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which produced it has decayed or represent in Parliament the interests of altered ; and partly by the lay-organiza- the party, and that on the strength tion of the school by which it is pro- simply of a good life and great activity fessed. This organization is not the in philanthropic movements, without less powerful from being indirect, or extreme personal popularity, without less operative from being in great mea- distinguished talent for business, withsure unacknowledged and unaccredited. out commanding eloquence, without Clergymen have remarked in our hearing, extensive knowledge, without profound“There is no such name as Evangelical ness of thought, without much sound“ formally adopted by the party; we ness of judgment,—is a fact as strange
not a party, and have no party as it is unfortunate ; unfortunate be" titles." We could produce evidence, cause it shows the change in the party, if necessary, to show that the title is
thus crystallized no less in its personnel formally adopted by those who are recog- than in its principles. Of the methods, nized as leaders; and that not casually, however, by which the party is conbut purposely, and as a distinctive ap- trolled, — without enlarging upon the pellation. It was to a collective body, Evangelical press, the office and power not a mere mass of individuals, that the of which is well known, and accurately Earl of Shaftesbury, during the late war, appreciated, --- the first that deserves addressed, as though from some Vatican, mention is the influence of constant his instructions as to the side which his changes in the subject of agitation sugfollowers were to favour in their prayers: gested. An army long engaged at any and it is to a united sect, and not a mass one work becomes demoralised ; give of units, that the Record alludes when variety to their labours, and discipline it speaks of “Christian people.” It may is at once secured. “Let them have perhaps be worth while to examine a plenty of marching," said Lamoricière of little more fully into the nature and the Irish Brigade. Perhaps the time of extent of this organization. One of its great protests and declarations is now most characteristic features is, that it passed, when it was possible for any includes a very large lay element. All canvassing secretary to cast his eye over who pay any attention to the subject are a printed list of his party, affirming as familiar with the names of numbers of one man their prescribed adherence to laymen, -noblemen, bankers, retired this doctrine, or regulated abhorrence of officers, and others,—without whom no that innovation. But whether it be a combined action takes place, and without Gorham case
a Denison case, a whose authority no new step is con- Crystal Palace movement or a movesidered to be satisfactorily accredited. ment against Sunday bands, the cause There are many names whose duty it is of Indian education or the cause of a to serve simply as guarantees to the pro- grant to Maynooth, the drill is unceasvinces of the peculiar character of any ing. More than one “alliance” adopt it movement, polemic or otherwise ; and as their business to circulate among the that they can serve no other object is clergy of theirschool information as to the evident from the fact that they appear progress of each battle, and instruction so often, that the gentlemen who lend as to the petitions and funds which are them could by no possibility attend in to support the combatants engaged. The practice to all the interests which they loyalty of each disciple is as well known profess to direct. At the head of these by the petitions which he presents to stands one nobleman, whose name it Parliament from his parish, and the would be an affectation to omit. That manner in which he receives the depuany one man should have the directing tation from each “parent society," as power
which Lord Shaftesbury possesses, the fig-tree is known by its fruit. It is should appoint bishops, preside at every this working together, this simultagreat assembly, control personally nearly neity of action, that gives its coherence every leading man, inspire the press, to every result; that induces Mr. Ryle
to speak of the rest of the clergy of the of the strongest school of Evangelicals, Church of England as “our adver- it is not to be wondered at if the assosaries ;” that enables Canon Stowell to ciation is universally looked upon as quote the text which speaks of the the most active instrument of propaheavenly wisdom as “first pure, then gandism now existing. All the energies peaceable,” with the suggestive com- of the party are directed to its support. ment, “Purity first, peace afterwards." Three thousand clergymen give it active
Perhaps, however, organization de- assistance. Its annual income, from pends more on the distribution of pa- subscriptions, exceeds 40,0001.; and it tronage than on any other element. is a condition, expressed or implied, of The Evangelical school may be fairly said every grant, that the recipient of the to have now in their hands the appoint- bounty shall undertake to urge the ment of all the bishops, and about half Society's claims on his congregation, at the deans. The Evangelical bishops least on one stated occasion in the year. have on the whole been more successful In some cases, leading nien of the party than might have been expected; but, if do so on the distinct plea of its party the system is continued long, an entire character. Indeed, in the last report, preponderance of men wedded to a par- the Committee draw particular attention ticular system must be very dangerous. to the evangelical nature of their prinAnother arrangement, which secures a ciples, and ask their clerical friends to large number of the most important point it out more prominently to their livings to the same party is that of flocks. They publish distinct attacks, trusteeship. A certain number of clergy- not only on Romanism-one of their men, who succeed by co-optation, are select preachers is described by his bioentrusted, by legacies and subscriptions, grapher as looking on popery with hatred with the power of appointing to some and terror, “as if he saw the whole sysof the largest, though often not the most tem steaming direct from Hell," --but lucrative cures of the Church. One of also on Puseyism. The following is a the most important of these is that passage from one Incumbent's grateful which is known as Simeon's trust: letter, which is printed with official apwhich bestows the livings of Bath, probation :Clifton, Derby, Cheltenham, Bradford, “ Another case has struck me much, Beverley, and many others. It need “A young man, highly educated and in hardly be said, that all the appointments a responsible position, had been greatly are of one character. 1
“ attracted by Puseyism. He had long But the Evangelical “Carlton” is the “ attended a Puseyite place of worship; Church Pastoral-aid Society. This is “but, seeing a controversial lecture adan association, now in the twenty-sixth “ vertised, he determined to come and
of its existence, forsupplying curates “ hear it. He did so, and was so deeply and Scripture-readers to populous places. impressed, that he has never since reThe primary object is of course purely “ turned to his former Church. He is philanthropic ; and no one will for a now a most valuable help to me,”. moment deny the vast amount of aid (P. 38.) which it renders to the working clergy.
The employment of lay agency, it But this is not all. The society requires, may be mentioned, is an instrument of whenever a grant is given, that the as- much power in the hands of the Evansistant who is appointed to the parish gelicals, some of whom push it to a shall be approved by the Committee, remarkable excess. One clergyman of a and subject to their veto if his principles manufacturing town last year himself are not such as are thought deserving appointed thirty lay-missionaries to hold of aid. Now, considering that the work- prayer-meetings in his parish. One ing members of the Committee are all society, a very good and useful one, is * The present trustees are the Rev. Messrs.
established for the purpose of supplying
has more than a hundred in its pay. Young clergymen make the acquaintance It is conducted on the same principles of the great leaders, some of whom are as the Pastoral-Aid. Indeed the ar- on such occasions never wanting : and rangements of most of the religious from them they learn how war is waged, societies is of an evangelical cast: and and battles won. In London, the time there are few in whose Exeter Hall of the May Meetings in Exeter Hall is meetings an attack on some other party known as one of general rendezvous, of the Church is not received with and it is then that the inner circle of the heartiness of cheering which only champions hold council on their policy polemic zeal can raise. The Church and prospects. The large meetings are Missionary Society, which has existed held at various places ; one, the origin, sixty years, which has revolutionized we believe, of the rest, at Weston-superwhole nations in the interest of civilisa- Mare; one at Peterborough, one at tion and Christianity, whose converts Bristol, a large one at Islington ; and are numbered by the hundred thousand, others. The addresses are prepared with does service also as a party engine. Es- great care, special subjects being genetablished in imitation of methodist and rally allotted beforehand to each speaker; baptist associations for the same cause, and they show study, and, except in the and from the first under the guidance of case of the chief leaders, a diffident Pratt, Thornton, Venn, and other Evan
sense of the greatness of the occasion. gelicals of heroic mould, its committee- A small book is now before us, containrooms are still head-quarters of party ing the addresses delivered at one of the agency, its officers the chief promoters largest of these meetings in the year of the cause, and its publications contain 1858. It is called “The Church," is elaborate attacks on Tractarianism. “In published by Wertheim and Macintosh, “ its choice of mon,” says its select and edited by the Rev. Charles Bridges. preacher in 1858, “the Church Mis- Dr. McNeile, who is of course one of *sionary Society has erred rather in the speakers, seems to have urged the “ excess than in defect of holy jealousy. importance of the meeting, composed, “And thus, directly or indirectly, it has as he says, of the Evangelical clergy of “ become a rally-point and bulwark in the Church : and reminds his hearers
our Church. ... Let the Church Mis- that they are the salt of the whole mass. “sionary Society be cajoled or frightened, Canon Stowell follows him in an address " and many an Eli would tremble.” of which the following passages are There is again another means of
select examples. united action which has been devised "After all, what is the real tendency of late years for the same object, " of broad church principles,' as they clerical meetings. It has long been “ are called? Why the very name is customary for the clergy of many dis- “ sufficient to brand them; for we know tricts to meet for conversation and “ that “broad is the way, not of truth, mutual encouragement, though the cus- “ but of error; and that narrow is the tom has been chiefly adopted by those way' which leadeth to life eternal.”of the Evangelical school. But within (P. 19.) the last few years a system of monster “ There is as much hostility in the meetings has been brought into play. “ carnal mind to the distinctive doctrines There assemble, at stated periods, around “ of the gospel now as there was then; some well-known chief, a large number, yes, and among the clergy as among --sometimes two or three hundred, -of “ the laymen, however much it may be those clergymen who are known to be “ reserved or disguised.”—(P. 22.) of sound views, with a very few favoured “There can be (with regard to India) laymen. Addresses are delivered, ser- no longer uncertainty as to what we mons preached, and statements made. “have to apprehend, from the way in See, for example, the" Church Missionary
“ which Lord Stanley has spoken out. Intelligencer," January, 1855.
“ I thank God for his candour, while I “ bitterly deplore his godless senti- appeal to no private scandal ; we repeat "ments."-(P. 38.)
no anecdotes ; we quote the dicta only of The Rev. J. C. Ryle remarks that the leaders of the party. Of individual inExeter Hall is a fifth estate of the tolerance we do not complain; it is a fault realm. He laments that young men common to all ages and all parties. We are not as satisfactory as could be wished. shall not quote the Record ; even though “ How often, after writing to friends, some of the leaders acknowledge it as " and then advertising in the Record, their organ, by publishing their views in " Evangelical clergymen are obliged to its columns, we shall yet not urge against " put up with curates not established in their followers the rancour of which very “ the faith, and not up to the mark, many of them disapprove. When a “simply because no others are to be minister of a central manufacturing town, “ met with.” He laments that no effort who is usually courteous, and a favouris made to "put out of the Church” able specimen of his school, says that if men who differ from him in their views he knew any clergyman to hold the exof inspiration and future punishment. treme High Church view of the doctrine One more quotation we must give, and of Confession he would not allow him then dismiss the discourse with satisfac- to enter his family—“he could not trust tion:
him,"-we have no wish to charge the “ It is not uncommon now to hear of saying upon all those whose champion “ High-churchmen saying to Evangelical he is. But, when in every step that is “ clergymen, as was said in the time of taken in common by clergymen of this “ Ezra and Nehemiah, by Sanballat and party, in every union for purposes of “ Tobiah, “Let us build with you.' But philanthropy or spiritual communion “let us not be taken in by such sophis- there springs up at once a polemic spirit, “ try. Better build by ourselves, better often bitter and always uncompromising, “ let the work go on slowly, than allow it is a sign that the party in which such
Sanballat and Tobiah to come and can be the case has done its work, is “ build by our side. I believe that all shorn of half its strength for other and “ communion of that sort, all inter- holier purposes, and had better die. “change of pulpits with unsound men, But the Evangelical party is redeemed " is to be deprecated, as doing nothing by the working of its parishes. It is to “ but harm to the cause of God. I be- its credit that it is foremost in united “ lieve that by so doing we endorse the schemes of charity: it is to its credit, “sentiments of persons who have no to some extent, that foreign missions “ real love of Christ's truth. We en- have so increased and spread. But that “ able the High-church party to manu- which saves it from wreck, which atones “ facture ecclesiastical capital out of the for its arbitrary social maxims, which " Evangelical clergy, and to make people partly conceals its obnoxious polemic “ believe that we are all one in heart, organization, is the fact that the Evan“when, in reality, we differ in first gelical clergy, as a body, are indefatigable “ principles. From such unity and co- in ministerial duties, and devoted, heart “operation we pray to be delivered.” and soul, to the manifold labours of
Such are the chief features of the Christian love. The school, the savingsorganisation of a powerful and active bank, the refuge, all the engines of paschool in the Church of England. If rochial usefulness, find in them, for the ever that Church is to be again the most part, hearty supporters and friends. Church of the nation, if ever it is to There is a positive literature of parish lead a grand attack on vice, and folly, machinery. We have now before us a and worldliness, it cannot be by the small work on the subject by the miniscontinuance among this large portion of ter of a large parish in the south-west of her clergy of the spirit which seems to London, which gives the details of the animate their collective action. In esti- administration of such a system. The fiercest partisans; and it contains through- events more than one,—which has been out not one word of religious sectarianism generally accepted as a signal addition or hostile inuendo. Instead, there are to the stores of theological speculation or practical suggestions and information on criticism. Their most distinguished topics of which the following are some : men are not men of conspicuous learn-books for the sick, arrangement of ing; their most highly prized writings pulpit, management of voice, district seem even to slight the acquirements of visitors, psalmody, almoners, Sunday science and scholarship. And this is and other schools, maternity fund, early the case not only in their practice, but communion, charity sermons, meetings, in their theory. The spiritual element parish accounts, school books, rewards, of our nature is so highly exalted, that confirmation classes, the cooking of rice, the intellectual is looked upon with abrelief tickets, penny banks, soup in time solute suspicion. “The cultivation of of cholera, lending library, cottage lec- the intellectual powers,” says Dr. Close tures, open-air services, working men's (Sermons, 1842, p. 149), “can of itself seats in church, local collections, and “ have no tendency towards moral or books of memoranda. This parish, we spiritual good. ... Time cannot alter are bound to say, is but a specimen of “the deteriorating tendency of unasmany; and we could quote, but that “ sisted human intellect.” Of all studies such work is not the nobler for the discordant with the Church of England, praise of men, similar tracts, supplying Mr. Clayton, a well-known evangelical for parish circulation the annual narra- preacher, writes (Sermons, p. 239) : tive of progress in this kind of work. Young persons should especially be It is not necessary to dwell long on the “ careful to turn away from all such subject; it is patent, and easily appre- " dangerous speculations." Mr. Ryle, ciated. But when the history of the even when speaking of the duty of readEvangelical party is written, it will be ing and study, which he allows to be told of them, that with narrow-minded- neglected, makes the singular exception, ness and mistaken traditions, with little “I do not mean that we ought to read intellectual acquirements and ill-directed things which do not throw light upon zeal against their brothers in the Church, “ the word of God” (Home Truths, vol. they yet worked manfully in the pesti- vi.), and in his preface to a commentary lent and heathen by-ways of our cities, on St. Luke, shows his idea of the value and preached the gospel to the poor. of accurate criticism by the remark that
It remains to say a few words on the “the 'various readings' of the New intellectual attitude of the party. This “ Testament are of infinitesimally small is not the occasion to discuss points of importance.” The Rev. C. Bridges doctrine, or examine questions of eccle- (Weston Address, p. 46), somewhat siastical polity. But it is impossible not naïvely confesses, “with regard to the to remark that the position which this snares for the intellect, if we seek to body of clergymen, the appointed guides “ meet the great reasoner on his own to thinking and reflecting fellow-men, ground, he is more than a match for have deliberately and almost unani- us;" and Canon Stowell, apparently mously adopted, is one of direct an- with regard to a late edition of the New tagonism to intellectual progress and Testament, laments that “at this time research. In this one point they have some of our learned and critical men followed the tradition of the elders. “ do us more injury than advantage.” Venn wrote, in 1780, “Our God never Now it is well known that the last
prescribes a critical study of the few years have been years of great ad“ Hebrew text;" and since then it is vance in theological knowledge. Science, hardly too much to say, that his fol- ethnology, the history of language, aclowers have not led public opinion in curate scholarship, are doing much to any one point of mental advancement, assist the study of the Bible, and further or contributed one single work,—at all the progress of religious thought. It is