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LA

ELEMENTS

OF

LATIN GRAMMAR,

,

FOR

SCHOOLS.

BY

ALBERT HARKNESS, Pi. D.,

PROFESSOR IN BROWN UNIVERSITY,

NEW YORK:
.D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

90, 92 & 94 GRAND STREET.
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN.

1870.

MAKVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

BY EXCHANGE

JUN 23 1939

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by

ALBERT HARKNESS, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the District of

Rhode Island.

PREFACE.

THE Preface to the author's Latin Grammar, published four years since, contains the following announcement:

“For the benefit of those who prefer to begin with a more elementary manual in the study of Latin, it is in contemplation to publish a smaller Grammar on precisely the same plan as the present work, and with the same mode of treatment.”

The work thus announced is now offered to the public. It is intended especially for those who do not contemplate a collegiate course of study, but it may be successfully used in any school where for special reasons a small Grammar is deemed desirable. Many teachers prefer an elementary text-book in the class-room, provided it can be properly supplemented in later study by a more complete discussion of the subject. But a manual which must soon give place to a more extended work on a different plan involves an inexcusable waste of time and labor. It burdens the memory of the pupil with rules and grammatical formulas which must, as far as possible, be unlearned as soon as he passes to his larger Grammar. The beginner needs to store his mind at the outset with the laws of the language in such forms of statement as he can carry with him throughout his whole course of study. The convenience and interest of the student in this regard have been carefully consulted in the preparation of

this work. Accordingly, all the paradigms, rules, and discussions have in general been introduced in the exact form and language of the author's Grammar, by which it may at any time be fully supplemented.

No separate references to this volume will ever be needed in editions of Latin authors, as the numbering of the articles is the same as in the larger Grammar. Thus one and the same reference will apply to both works.

In illustration of his general plan, the author begs leave to specify the following points :

1. This manual is designed to present a systematic arrangement of the great facts and laws of the Latin language; to exhibit not only grammatical forms and constructions, but also those vital principles which underlier control, and explain them.

2. Designed especially as a text-book for the class-room, it aims to introduce the beginner easily and pleasantly to the first principles of the language, and to present to him a general survey of the whole subject in a brief and concise statement of facts and laws.

3. By a studied attention to clearness and brevity, the author has endeavored to compress within the limits of this manual an amount of carefully selected grammatical facts not often found in the same compass.

4. In the regular paradigms, both of declension and of conjugation, the stems and endings have been distinguished by a difference of type, thus keeping constantly before the pupil the significance of the two essential elements which enter into the composition of inflected forms.

5. Syntax has received in every part special attention. An attempt has been made to exhibit, as clearly as possible, that beautiful system of laws which the genius of the

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