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amount of skill to do it properly. The well-known prismatic colours. The cut workman, by a sort of intuitive know- drops of glass chandeliers show a familedge, gained by long experience, knows, liar example of these properties. Now, on a careful inspection of the stone, the the degree in which this effect is proexact direction which a cleavage plane duced by any substance depends on the passing through the flaw will take. refractive power it possesses, and it so Tracing this plane therefore to the exte- happens that the diamond has this rior, he makes on the edge of the stone, power in an extraordinarily high degree, precisely in that spot, a slight nick with its index of refraction being 2:47, while another diamond. He then places a small that of glass, or rock crystal, is only knife in that nick, gives it a light tap about 1.6, and of water 1.3. The with a hammer, and the stone at once effect of this great refractive capability, cleaves in two, directly through the particularly when aided by judicious flaw. This operation, in daily practice cutting, is, instead of allowing the light in the Amsterdam works, is one of the to pass through, to throw it about, backmost elegant and instructive processes wards and forwards in the body of the in the whole range of mineralogy. It stone, and ultimately to dart it out again is reported that Dr. Woilaston, cele- in all sorts of directions, and in the most brated as almost the originator of the brilliant array of mingled colours; and science of crystallography, once made a this is this marvellous effect that meets handsome sum by purchasing a large the

eye.

Sir David Brewster has shown1 flawed diamond from Rundall and that the play of colours is enhanced by Bridge at a low price, and subsequently the small dispersive power of the diasplitting it into smaller sound and

mond, in comparison with its refractive valuable stones; the principle of the properties. operation not being then generally It is often supposed that diamonds known.

are essentially colourless, but this is a Another use of the cleavage principle mistake; they exist of many colours, is in the preparation of diamond powder. yellow, orange, pink, blue, green, brown, Small diamonds of inferior quality, are and black. Three-fourths of the stones put into a steel mortar, and pounded found are tinged with some colour or and rubbed with a steel pestle, when other, mostly pale yellow, or yellow they break up through their various brown. The perfectly pure and colourcleavage planes into still smaller pieces, less ones are selected as the most valuand at last rub themselves into the able for the general market; but it finest dust, fit for use on the wheel. sometimes happens that fine stones of a

The cause of the wonderful brilliancy decided colour are more prized than of the diamond is not popularly known. white, from their peculiar rarity and It has no inherent luminous power; it beauty:? A blue diamond of about fiftyis simply transparent, like common glass, six carats, belonging to Mr. Hope, is a and yet, if the latter were cut into the celebrated stone, combining the beautiform of a brilliant, it could no more be ful colour of the sapphire with the fire mistaken for a real one than for a sap- and brilliancy of the diamond. phire or an emerald.

The secret, there- The quality of diamonds depends upon fore, of the brilliancy of the diamond their colour, purity, transparency, and must lie in something other than its freedom from flaws. Stones perfectly clearness or its transparency. It is

It is colourless, pure, clear, and free from all owing to its great refractive power. defects, are said to be of “the first When rays of white light pass through water;" if they have slight imperfectransparent substances they are tions, they are of the second water;" fracted, or bent out of their former

1 North British Review, Nov. 1852. course, and under certain circumstances

2 A fine collection of coloured diamonds, beare separated into their constituent ele

longing to Mr. Tennant, are now exhibiting at ments, and dispersed in the form of the the Kensington Museum.

2

a

re

a

and, if tinged with colour, or otherwise This rule will, however, hold only up very defective, of “the third water." to the limit of stones in ordinary sale.

The value is estimated according to Such as are very large and of exceptional the weight, which is expressed in carats; production cannot be valued by any one carat being about 205 French milli- rule; they are worth just what the state grammes, or 37 grains troy.

of the demand among crowned heads and For small stones, not exceeding one millionaires will enable their holders to carat in weight, the value may be as- get for them. sumed approximately to be proportional The general value of diamonds has to the weight; but, as the stones increase been rising of late years ; for, though the in size, this rule does not apply—the production is not scanty, the demand, larger ones being more rare, and there- owing to general prosperity, and the fore having a value greater than is due extension of ornament to wider classes to their mere size. To provide for this, in society, is largely on the increase. it is generally assumed that, above one Imitations of diamonds are generally carat, the value shall increase as the of one of the following three kinds : square of the weight-i.l., that a stone 1. White Topaz.- This is nearly as double the weight of another shall have 'hard as diamond, and about the same four times the value ; treble the weight, specific gravity, and may therefore be nine times the value ; ten times the mistaken for it when tried by these weight, one hundred times the value, tests. A London jeweller died lately in and so on.

the belief that a fine stone he had come The money value of diamonds is a into the possession of was a valuable difficult subject to touch upon, as diamond, and left large legacies to be distinction must always be drawn be- paid out of the proceeds of its sale; but tween the retail price asked by jewellers it proved, on examination, to be only a from the public, and the real market white topaz, and of very little value. price of the diamonds as sold by the The difference may be recognised by the dealers. Moreover, the value will al- optical qualities, which differ much in ways vary according to the state of the the two stones. market, as well as according to the

2. Rock Crystal (Brighton diamonds, quality and cut of the stones. As a Irish diamonds, &c.).—This substance, rough approximation, brilliants of first- though hard enough to scratch glass, is rate quality, and perfect in every respect, much softer than diamond, and is easily may be estimated at about 121. per scratched by it. It is also much inferior carat; reducible to half this, or even in brilliancy and in specific gravity. less, for stones of inferior water. Ac- 3. Paste.--This, which is a glass cording, therefore, to the rule of the prepared with metallic oxides, can be weight above laid down, a diamond of made equal to diamond in refractive half a carat might be estimated as worth power, and therefore can be given a 61. ; but one of two carats would be great brilliancy; but it is very soft, worth 2 x 2 x 12 481; one of five softer even than common glass, and it carats 5 x 5 x 12 = 3001; and so on.1 does not retain its lustre. 1 Referring to the square' or best form of

There is also a method of deception brilliants, the solid content of a cut stone, of sometimes practised by what is called proper proportions, is about of that of the

half-brilliants; i. e. stones in the form circumscribing parallelopipedon; and, taking the Sp. gr. at 3-5, we shall obtain the following

Weight rule. Let d = side of the square, or breadth

125' across the girdle, and t= the thickness of the

26 stone, from table to collet; both in tenths of

or the value in £

so that the

13 to 30, an inch ;-then

worth of stones varies, cæteris paribus, as the à ? Weight in carats =

sixth power of their lineal dimensions. The

height of the table above the girdle should be In a well proportioned stone t should be = }t;- the depth of the collet below

d3

8.3

of brilliants, in which the upper pyra- then hanged himself for remorse. The mid is a real diamond, and the lower diamond was purchased from Pitt by a piece of some inferior stone, cemented the Regent of France, for 135,0001. It to it; the whole being set so as to hide weighed 410 carats in its rough state, the junction. When this deception is but was cut into a fine brilliant of 137 suspected, the stone should be taken carats, thus losing two-thirds of its out of its setting for examination. weight in the operation. It is said to

A very remarkable discovery has be the finest diamond (though not the lately been made, that the chemical largest) in the world, in beauty of form, element boron, the base of the common and purity of water. During the reign substance borax, may, by a peculiar pro- of terror, when the Tuileries were pluncess, be obtained in transparent crystals dered, the diamond disappeared, along which possess the high refractive power with all the other crown jewels; but of the diamond, and a hardness as great, it turned up again, and was pledged by if not greater. At present, the crystals the Republic to a merchant in Berlin. produced have been too small to be of Redeemed at a later period, it emcommercial value ; but it is quite possible bellished the sword of Napoleon I., and that, hereafter, the discovery may prove was taken by the Prussians after the to be of great importance.

battle of Waterloo. It is now in the It only remains to mention a few French crown, and was exhibited in the particular stones celebrated for their French Exhibition of 1855. size, and which have had, on account of The “Star of the South,” another their great value, a history of their own. large brilliant, was also exhibited there :

The largest stone professing to be a it was found lately in the Brazilian diamond is the “Braganza” found in mines, and weighs 125 caráts; it is of Brazil in 1741, and preserved, in its an oval shape ; 35 millimetres long, 29 rough state, in the Royal Treasury at wide, and 19 thick. It is very pure, Lisbon. It is as large as a hen's egg, but its colour is slightly inclining to and weighs 1680 carats ; but doubts pink. It is in private hands, and for are entertained whether it may not be sale. in reality only a white topaz and no The “Sancy" diamond, of 53! carats, diamond at all; a supposition which, as has a singular history. It came origithe Portuguese Government decline to nally from India, and, about the fifteenth allow it to be cut or sufficiently ex- century, was in the possession of the amined, would appear quite possible. luxurious Duke of Burgundy, Charles the

The largest authenticated diamond Bold, who wore it, probably as a talisman, known is that of the Rajah of Mattan in the unfortunate battle of Nancy, in in Borneo. It is of the purest water, Switzerland, where he was killed. A of a pear shape, and weighs 367 carats. common Swiss soldier, who discovered It was found a century ago at Landack, the body in a ditch, found the jewel in and has been the object of many wars the clothes, and, not knowing its value, for its possession.

sold it for a florin to a Swiss priest, The celebrated “Pitt” or “ Regent” who transferred it to the hands of the diamond was found in 1702, in the Confederacy. It subsequently came mines of Parteal, twenty miles from into the possession of the King of Masulipatam, by a slave, who having Portugal, who, in 1489, being in want concealed its discovery from his em- of money, parted with it to a French ployers, offered it to a sailor on condition trader. In the sixteenth century it that he would give him his freedom. found its way into the hands of a The sailor lured him on board his ship, Huguenot nobleman, the Baron of Sancy, threw him overboard, and sold the stone who happened to be in Soleure when to the then Governor of Fort St. George, King Henry III. was trying to negotiate whose name was Pitt, for 10001. ; he a loan. Sancy offered him, as a true quickly ran through the money and subject, the diamond, and his offer was accepted; but the messenger who was of all, is our own great diamond, the entrusted to convey it to the king (some celebrated Koh-i-noor ; the story of accounts say Sancy himself) was way- which would make a very fair true laid and murdered, but had time before romance of three goodly volumes. his death to swallow the stone, which Its origin is older than any historical subsequently was found in the stomach records reveal, but it can be traced of the corpse. The stone was next as far back as the beginning of the traced into the possession of James II. fourteenth century, when it came into of England, who took it with him when the treasury of Delhi ; and from this he fled to France in 1688, and after- time it became intimately associated wards, when he was in distress for with the entire history of the Indian money, parted with it to Louis XIV. for wars and dynasties, until, on the late 25,0001.—and Louis XV. is said to have annexation of the Punjab, it was taken worn it in the clasp of his hat at his possession of by our government, coronation. It vanished in 1792, but brought to England in 1850, and prereappeared in the Napoleon era, and sented to the Queen. It was shown at was sold for 500,000 silver rubles to the the international exhibition of 1851, Emperor of Russia, in whose possession in the state it was received, weighing it still remains.

186 carats; but it was so badly cut that The “Nassack” diamond was cap- its brilliancy scarcely exceeded that of a tured during the Mahratta war in India, piece of crystal, and it had several flaws in the Peishwa's baggage, by the com- and defects in its structure. The Queen, bined armies under the Marquis of after taking advice from competent Hastings; and, after changing hands seve- judges, decided to have it recut; which ral times, was purchased, about twenty was done in London (by workmen exyears ago, by the Marquis of Westminster.

pressly brought over from Amsterdam It was afterwards partly re-cut by Hunt for the purpose) in 1852. It has now and Roskell, and is now a beautiful the form of a regular brilliant ; and, colourless stone, weighing 78 carats. It though its weight has been reduced to is of a triangular or pear shape.

101, carats, it has become, what it never Many other large diamonds might was before, a most splendid jewel, be mentioned, each of which has a his- worthy of its royal mistress, whose tory, but perhaps the most interesting unsullied diadem may it long adorn!

A FEW WORDS ABOUT SORROW.

BY THE AUTHOR OF “JOHN HALIFAX, GENTLEMAN.”

Of which it is rather venturesome to say anything in this Democritan age, that boasts such a surplus of laughing philosophers. Our forefathers sentimentalised over their feelings — we are somewhat ashamed of having any ; they made the most of afflictions, real and imaginary-we are often disposed to turn grief itself into an excellent joke. A “broken heart” is a stock subject for humour ; yet some have known it; and few even of the worthiest of us have not

making a jest about funerals, just as if there were no such thing as dying. It is good to laugh, it is good to be merry; no human being is the better for always contemplating "the miseries of human life," and talking of “graves and worms and epitaphis.” Yet since sorrow, in its infinitely varied forms and solemn inward unity, is common to all, should we not sometimes pause to look at it, seriously, calmly, nor be afraid to speak of it, as a great fact—the only fact of of? And since we are so sure of it, will and bleeding inwardly, yet which may a few words more or less, suggesting prove a death wound; a fourth has how to deal with it in others, and how sustained some heavy visible blow or to bear it for ourselves, do us any harm? loss, which we all talk of, compassionI trow not.

ate, would fain comfort if we could, but For, laugh as we may, there is such a we cannot. These various shapes which thing as sorrow ; most people at some sorrow takes compose a common unity; portion of their lives have experienced and every heart which has once known it-no imaginary misery--no carefully its own bitterness, learns from thence to petted-up wrong ; no accidental anxiety, understand, in a measure, the bitterness or state of nervous irritable discontent, of every other human heart. The words, but a deep, abiding, inevitable sorrow. “He bore our griefs and carried our It may have come slowly or suddenly; sorrows,” -“ in all our afilictions he may weigh heavier or lighter at differ- was afilicted,” have a secondary and ent times, or according to our differing earthly as well as a Divine signiticance ; moods and temperaments; but it is and to be “acquainted with grief,” gives there--a settled reality not to be escaped to any man a power of consolation, from. At bed and board, in work or which seems to come direct through play, alone and in company, it keeps him from the great Comforter of all. to us, as close as our shadow, and as The “ Christus Consolator which certainly following. And so we know it Scheffer painted,—the Man Divine, surwill remain with us ; for months, for rounded by, and relieving every form years-perhaps even to the other world. of human anguish, is a noble type of

Therefore what can we preach to our- this power, to attain which all must selves, or to our fellows, concerning it? feel that their own anguish has been Perhaps the wisest lesson of all is that cheaply purchased, if by means of it of the ancient Hebrew, who laid his they may have learned to minister unto hand upon his mouth, because THOU all these. didst it.” For sorrow is a holy thing. This ministry of consolation is not The meanest mortal who can say truly, necessarily external, or intentional. We “ Here I and sorrow sit,"

must all have sometimes felt, that the

people who do us most good are those feels also somewhat of the silent conse- who are absolutely unaware of doing it. cration of that awful companionship, Even as “baby-fingers, waxen touches,” which may well

will melt into flesh and blood again a “ Bid kings come bow to it,"

heart that has seemed slowly turning into

stone, so the chance influence of someyet elevates the sufferer liimself to a thing or somebody, intrinsically and unhigher condition of humanity, and brings consciously good, will often soothe us him nearer to the presence of the King like a waft of sweet scent borne across of kings.

a dull high-road from over a garden wall. Grief is a softening thing, from its It may be the sight of peaceful, lovely, very universality. Ex uno disce omnes. beloved old

says silently and Your child, my neighbour, may be smilingly, “And yet I have suffered dying, or giving you anguish sharp as too;" or the brightness in some young death; my own familiar friend may face, honest and brave, which reminds a have lifted up his heel against me, man of the days of his own youth, and causing me now, and perhaps for ever, shames him out of irresolution or cynical to doubt if there be such a thing as unbelief, daring him, as it were, to be fidelity, or honour, or honesty in the such a coward as to let his after life world ; a third, whom we all know and give the lie to the aspirations of his meet daily, may have received yester- prime. Or the influence, more fugitive day, or last week, or last month, some still, comes from a word or two in a small accidental stab, altogether inward, book, or a look in a stranger's face,

age, which

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