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tion :

“ bitterly deplore his godless senti- appeal to no private scandal ; we repeat “ ments.”—(P. 38.)

no anecdotes ; we quote the dicta only of The Rev. J. C. Ryle remarks that the leaders of the party. Of individual inExeter Hall is a fifth estate of the tolerance we do not complain; it is a fault realm. He laments that young men common to all ages and all parties. We are not as satisfactory as could be wished. shall not quote the Record ; even though “ How often, after writing to friends, some of the leaders acknowledge it as “ and then advertising in the Record, their organ, by publishing their views in “ Evangelical clergymen are obliged to its columns, we shall yet not urge against

put up with curates not established in their followers the rancour of which very “ the faith, and not up to the mark, many of them disapprove. When a “ simply because no others are to be minister of a central manufacturing town, “ met with.” He laments that no effort who is usually courteous, and a favouris made to “put out of the Church” able specimen of his school, says that if men who differ from him in their views he knew any clergyman to hold the exof inspiration and future punishment. treme High Church view of the doctrine One more quotation we must give, and of Confession he would not allow him then dismiss the discourse with satisfac- to enter his family—“he could not trust

him,"—we have no wish to charge the “ It is not uncommon now to hear of saying upon all those whose champion “ High-churchmen saying to Evangelical he is. But, when in every step that is

clergymen, as was said in the time of taken in common by clergymen of this “ Ezra and Nehemiah, by Sanballat and party, in every union for purposes of “ Tobiah, “Let us build with you.' But philanthropy or spiritual communion “ let us not be taken in by such sophis- there springs up at once a polemic spirit,

try. Better build by ourselves, better often bitter and always uncompromising, “ let the work go on slowly, than allow it is a sign that the party in which such “ Sanballat and Tobiah to come and can be the case has done its work, is “ build by our side. I believe that all shorn of half its strength for other and “ communion of that sort, all inter- holier purposes, and had better die. “change of pulpits with unsound men, But the Evangelical party is redeemed “ is to be deprecated, as doing nothing by the working of its parishes. It is to “ but harm to the cause of God. I be- its credit that it is foremost in united “ lieve that by so doing we endorse the schemes of charity: it is to its credit, “sentiments of persons who have no to some extent, that foreign missions “real love of Christ's truth.

have so increased and spread. But that “ able the High-church party to manu- which saves it from wreck, which atones 6 facture ecclesiastical capital out of the for its arbitrary social maxims, which " Evangelical clergy, and to make people partly conceals its obnoxious polemie “ believe that we are all one in heart, organization, is the fact that the Evan“when, in reality, we differ in first gelical clergy, as a body, are indefatigable “ principles. From such unity and co- in ministerial duties, and devoted, heart " operation we pray to be delivered.” and soul, to the manifold labours of

Such are the chief features of the Christian love. The school, the savingsorganisation of a powerful and active bank, the refuge, all the engines of paschool in the Church of England. If rochial usefulness, find in them, for the ever that Church is to be again the most part, hearty supporters and friends. Church of the nation, if ever it is to There is a positive literature of parish lead a grand attack on vice, and folly, machinery. We have now before us a and worldliness, it cannot be by the small work on the subject by the miniscontinuance among this large portion of ter of a large parish in the south-west of her clergy of the spirit which seems to London, which gives the details of the animate their collective action. In esti- administration of such a system. The

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fiercest partisans; and it contains through events more than one,—which has been out not one word of religious sectarianism generally accepted as a signal addition or hostile inuendo. Instead, there are to the stores of theological speculation or practical suggestions and information on criticism. Their most distinguished topics of which the following are some : men are not men of conspicuous learn

- books for the sick, arrangement of ing; their most highly prized writings pulpit, management of voice, district seem even to slight the acquirements of visitors, psalmody, almoners, Sunday science and scholarship. And this is and other schools, maternity fund, early the case not only in their practice, but communion, charity sermons, meetings, in their theory. The spiritual element parish accounts, school books, rewards, of our nature is so highly exalted, that confirmation classes, the cooking of rice, the intellectual is looked upon with abrelief tickets, penny banks, soup in time solute suspicion. “The cultivation of of cholera, lending library, cottage lec- the intellectual powers,” says Dr. Close tures, open-air services, working men's (Sermons, 1842, p. 149), “can of itself seats in church, local collections, and “ have no tendency towards moral or books of memoranda. This parish, we “spiritual good. ... Time cannot alter are bound to say, is but a specimen of “ the deteriorating tendency of unasmany; and we could quote, but that “ sisted human intellect.” Of all studies such work is not the nobler for the discordant with the Church of England, praise of men, similar tracts, supplying Mr. Clayton, a well-known evangelical for parish circulation the annual narra- preacher, writes (Sermons, p. 239) : tive of progress in this kind of work.

Young persons should especially be It is not necessary to dwell long on the “ careful to turn away from all such subject; it is patent, and easily appre- dangerous speculations.” Mr. Ryle, ciated. But when the history of the even when speaking of the duty of readEvangelical party is written, it will be ing and study, which he allows to be told of them, that with narrow-minded- neglected, makes the singular exception, ness and mistaken traditions, with little “I do not mean that we ought to read intellectual acquirements and ill-directed things which do not throw light upon zeal against their brothers in the Church, “ the word of God” (Home Truths, vol. they yet worked manfully in the pesti- vi.), and in his preface to a commentary lent and heathen by-ways of our cities, on St. Luke, shows his idea of the value and preached the gospel to the poor. of accurate criticism by the remark that

It remains to say a few words on the “the various readings' of the New intellectual attitude of the party. This “ Testament are of infinitesimally small is not the occasion to discuss points of “ importance." The Rev. C. Bridges doctrine, or examine questions of eccle- (Weston Address, p. 46), somewhat siastical polity. But it is impossible not naïvely confesses, "with regard to the to remark that the position which this snares for the intellect, if we seek to body of clergymen, the appointed guides “ meet the great reasoner on his own to thinking and reflecting fellow-men, “ ground, he is more than a match for have deliberately and almost unani

us ;

and Canon Stowell, apparently mously adopted, is one of direct an- with regard to a late edition of the New tagonism to intellectual progress and Testament, laments that “at this time research. In this one point they have some of our learned and critical men followed the tradition of the elders. “ do us more injury than advantage.” Venn wrote, in 1780, “Our God never Now it is well known that the last

prescribes a critical study of the few years have been years of great ad“ Hebrew text;" and since then it is vance in theological knowledge. Science, hardly too much to say, that his fol- ethnology, the history of language, aclowers have not led public opinion in curate scholarship, are doing much to any one point of mental advancement, assist the study of the Bible, and further or contributed one single work,—at all the progress of religious thought. It is

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probable that much will be done by the Reformation have been lost, this has not pursuit of these studies to modify quite died yet. Is it yet possible that opinions and suggest new canons of a fuller knowledge of the tendencies of criticism. We have no wish that it the age, and some mighty resurrection should be otherwise. Religious thought from the narrowness of organised partiwas never intended to stagnate. Novelty zanship may change the current of their is not, indeed, a mark of truth ; but sympathies, and make them, even now, obstructiveness in matters of theory is a champions, not of change, but of incertain guide to error. And, therefore, quiry, and research, and development? towards new phases of sacred speculation It cannot be, while they believe the the attitude of a lover of truth will be, sentiment of Dr. Close, in his Lectures not antagonistic virulence, but judicial on the Evidences, that Revelation was impartiality. He will not be rash to not meant to gratify a proud investiadopt the guesses of a restless ambition; gation.” Investigation of every possible but he will not shut his eyes to reason- subject is the bounden duty of every able and probable argument. He will educated man, as far as his time and not deem the intellect the sovereign talents allow; and that investigation principle in man ; but he will determine, may well be proud which is the result in God's strength, to bring anything to of powers bestowed by the Almighty for the bar of reason. He will not read the the study of His mysteries.

If they apostolic precept as though it were refuse to acknowledge this duty ; if “Disprove all things ;" but he will no they cling to the crystallized system of more be driven from intellectual duty what was once a working and living by fear of consequences, than from moral. spirit, forgetting nothing, learning no

. He will give all reverence to those who thing; if they give all the energies of teach the soul : but, loyal to the ends their collective action to attack some to which man's nature points, he will difference of ecclesiastical creed, and all render unto mind the things that are the weight of their social influence to mind's. And so he will strive, without create artificial division in what God, partiality or without hypocrisy, to enter by forming human society, has prothe kingdom of God as a little child ; nounced united ; then all their labours and so act, if he may,

of parish charity, and schemes of world

wide philanthropy, will hardly save That mind and soul, according well,

them from the sentence which awaits May make one music.

all that is transitory, because artificial ; Is it possible that Evangelical energy and those who know what once the may ever adopt this attitude? It was party was will see, when they look upon the essence of Protestantism to attack it now, only a fresh instance of the way prejudice : and they are the most zeal- in which zeal is pernicious, when its ous Protestants of the Church. The

purpose is an anachronism, and good chief doctrine of the Reformation was men wasted, when the mind is narrowed the right of private judgment; and to tradition, and the sympathies disthough many of the maxims of the

torted to party.

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EVERY poet pleads, and every critic poetic art—such, we mean, as affect laments, the difficulties opposed by an independent concrete existence, inmodern habits of thought, and the stead of merely serving to express the constitution of modern society, to the feelings of the writers as individuals.


subject to the antique or the ideal The contemporaries of the Constable world, the degree of his success does Bourbon can hardly have cared much but serve to measure the remoteness of about Orlando; and, in Tasso's day, the his exile from contemporary interests Holy Sepulchre, so far from being the and sympathies ; if, on the other hand, goal of a crusade, would not he endeavours to reflect the life around answer as a pretext for replenishing the him, he can no more escape alloying his Papal coffers. If, then, the universal strain with the transitory and acci- witness of the human heart justified dental than the diver can avoid bringing Mrs. Browning in her “Distrust" of up the oyster with the pearl. This is true ; but it cannot be said that the un

“ The poet who discerns

No character or glory in his times, happy divorce between the real and

And trundles back his soul five hundred years, ideal is the especial disaster of our Past moat and drawbridge, into a castle court," times. Few and brief have been the periods in human history when a vital the successive laureates of that lucky belief in a mythology capable of supply- house of Este ought to have been poetiing art with the most exalted themes

cally dead and buried long ago. The has co-existed with the ability to apply notoriety of the contrary fact suggests it to poetic usages. The reason is evi

that the utilitarian theory of poetry dent that such a degree of ability im- may perhaps be less sound than specious. plies a degree of culture and intelligence We see (and, if further example be rein presence of which the most pictu- quired, Spenser, Keats, Shelley, and resque legends disappear like

Schiller are at hand) that it is quite

possible for genius to disdain the ground “A withered morn,

of realities and yet exist—though, it may Smote by the fresh beam of the springing

be but as a wild, wandering beauty, a East.”

Strange bird of Paradise For two generations only was it pos- That floats through Heaven and cannot light." sible for the Greeks to retain, along with the civilization which permitted The modern impatience of the indirect their tragic poets to exemplify the per- operation of the humanizing and harfection of artistic skill no less than of monizing influences of art-the confunative power, the simple traditional sion of the poet's function with that of belief which gave their dramas a root in the philosopher, the legislator, the rethe national life as well as the national former- have only tended to make sense of beauty. Dante's contempo

writers conceited and readers unjust. raries readily explained the gloom of his Still, however extravagant the form aspect as the effect of his Stygian expe- in which it may sometimes find exriences ; but the Cardinal of Este, two pression, the desire to see poetry brought hundred and fifty years later, would into a more intimate relation with the probably have referred the Divine

referred the Divine practical needs of the age is in itself Comedy to the same category as the laudable and legitimate. In proportion Orlando Furioso. In fact, the difficulty to our appreciation of the elevating and of accomplishing the task on which refining character of its influences must modern criticism rather vociferously in- be our unwillingness to contemplate sists, of finding imaginative expression these as necessarily limited in their for the interests, aspirations, and social operation to a small literary class. It peculiarities of our own age, is so far cannot be said that contemporary poets from being any special characteristic of have, as a body, shown any indisposition the age in question that it would be “to grappie with the questions of the hard to point out any writers who have

On the contrary, their mistake more unequivocally succumbed to it has rather consisted in the failure to than the great Italian pair of the six- discriminate between those vitally and teenth century,–Ariosto and Tasso. eternally significant and the merely trans


ient and accidental features of the age. nor practical utility his main object, for We live in times exceedingly favourable his instinct assures him that the soul of to the development of the speculative poetry lies elsewhere. As the painter faculty-a period in which it is hardly does not conceive the universe to be all possible to reflect seriously on any im- colour, as the musician has eyes as well portant topic without encountering some as ears, so he himself does not regard problem in urgent need of solution. The poetry as sunlight, steeping the universe answers which for so many centuries in a flood of monotonous radiance, but have more or less contented the inquir- as the intense electric beam, whose ing mind of man are now found to have splendid concentration on some objects been merely provisional; and, while only serves to isolate them from the old questions are being reopened on all surrounding darkness. Consequently, he sides, the gigantic development of phy- will be an eclectic, content with selectsical and political science has suggested ing from the mass of contemporary an infinity of new ones. By virtue of interests those themes alone which its peculiar sensitiveness, the poetic is appear to him susceptible of poetic treateven more likely than the ordinary mind ment; like a bee, he alights only upon

, to conceive an intense interest in some flowers. Thus, though Mr. Tennyson is of these problems; and it is the v«ry law one of the most thoughtful of men, famiof its being to reproduce its impressions liar with every branch of ethical and in its creations. Unfortunately, nothing abstract speculation, it is impossible to but an instinctive sense of artistic fitness extract anything like a theory of life will enable it to distinguish the perma- from his writings, simply because such a nent from the accidental features of its theory must necessarily take cognisance fascinating environment. We might of a multitude of details which he has mention two contemporary poets who intuitively perceived to be unpoetical. possess this delicate tact, but doubt if The same might have been said even of the list could be extended.

so eminent a thinker as Goethe, had he Some writers not merely by prefer- never written in prose. ence adopt a metrical form as the But, it may be asked, is the reader vehicle of thought, but are before all dependent on the fidelity of the writer's things poets. Their conception of a intuitions? Can he not determine for poet is not that of one writing to in- himself when he is or is not reading struct, to refine, to expound a plan of poetry? We might reply that he is life, to accomplish any end whatever himself frequently a participant in “the capable of being expressed with logical vision and the faculty divine,” even precision in words ; but whose aim, or though "the channels between thought rather call it instinct, is simply to com- and expression may have been obpose poetry. If you ask what this structed.” Perhaps, however, it may poetry is, they cannot tell you; they are be possible to discover

less abrupt only sure that it is an actual entity, as Gradus ad Parnassum. Painting, sculpreal an existence as painting or music. ture, music, are found to agree in the As painting, they would say, is not out- common aim of raising man above himline and colour, so neither is poet's lan- self-of substituting a state of emotion guage and rhythm ; these are simply the for one of tranquillity. If no emotion vesture of the spirit else invisible. As be excited by the sight of a painting or niusie is not an ingenious way of moving a statue, or the hearing of a piece of the passions, but a something which music, then either the spectator or lispossesses this among other properties, so tener is naturally insensible to the inthe power of poetry to exalt or admonish fluence of art, or has temporarily become is indeed an inherent quality, but not so through satiety, pre-occupation, or the essence of poetry itself. A writer infirmity, or else the merits of the work who has risen to this conception of his itself are merely of a technical character.

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