because they hoped to convince and the intellect to retain it. their opponents, but because they be- party was shaping itself out of the wreck lieved their opponents would have of the old, and its adherents were fully nothing to say. The speeches, they as- conscious that their success depended on serted, as well as the arguments, would organization, discipline, and, over and be all on one side. On that point, how- above all, -as agents in enforcing both, ever, they were mistaken. Surprised, -leaders. But for the present the leadabandoned, deserted—as they believed, ing staff lay on the ground, waiting for betrayed—the Protectionistsstill showed the bold hand to grasp it. The glitin that hour of their extremity the tering prize was displayed full in view characteristics of their English blood to tempt the young and ambitious poliand breeding. Though cowed, they tician. Who was to be the fortunate man were not panic-stricken ; deprived of that in this hour of chaos would step forth their old leaders, and hardly as yet to assuage the jarring elements, assign knowing in whom to trust, they closed each man his place, and concentrate and their ranks, stood shoulder to shoulder, direct the energies of those sanguine and determined to fight it out to the but perplexed politicians, who, helpless last. Not even on that fearful morning in their disorganization, stood ready to when the British army on the heights welcome the first who should prove of Inkermann fought and won their himself fit for command, to elevate him glorious “soldier's victory," did the on their shields, and proclaim him for stubborn endurance of our race stand their chief. Aspirations after such a

A new

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