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had begged to have his mother sent for them knew what chloride was : I begged from Florence, and S- had just been them not to eat it, and to ask the doctor able to write to her by the same day's to let it remain until I came again. boat; otherwise a week would have been Thursday.-I went with Dr. and Mrs. lost. She said it was touching to see Strange to the hospital of San Sebastian, him when she had written the letter- of the Jesuits, to see the English there. how he threw his head from side to side, It is under the direction of Madame crying, “ Subito, Subito! Madre !" in a Mario, formerly Miss Jessie White. kind of despairing, entreating voice. We The English are in four little airy rooms found him with a nice, gentle-mannered, very high up, with cheerful windows, elderly man by his side, who was his whence they can look over the housefather, just arrived, having set off the tops to the green hill-side. They are same day that he got the letter. In the attended by a Scotch doctor named next bed lay a man with blood flowing McKenzie, who took his degree in Gerfrom his breast, and face livid, and many, and by a nice little Irish Sister working in great agony : he was a of Mercy-such a blooming pretty little Neapolitan, just brought in, who had thing—who was very much delighted to been stabbed in aq el over cards and find I had been at the convent of St. money. The knife had touched his heart, Stephen's Green, whence she was sent and he had not half an hour to live : out to come here. Most of the men are two women stood wailing over him. Scotch, and very enthusiastic. Some of All quarrels and stabbing here are about the ladies tell them that they were fools money ; it is the one thing that rouses to come out. I have it very much at the Neapolitans to energy and passion. heart that they should be a credit to us; Is it not well that, in fault of a still in fighting of course they will—but I higher object, they should learn even to wish that they should be well-behaved worship a character like Garibaldi's ?
in every way; and I don't think it will This shocked me more than all else I encourage discipline and good behaviour had seen : the power to look on pain to teach them contempt for the service and death seemed suddenly to desert me, they had entered. I therefore said all I when the holy cause was no longer could, to show them what a noble cause there to sanctify them.
it is, and how proper for the English to Tuesday.—We went at our usual hour. help the Italians to secure what God has Madame B- accompanied me to the given them. I wish you could have seen fever labyrinth ; I went straight to the how the faces of those young Scots bed of the poor fellow who had fallen brightened up at my few words. I think into the hands of the enemy, with strong they had become, at the discouragebeef tea for him. Alas! the bed was ment of some of the English ladies, empty! I could have cried ; I had so a little ashamed of what they had done ; much longed to cherish him back to but now they came out quite eagerly consciousness; it seemed hard for the with what they had “thought"-that light to go out from a nameless unknown they must come out and lend a helping cause, and not even to know who he was. hand. I was very much pleased with He was not very young ; perhaps his wife the style of men they are ; not at all and children are waiting for him. He the “ne'er-do-well” adventurers that died in great agony at seven that morn- some here pretend. Most are of the welling; he seemed to be struggling hard to educated Presbyterian middle class, who utter some word, but could not.
use grand words when they talk. I had brought a quantity of the was a watchmaker, another a “traveller strongest chloride of lime from the to a house;" one an Edinburgh man, English Pharmacy, and bought some another a tall fair Cumberland man. common plates ; and I set it all about the There were two well-mannered Lonworst rooins, and gave a lump of cam- doners-one a clerk in a merchant's phor in muslin to each bed. None of office, and a Sunday-school teacher.
Friday.—We had a long day in the dishonesty is brought home to him hospitals—the first part with our own by disastrous proof. There must be a fifty-two patients. The only one of want in his intellect, through which them who was worse was the nice young he has not yet learned this lesson ; fellow who had the great wine glass though it only adds to the perfection of shaped ball through his shoulders. He his heart, for which all love him so had been going on well ; but, dear silly much. A week ago he had a sad disfellow, he lost his head with joy on appointment about a wholesale robbery Sunday to see Garibaldi, and jumped which had been committed by a number out of bed-he who was never allowed of his Calabrian volunteers. He had to change his position and the wounds just been told of it, and had dismissed broke out bleeding. He has gone back, them from his service, and was breaking and the doctor thought very badly of his honourable sensitive heart over it in him. Later we went to the Jesuits to his own little room, where a friend of see the English again.
I gave to each
his who told us the story went to of the rooms a packet of tea and sugar, inform him that the ministry here had and to each a spoon to keep, as they put aside his measures and were about never have any ; but the present at to substitute others. He told him rather which their faces brightened the most timidly, thinking how it would vex was a great lump of brown soap for each him, to whom they owed everything, little room ; they exclaimed, “Now, to have his authority set at nought: won't we have a wash ?" The first since but he was already so cut to the heart they came to Naples ! I gave them about his men having been thieves, plenty of books.
that he threw himself into his friend's I must not forget to tell you
my arms, and said, “Let all be done for triumph over the smells before leaving the good of Italy; do not give a thought the Apostoli. After finishing with our own sala we went up to the fever Most certainly he is not a diplomatist; wards. I ran along to find out how the if he were he would not be Garibaldi. smells were, and, behold, the rooms were I daresay there may be five or ten dipnot worse than ordinary fever rooms. I lomatists in the world, but there is went to see if the cause was removed; but only one Garibaldi. It is just his unthat was the same. S_ had asked one diplomatic character which makes him of the men if anything had been done. the real hero, but which also unfortuHe answered, “No; only three days ago nately makes him have no sympathy a lady came and put white stuff in plates with, but rather a repulsion against, the about the floors (where it still was), and secret scheming, and long-laid halfsince then we have not been tormented.” avowed trains of Cavour. It is a pity He then broke out into an eloquent de- they are not friends ; but the nature of scription of their former sufferings. I had the two men precludes the possibility. no idea that chloride was so powerful Cavour, with his worldly wisdom, reto counteract an existing evil, and could gards Garibaldi as a fool, convenient to have danced for joy. There are still two be used as a tool at fitting times. Garimore floors higher up where we have baldi wants everything to be done never been. It dawns upon me that openly, from an avowed principle, and my true mission is to hunt up bad for an avowed end; and he believes that smells and try to cure them !
the right will be protected by heaven.
The one is the ideal of all that worldly EXTRACT 3.- GARIBALDI: HIS CHARACTER
wisdom and talent can effect; the other AND INFLUENCE.
the ideal of all that is morally exalted, all The one fault Garibaldi has is in
that makes the beauty and soul of chibeing too guileless and pure-minded valry: and they cannot walk together, any for this world. He cannot disbelieve more than stars and gas-lamps—the latter
showing people through the bogs and enough; but none of us had an idea, till puddles of man's world; the former more we were there, that they form only the powerful to raise men's hearts and fourth étage as it were of a four-storied thoughts to a higher tone.
building. We were taken about the I wish you could hear thoughtful men great square which they enclose, with here speak of what the conception of its barrack buildings, its mounds of such a character has even already done shells, its great guns and big mortars. for the degraded Neapolitans. They are When we had seen the top part, which a people quick of apprehension and ap- covers an immense space, they asked us preciation. Try to realise the disadvan- if we would like to see the covered battages they have had. They were never teries. They opened a large gate in the taught about Christ; and to many of them middle of the enclosed square, and with the idea of right for right's sake, and of a lantern we began to descend a wide all that is true, noble, and devoted, has paved road, almost as steep as a stairdawned upon them first through Gari- case. When we reached the lower level baldi, and already worked a kind of re- we found ourselves among immense tungeneration in their feelings and opinions. nels, very wide and lofty, which follow, Do not think me irreverent-I do not at a varying distance of from ten to give this more than its true weight; I thirty feet from the outside, the shape only mean that such an example and of the great rock on which the upper influence as his, acting upon the inner building stands. Wherever the tunnel character of the units which make up approached near enough to the outside, the vast population of the country, ap- the intervening mass was pierced with a pears to those who are here and observe great round hole, at which stood a cannon it, not a substitute for the Christian faith, (they now have all got their noses turned but a treasure of greater worth than any inwards); and from the heavy mysterishining statesman's qualities. We be- ous gloom of these huge caverns you lieve that it will make the people more caught sight of the most exquisite little worthy to profit by what statesmanship vignette views framed in black rock, may secure to them now; so that each sometimes fringed with maiden-hair will do his work. This part of Gari- fern---little pictures perfectly painted. baldi's work, however, is not so widely The effect was wonderful, from the conunderstood as his generalship. Even centration of light caused by looking the fighting could not have been success- through a tube, perhaps fifteen feet long, ful without him. If Victor Emmanuel with black darkness on our side. At had invaded, he would have probably one time it was the Red Palace with its found much more opposition here. It is arcades; at another a museum or church; Garibaldi who represents the moral then a bright bit of sea with men-offeeling, and embodies the longings which war riding at anchor. The maiden's hair have stirred all hearts; and this gave him was not growing at all; for some had the power all before him.
been newly chiselled out, to enable the EXTRACT 4.- VISIT TO ST. ELMO.
guns to be better pointed down into the
street. There were, perhaps, thirty in all. Saturday, 27th.— We went to St. Then they showed us the big ovens quite Elmo. You know from pictures that at hand to red-heat the balls that they the fortress is built on a rock, three might set fire to any building they sides of which shelve steeply down; struck, and balls standing near, waiting the fourth merges into the hill behind, to be heated. Some of the guns swept still standing somewhat higher than the the drawbridge and causeway by which hill.
one ascends from the outer wall ; and From the ramparts you see the whole there are all the necessaries for a body of Naples like a map spread out. The of troops to live down there, even if the huge walls of the fortress, growing outworks were taken-mills for grindstraight out of the rock, look imposing ing corn, bread-ovens, sleeping huts,
&c. This place is perfectly bomb proof. when inhabited by people who were They talked of destroying St. Elmo; but never let out, who had no mattresses, none of us could understand how they and had to wear their clothes night and could destroy this place, except by blast- day! And, if so much cheating goes on ing away the entire hill.
about the food in the hospitals, which Here and there were trap-doors which are open to every visitor, how may we led down to lower étage just like the imagine these people were fed ! upper one: that makes three floors; and There was one cell still worse than the now come the dungeons.
others. A little winding staircase led up These have no communication with to it. Even with the door wide open you the batteries. To reach them we went could not see the person at your elbow. a long way down the sloping covered Of course I had heard and read all about road which leads to the Castle from the the prisons, as you will read this ; but, drawbridge. I think the door we went standing there, it came upon me as it in by was on a level with the mouths had never done before, as a new sense, of those wicked gun-holes. After enter- what it would be to have that door shut ing it we went still further down steps upon one. Even when it was open, the and sloping passages cut roughly in the darkness seemed to weigh like a year of rock, until we came to a large circular midnight on my chest, and to crush dome-shaped cavern, the light of wbich the breath out. I don't think I should was very dim. At one side of this cave- have courage to try to keep alive there; hall, there was a funnel-shaped opening, should lie down on that plank bed beginning wide and growing narrower, and never move any more. A man was until it reached the face of the rock and kept sixteen years in that hole! In open air, where it was heavily barred. that moment the last spark of pity I I think it looked towards the sea and had felt for the Bourbons died out of islands of the west, but we could not me, and I could have clapped my hands see anything distinctly. All around for joy to think that it was over.
In this hall were little huts of mason work, other countries a single abuse may arise, detached one from the other, that there like that on which Charles Reade, has might be less chance of communication. founded his novel Never too late to They had heavy doors faced with iron, mend; but this was the system upheld if I remember rightly, and in each door by the Government, and known in all a little window with a heavy shutter its details to Bomba at least, and made and bolts ; and it was only through this use of not against criminals, but against window that the cell could borrow a noble-minded men-against many even little light from the large cave which stupidly innocent, who had not an idea was already so dim, and from which not of being patriots, but in whose dusty a speck of green or of sky could be seen. book-shelves might have been found I imagine, from the shape of the bars in some book with a forbidden name or the little window, that the door was word in its pages, which had probably never opened even to give food. The never been opened by its present owner. windows had an opening into which There is a good reason for never finding you could have slid a soup plate, which a library in the house of a Neapolitan. will give you an idea of their size ; and But these are not the worst prisons. the people there confidently assert that They are dry : there are others by the the shutters were closed by day. In- sea which drip night and day; and a side each hut was a bed made of two gentleman who was with us had been boards, fixed in the corner, a little informed by one of the released prisonsloping, to save a pillow ; in one the ers of a torture invented by his jailorbed was of stone, with a pillow cut in to dash on him, through an opening at stone. They have been cleaned out and the top, cold water at any time, night or white-washed, but the stench is still day. He could not avoid it in any part
without expecting it. It became a haunt- have taken thousands of feet to wear ing terror to him, and he had to remain the steps like this ; and certainly those shivering in his wet clothes until they feet had not carried people there for dried
upon him. It was a way of ex- their own pleasure. There is another torting money from the friends of a gate at the bottom, and more cells prisoner, to torture him unless bribed opening upon the stairs. It is true that not to do so. There were names and all around the sides of this cave, about dates inscribed on the rock-one of a the height of a man's head and chest, Spanish nobleman 200 years ago. Some the walls are marked with round holes, told of very long imprisonments : it which Captain said he could not seemed as if the very rocks were im- imagine having been made by anything pregnated with sighs and tears, and but a bullet. Supposing that this was used groans, and as if they weighed and not for political prisoners, but in cases crushed one's heart with misery.
of military revolt, yet what a system to But there is more to tell, very horrible put men into a wild beast's hole and and mysterious. In the middle of this shoot them down, instead of having an large cave there was a great round hole, open execution after fair trial! The best with a low parapet wall enclosing it ; colour one can put upon it is horrible. and, looking down into it, we saw another I took the children: it will not be my hall cut in the rock, like that in which fault if they do not grow up haters of we stood-larger because of not being tyranny and dark dealing. I did not filled with the cells, and very deep- allow them, however, to go into the cells, lighted by a slanting shaft to the open- lest they should be poisoned ; but sent ing of the upper one.
They told us
them up into the blessed light of day. that this was the place in which they When we came up again upon the huge used to put a number of prisoners, ramparts, and saw the celestial looking whom they wanted to get rid of, together, sunset over the peaks of Ischia, and the and shoot them from above. There was rosy clouds mirrored in the bay, it made an iron gate in the side of the upper my heart ache the more for those who had hall which led down by a staircase cut spent years without being able to tell in the rock to the under one—a wide the winter from the summer, scarcely staircase, the ends of the steps sharp, the day from the night. I hope many but in the middle worn into one con- of them have it made up to them now tinuous slope. Even if the story of the in glories which the eye of man hath shooting is an exaggeration, it must not seen, nor his ear heard.
Not that three armies thou didst overthrow,