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Verse 22, ch. i. p. 4.
“ The end of all that has been hoarded up," &c. Four merchants of Çravasti considered (the first one), riches as the greatest blessing of life, (the second), houses, (the third), meeting his friends, (the fourth), the elixir of life. The king confiscated the riches of the first, the houses of the second were burnt up, the third lost his friends, and the fourth died. Bhagavat on hearing this spoke this udâna.
Verse 7, ch. viii. p. 37.
They whose minds are perverted,” &c. Dêvadatta, casting off the way taught by Bhagavat, was teaching that the five following fundamental rules were (necessary) to lead to the truth (paramârtha): 1. Not to make use of milk as a drink, for by so doing it harmed the calf; 2. not to eat meat, for by so doing sentient creatures were hurt; 3. not to cut off fringes (kha tsar), for it impaired the work of the weaver; 4. not to make use of salt; 5. not to live in forests, for it deprived the charitable of the merit of making alms.”
This account of the first schism in Buddhism is quite different from what is told by Spence Hardy and Bigandet. Dêvadatta's five propositions, according to them, were: 1. To live in forests ; 2. to eat only such food as they had collected themselves; 3. to wear only robes made of rags; 4. to abstain from fish and meat; 5. to dwell in unroofed places.
Hiuen Thsang saw in the kingdom of Karnasuvarna three convents occupied by followers of Dêvadatta, and who used neither milk nor butter (Si-yu-ki, x. p. 85). Fah-Hian says, in speaking of the kingdom of Kosala, “Dêvadatta also has a body of disciples still existing;
they pay religious reverence to the three past Buddhas, but not to Sakyamuni.1
I have not been able to explain the reason why salt was not used. The text is : "Lan-tsa bzah-bar mi bya-ste, dbang-phyung-tchen-pir khu-ba (or za) las yang-dag-par hbyung-bai phyir-ro."
It appears likely that on the fifth proposition, the Tibetan Comment must be wrong. As to the others, they may be made to agree, to a certain extent, with those given elsewhere.
Verses 1, 2, ch. ix. p. 39.
He gives up the one great rule," dc. The Ayuchmat Rahula was residing in a monastery at Râjagriha to perform penance, when Bhagavat came there to instruct him. Seeing Bhagavat coming from afar off, he prepared to one side a seat, a bath for his feet, and a footstool, and then he went forward to meet him, carrying his robe and his alms-bowl.
When Bhagavat's feet had been washed, he asked the Ayuchmat Rahula if there remained any water in the vase. The Bhadanta answered him that there was. “Well, Rahula, thou foolish man, who hast shunned the rules of virtue (who hast lied), thou art like that (dirty water left in the basin), I declare! He who knowingly tells lies, who is immodest, without shame, and who repents him not, is cast out of the priesthood, as is thrown away this (dirty water).”
This story is particularly interesting from the fact that it gives us a second version of the sermon to Rahula on lying, which sermon is mentioned in the Babra inscription of Asoka, where he says: “Thus, my lords, I honour in the first place these religious works—'Summary of Discipline,' «The State of the Just,’ ‘The Terrors of the Future,' The Song of the Wise,' “The Sutra on Conduct Befitting the Wise,' The Questions of Upatissa,' 'The Admonition to Rahula concerning Falsehood, uttered by the Blessed Buddha.'”i The Chuh-yau King agrees, I believe, with the Tibetan text and Comment.
1 See Beal's Chinese Pilgrims, p. 82.
Verse 11, ch. xi. p. 47.
Though one's hair may be grey,” &c. Bhagavat was residing in the Veratya (Virâta ?) ? country, near the Virâtanda (?). A Brahman of Virâta, a hundred years old and very decrepit, went noisily up to Bhagavat, and seizing him by the hem of his cloak, said to him: “Bho, Gautama, when you see very aged persons why do you not show them respect ? why are you not reverential ? why do you not rise from your mat and offer it to them?” &c. “Because among gods and men I have not found a real Brâhmana.” “ But those, Gautama, are immaterial (ro-med) beings, among such as I, who are not immaterial, who do you consider a (real) Brâhmana ?”
“He who has cast away all the allurements of form and desire, who has no worldly goods, who has not to re-enter the womb, who is free from the skandhas of regeneration.” “It is as if a Brahman had setting a lot of hen's eggs, and as soon as the chicks commenced to peck and to scratch at the shell he destroyed them.” “But, Gautama, I am an old man an elder!" "I, who have destroyed all the eggs in which ignorance showed itself-I am an elder for the whole world. Though one's hair may be grey," &c.
? See Rhys David's Buddhism, p. leagues west of Mathura. See 224.
Hiouen Thsang, iii. p. 336. 2 Virâta was about thirty-six 3 Kye Gautama, equivalent to
Verses 3 and 4, ch. xvi. p. 70.
By application and diligence,” &c. In Kosala a great number of Brahmans and householders were seated together in the playhouse (ltad-mossai khang-pa-na), as it was their custom to do now and then, to converse together. “Who are the beings,” some one asked, “who will pass beyond birth and death?” A severe ascetic answered: “They who remain seated (for a long time) in one place (stegs).” Another said: “They who make sacrifices and burnt-offerings.” Then Bhagavat said: "What think you, Brahmans and citizens (grihapati), if a dense forest or thick jungle had caught on fire and had (afterwards) been soaked by rain (and put out), would it grow again ?' "Certainly, Venerable one." “And why so ?” “ Because the roots have not been destroyed.” “Well, so it is with those who practise severe asceticism, or who remain seated (motionless), (passions will spring up afresh), because they have not completely destroyed attachment.” And then he spoke these two
Verses 3 and 4, ch. xviii. p. 78. “ Fear is born of the forest (of ignorance),” &c. In Râjagriha there lived two Brahmans, Nala and (his wife) Upanala. After a while Upanala brought forth a very fine-looking child. A very wise soothsayer, who saw the child a short time after (its birth), was displeased with the signs (he saw on it), in consequence of which he made sacrifices, &c., to call Brahmâ. “ What do you want?” (Brahmâ asked). “I want a long life for my son” (the father said). “I am not able to ensure that,” he answered, “but the great Rischis know how;" and with that Brahmâ vanished. When they had heard this, they invoked with sacrifices the great Rischi Himavatapuschpa,
an ascetic with great magical powers. So he also came, and having taken the child, he carried him off to his cell, where he became in course of time) eminently learned and worthy of homage. Once Yâma, the lord of death, appeared among the holy students, and admonished them that in seven days they must die. “ We have overcome your power,” they answered. Yâma answered: “You have not the power of the Holy One. When one, having been with the Buddha Bhagavat, who is living in the land of Vâranari, has become one of the elect (Ariyas), then he can rely on himself.” Then the five-hundred Rischis rose up in the air, after having produced (by magic ?) two great kesara trees to protect them from the heat of the sun, they went to hear the dharma. When the young Rischis heard the first words of Bhagavat's sermon, they threw away one tree, and when they had heard the latter part, they threw away the other one; on hearing the middle part, they all threw themselves to the ground. The sermon was the verses given above.
Verse 19, ch. xx. p. 89.
“He who is controlled," &c. I have thought it advisable to reproduce the following anecdote, as it recurs with slight changes in the “Sûtra in 42 sections," section vii. Several other stories are given in the Commentary which resemble to a certain degree those of this sûtra, but none as closely as this. It must be borne in mind that the “ Sutra in 42 sections” is also a compilation. Both works most likely drew from the same source.
The son of a Brahman called Venggika (sic) came to where Bhagavat was, and spoke many angry words to
i See Léon Feer in the introduce and especially M. Beal, Four Lection to his translation of this work, tures, p. 5.