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Patriae solum omnibus carum est, The soil of their country is dear to all. Cic. Omni aetāti mors est commūnis, Death is common to every age. Cic. Similis lupo, similar to a wolf. Cic. Graeciae utile, useful to Greece. Nep.

1. ADJECTIVES WITH DATIVE.-The most common are those signifying: Agreeable, easy, friendly, like, near, necessary, suitable, subject, useful, together with others of a similar or opposite meaning, and verbals in bilis.

2. OTHER CONSTRUCTIONS Sometimes occur where the learner would expect the Dative:

1) Accusative with a Preposition: Multas ad res pèrūtĭlis, very useful for many things. Cic.

2) Accusative without a Preposition with propior, proximus :
Proximus măre, nearest to the sea. Caes. See 433 and 437.
3) Ablative with or without a Preposition :

Alienum a vita mea, foreign to my life. Ter. Homine ǎlienissimum, most foreign to man. Cic.

4) Genitive: (1) with proprius, commūnis, contrārius; (2) with simĭlis, dissimilis, assimilis, consimilis, par and dispar, especially to express likeness in character:

Populi Romani est propria libertas, Liberty is characteristic of the Roman people. Cic. Alexandri símílis, like Alexander, i. e., in character. Cic.

RULE XV.-Dative with Derivatives.

392. A few Derivative Nouns and Adverbs take the Dative after the analogy of their primitives:

Justitia est obtempĕratio legibus, Justice is obedience to laws. Cic. Congruenter nätūrae vīvěre, to live in accordance with nature. Cic.


393. The Genitive, in its general use, corresponds to the English possessive, or the objective with of, and expresses various adjective relations.

1. But sometimes, especially when Objective (396, II.), the Genitive is best rendered by to, for, from, in, on account of, etc. :

Běněficii gratia, gratitude for a favor. Cic. Lăbōrum fuga, escape from labors. Cic.

RULE XVI.-Genitive with Nouns.

395. Any Noun, not an Appositive, qualifying the meaning of another noun, is put in the Genitive:

Cătōnis ōrātiōnes, Cato's orations. Cic. Deum mětus, the fear of the gods. Liv. Vir consilii magni, a man of great prudence. Caes. See 363. 396. Varieties of Genitive with Nouns.-The principal varieties of the Genitive are the following:

I. The SUBJECTIVE GENITIVE designates the subject or agent of the action, feeling, etc., including the author and possessor:

Serpentis morsus, the bite of the serpent. Cic. Xenophontis libri, the books of Xenophon. Cic.

II. The OBJECTIVE GENITIVE designates the object toward which the action or feeling is directed:

Amor gloriae, the love of glory. Cic. Měmòria mălōrum, the recollection of sufferings. Cic.

III. The PARTITIVE GENITIVE designates the whole of which a part is taken:

Quis vestrum, which of you? Cic. Vitae pars, a part of life. Cic.

1. NOSTRUM and VESTRUM.-As partitive genitives, nostrum and vestrum are generally used instead of nostri and vestri.

2. USE.-The Partitive Genitive is used not only with nouns and pronouns, but also with adjectives and adverbs:

Equōrum pars, a part of the horses. Liv. Pecuniae tălentum, a talent of money. Nep. Quis vestrum, which of you? Cic. Consŭlum alter, one of the consuls. Liv. Prior hōrum, the former of these. Nep. Gallōrum fortissimi, the bravest of the Gauls. Caes. Armōrum affátim, abundance of arms. Liv. Săpientiae părum, little (of) wisdom. Sall.

IV. The GENITIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC designates character or quality, including value, price, size, weight, age,


Vir maximi consilii, a man of very great prudence. Nep. Vestis magni pretii, a garment of great value. Cic. Corōna parvi ponderis, a crown of small weight. Liv. See 402, III. 1.

1. A noun designating character or quality may be either in the Gen. or in the Abl. See 428.

1) But it must be accompanied by an adjective, numeral, or pronoun, unless it be a compound containing such modifier; as hujusmodi = hujus modi.

V. The GENITIVE OF SPECIFICATION has the general force of an Appositive (363):

Virtus continentiae, the virtue of self-control. Cic. Verbum voluptatis, the word (of) pleasure. Cic.

397. PECULIARITIES.-We notice the following:

1. The GOVERNING WORD is often omitted:

Ad Jovis (sc. aedem), near the temple of Jupiter. Liv. Hannibal annōrum novem (sc. puer), Hannibal a boy nine years of age. Liv. Conferre vitam Trebonii cum Dolabellae (sc. vita), to compare the life of Trebonius with that of Dolabella. Cic.

2. TWO GENITIVES are sometimes used with the same noun-generally one Subjective and one Objective:

Memmii ŏdium potentiae, Memmius's hatred of power. Sall.

3. GENITIVE AND POSSESSIVE.-A Genitive sometimes accompanies a Possessive, especially the Gen. of ipse, sōlus, ūnus, omnis:

Tua ipsius ǎmicitia, your own friendship. Cic. Meum sōlius peccatum, my fault alone. Cic.

398. OTHER CONSTRUCTIONS for the Genitive also occur.


2. An ADJECTIVE is sometimes used for the Genitive:

Conjux Hectŏrea = conjux Hectŏris, the wife of Hector. Virg.

3. The POSSESSIVE is regularly used for the Subjective Gen. of Personal pronouns, rarely for the Objective:

Mea domus, my house. Cic. Fama tua, your fame. Cic.

4. A CASE WITH A PREPOSITION may be used for the Genitive. Odium in hominum genus, hatred of or towards the race of men. Cic. Unus ex viris, one of the heroes. Cic.

5. A DATIVE depending on the VERB is sometimes used, instead of the Genitive depending on a noun:

Caesări ad pedes projícěre, to cast at the feet of Caesar, i. e., before Caesar at his feet. Caes.

RULE XVII-Genitive with Adjectives.

399. Many Adjectives take a Genitive to complete their meaning:

Avidus laudis, desirous of praise. Cic. Amans sui virtus, virtue fond of itself. Cic. Virtutum ferax, productive of virtues. Liv. Glōriae měmor, mindful of glory. Liv.

1. The genitive here retains its usual force-of, in respect of—and may be used after adjectives which admit this relation.

2. This genitive is most common:

1) With verbals in ax and participles in ans and ens used adjec


2) With adjectives denating desire, knowledge, skill, recollection, participation, mastery, fulness, and their contraries. See examples.

5. OTHER CONSTRUCTIONS for the Genitive also occur:

1) DATIVE: Mănus sŭbĭtis ăvidae, hands ready for sudden events. Tac. 2) ACCUSATIVE WITH PREPOSITION: Insuētus ad pugnam, unaccustomed to battle. Liv.

3) ABLATIVE WITH OR WITHOUT PREPOSITION: Prudens in jure civili, learned in civil law. Cic. Cūris văcuus, free from cares. Cic. Refertus bonis, replete with blessings. Cic.

6. The GENITIVE AND DATIVE occur with the same adjective: Sibi conscii culpae, conscious to themselves of fault. Cic.

RULE XVIII.-Predicate Genitive.

401. A Predicate Noun denoting a different person or thing from its Subject is put in the Genitive:

Omnia hostium ĕrant, All things belonged to the enemy.1 Liv. Sĕnātus Hannibalis ĕrat, The senate was Hannibal's, i. e., in his interest. Liv. Judicis est vērum sequi, To follow the truth is the duty of a judge.2 Cic. Oram Rōmanae ditiōnis fecit, He brought the coast under (of) Roman rule. Liv.

2. The PREDICATE GENITIVE is often nearly or quite equivalent to a predicate adjective (353, 1): hōminis est = hūmānum est, it is the mark of a man, is human. The Gen. is the regular construction in adjectives of one ending: săpientis est (for săpiens est), it is the part of a wise man, is wise.

402. The principal varieties of Predicate Genitive are:

I. SUBJECTIVE or POSSESSIVE GENITIVE generally best rendered byof, property of, duty, business, mark, characteristic of:

Est impĕrātōris supĕrāre, It is the duty of a commander to conquer. Caes. II. PARTITIVE GENITIVE:

Fies fontium, You will become one of the fountains. Hor.

III. GENITIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC-including value, price, size, weight,


Summae făcultātis est, He is (a man) of the highest ability. Cic. Opěra magni fuit, The assistance was of great value. Nep. See also 428.

1. The Genitive of Price or Value is generally an adjective belonging to pretii understood; but sometimes prětii is expressed:

Parvi pretii est, It is of little value. Cic. See 396, IV.

1 Lit. were of the enemy, or were the enemy's.
2 Lit. is of a judge.

2. Price and Value with verbs of buying, selling, and the like, are expressed

1) Regularly by the Ablative. See 416.

2) Sometimes by the Genitive of adjectives, like the Pred. Gen. of price: Vendo frumentum plūris, I sell grain at a higher price. Cic.

But the Gen. is thus used only in indefinite and general expressions of price and value. A definite price or value regularly requires the Ablative.

404. The POSSESSIVE is regularly used for the Predicate Genitive of personal pronouns :

Est tuum (not tui) videre, It is your duty to see. Cic.

RULE XIX.-Genitive with Certain Verbs.

406. The Genitive is used

I. With misĕreor and misĕresco:

Miserere lăbōrum, Pity the labors. Virg. Misĕrescite regis, Pity the king. Virg.

II. With recordor, měmĭni, reminiscor, and obliviscor:

Měminit praeteritōrum, He remembers the past. Cic. Oblitus sum mei, I have forgotten myself. Ter. Flagitiōrum recordāri, to recollect base deeds. Cic. Reminisci virtūtis, to remember virtue. Caes.

III. With refert and interest:

Illōrum refert, It concerns them. Sall. Interest omnium, It is the interest of all. Cic.

407. OTHER CONSTRUCTIONS with verbs of Remembering and Forgetting also occur:

1. The Accusative: Měmĭněram Paulum, I remembered Paulus. Cic.

2. The Ablative with De: Recordăre de ceteris, Bethink yourself of the others. Cic.

408. The CONSTRUCTION with Refert and Interest is as follows:

1. The PERSON OF THING interested is denoted

1) By the Genitive as under the rule.

2) By the Ablative Feminine of the Possessive:

Mea refert, It concerns me. Ter. Interest mea, It interests me. Cic.
This possessive regularly takes the place of the Gen. of personal pro-


2. The SUBJECT OF IMPORTANCE, or that which involves the interest, is expressed by an Infinitive or Clause, or by a Neuter Pronoun:

Interest omnium recte făcĕre, To do right is the interest of all. Cic.

3. The DEGREE OF INTEREST is expressed by an Adverb, by a Neuter used adverbially, or by a Gen. of Value (402, 1 and 2):

Magni interest mea, It greatly interests me. Cic.

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