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Hămilcărem imperātorem fēcērunt, They made Hamilcar commander. Nep. Ancum rēgem popủlus creāvit, The people elected Ancus king. Liv. Summum consilium appellārunt Senātum, They called their highest council Senate. Cic. Flaccum băbuit collēgam, He had Flaccus as colleague. Nep.

1. One of the two accusatives is the Direct Object, and the other an essential part of the Predicate. The latter may be called a Predicate Accusative. See 362.


RULE VII.-Two Accusatives—Person and Thing.

374. Some verbs of ASKING, DEMANDING, TEACHING, and CONCEALING, admit two Accusatives in the Active, and one in the Passive:

Me sententiam rögāvit, He asked me my opinion. Cic. Ego sententiam rógātus sum, I was asked my opinion. Cic. Philosophia nos res omnes docuit, Philosophy has taught us all things. Cic. Non te cēlāvi sermonem, I did not conceal from you the conversation. Cic.

1. PERSON AND THING.–One accusative generally designates the person, the other the thing : with the Passive the accusative of the Person becomes the subject and the accusative of the thing is retained. examples.

3. Verbs of Asking, Demanding, etc., sometimes take the Ablative with a preposition. With pěto, postŭlo, and quaero, this is the regular construction for the person:

Hoc a me poscěre, to demand this from me. Cic. Pācem a Romānis pětièrunt, They asked peace from the Romans. Caes.

5. A NEUTER PRONOUN or ADJECTIVE as a second accusative occurs with many verbs which do not otherwise take two åccusatives :

Hoc te hortor, I exhort you to this, I give you this exhortation. Cic. Ea monēmur, We are admonished of these things. Cic.

6. COMPOUND VERBS.—A few compounds of trans, circum, ad, and in admit two accusatives, dependent the one upon the verb, the other upon the preposition:

Ibērum copias trajēcit, He led his forces across the Ebro. Liv.

7. Poetic ACCUSATIVE.—In poetry, rarely in prose, verbs of clothing, unclothing-induo, exuo, cingo, accingo, indūco, etc.-sometimes take in the Passive an accusative in imitation of the Greek :

Găleam industur, He puts on his helmet. Virg. Inūtile ferrum cingìtur, He girds on his useless sword. Virg.

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RULE VIII.-Accusative of Time and Space. 378. DURATION OF TIME and EXTENT OF SPACE are expressed by the Accusative:

Romŭlus septem et trīginta regnāvit annos, Romulus reigned thirtyseven years. Liv. Quinque millia passuum ambúlāre, to walk five miles. Cic. Nix quattuor pedes alta, snow four feet deep. Liv.

1. DURATION OF Time is sometimes expressed by the Ablative, or the Accusative with a Preposition :

Pugnātum est hõris quinque, The battle was fought five hours. Caes. Per annos vīginti certātum est, The war was waged for twenty years. Liv.

2. DISTANCE is sometimes expressed by the Ablative:

Millibus passuum sex consēdit, He encamped at the distance of six miles. Caes. Sometimes with a preposition: Ab millibus passuum duobus, at the distance of two miles. Caes.

RULE IX.–Accusative of Limit. 379. The name of a Town used as the Limit of motion is put in the Accusative:

Nuntius Romam rědit, The messenger returns to Rome. Liv. Plăto Tărentum vēnit, Plato came to Tarentum. Cic. But

1. The Accusative with Ad occurs, especially in the sense of_to, toward, in the direction of, into the vicinity of:

Tres sunt viae ad Mětỉnam, There are three roads to Mutina. Cic. Ad
Zămam pervēnit, He came to the vicinity of Zama. Sall.

3. LIKE NAMES OF Towns are used
1) The Accusatives domum, domos, rus :

Scipio dỏmum rěductus est, Scipio was conducted home. Cic. Rus ēvõlåre, to hasten into the country. Cic.

2) Sometimes the Accusative of names of Islands and Peninsulas: Lātōna confūgit Dēlum, Latona fled to Delos. Cic.

4) With OTHER NAMES OF Places, a Preposition is generally used, though sometimes omitted:

In Asiam rădit, He returns into Asia. Nep. Aegyptum profugit, He fled to Egypt. Cic. Ităliam vēnit, He came to Italy. Virg.

5. A Poetic Dative for the accusative with or without a preposition


It clāmor coelo (for ad coelum), The shout ascends to heaven. Virg.

RULE X.-Accusative of Specification. 380. A Verb or Adjective may take an Accusative to define its application:

Căpita vēlāmur, We have our heads veiled (are veiled as to our heads). Virg. Nūbe hůměros ămictus, with his shoulders enveloped in a cloud. Hor. Aenēas os deo similis, Aeneas like a god in appearance. Virg.

2. This Accusative includes the adverbial use of partem, vicem, nihil, of id and genus in id temporis, id aetūtis (at this time, age), id genus, omne genus, quod genus (for ejus generis, etc.), etc., and of many neuter pronouns and adjectives.

Maximam partem lacte vivunt, They live mostly (as to the largest part) upon milk. Caes. Nihil mõti sunt, They were not at all moved. Liv. Quaerit, quid possint, He inquires how powerful they are. Caes. Quid věnis, Why do you come? Caes.

RULE XI.-Accusative in Exclamations. 381. The Accusative either with or without an Interjection may be used in Exclamations :

Heu me misèrum, Ah me unhappy! Cic. Me caecum, Blind that I am! Cic. Pro deorum fidem, In the name of the gods ! Cic.

NOTE.-For the Accusative as the SUBJECT OF AN INFINITIVE, see 545; as PREDICATE, 362; as APPOSITIVE, 363; with PREPOSITIONS, 433.

V. DATIVE. 383. A verb is often attended by a noun designating the object indirectly affected by the action, that to or FOR which something is or is done. A noun thus used is called an Indirect Object.

RULE XII.-Dative with Verbs. 384. The INDIRECT OBJECT is put in the Dative: I. With INTRANSITIVE and PASSIVE Verbs :

Tempóri cēdit, He yields the time. Cic. Sibi timuěrant, They had feared for themselves. Caes. Lăbori stúdent, They devote themselves to labor. Caes. Nobis vịta dăta est, Life has been granted to us. Cic.

II. With TRANSITIVE Verbs, in connection with the AcCUSATIVE:

Pons îter hostibus dědit, The bridge gave a passage to the enemy. Liv. Lēges civitātibus suis scripsērunt, They prepared laws for their states. Cic.

385. The Dative of Advantage and Disadvantage is used with verbs signifying to benefit or injure, please or displease, command or obey, serve or resist ; also, indulge, spare, pardon, envy, threaten, be angry,believe, persuade, and the like:

Sibi prūsunt, They benefit themselves. Cic. Nocēre altěri, to injure another. Cic. Zēnoni plăcuit, It pleased Zeno. Cic. Deo pārēre, to obey God. Cic. Rēgi servīre, to serve the king. Cic. Vītae parcěre, to spare life. Nep. Mìnštans patriae, threatening his country. Liv. Mihi crēde, Believe me. Cic.

1. OTHER CASES.—Some verbs of this class take the Accusative: dēlecto, juvo, laedo, offendo, etc.; fīdo and confido generally the Ablative (419):

Mărium jūvit, He helped Marius. Nep.

2. SPECIAL VERBS. -With a few verbs the force of the dative is found only by attending to the strict meaning of the verb: mědeor, to cure, to administer a remedy to; sătisfăcio, to satisfy, to do enough for, etc.

3. ACCUSATIVE or Dative with a difference of signification : vēre åliquem, to ward off some onė; căvēre ålicui, to care for some one; consúlére ăliquem, to consult, etc. ; alicui, to consult for; mětuěre, timêre áliquem, to fear, etc.; ălicui, to fear for.

386. Dative with Compounds. The dative is used with many verbs compounded with the prepositions:

ad, ante, con, in, inter,
ob, post, prae,


super: Adsum ămicis, I am present with my friends. Cic. Omnibus antestāre, to surpass all. Cic. Interfuit pugnae, He participated in the battle. Nep. Súperfuit patri, He survived his father. Liv.

2. COMPOUNDS OF OTHER PREPOSITIONS, especially ab, de, ex, pro, and circum, sometimes admit the Dative; while several of the compounds specified under the rule admit the Abl. : assuesco, consuesco, insuesco, acquiesco, etc.

Hoc Caesări dēfuit, This failed (was wanting to) Caesar. Caes. 387. The Dative of Possessor is used with the verb Sum :

Mihi est noverca, I have (there is to me) a stepmother. Virg. Fonti nõmen Arěthūsa est, The fountain has (there is to the fountain) the name Arethusa. Cic.

1. THE DATIVE OF THE NAME as well as of the possessor is common in expressions of naming: nõmen est, nomen dătur, etc. :

Scipioni Africāno cognomen fuit, Scipio had the surname Africanus. Sall.

388. Dative of Agent.-The Dative of Agent is used with the Participle in dus :

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Suum cufque incommodum ferendum est, Every one has his own trouble to bear, or must bear his own trouble. Cic.

1. DativE WITH COMPOUND TENSES.—The Dative of the Agent is sometimes used with the compound tenses of passive verbs:

Mihi consilium captum jam diu est, I have a plan long since formed. Cic.

1) The Dative of Agent, with the Participle in dus, as in the Periphras'tic Conjugation, designates the person who has the work to do; while with the Compound Tenses of passive verbs, it designates the person who has the work already done. See examples above.

4. DATIVE OF AGENT IN POETS.-In the poets the Dative is often used for the Ablative with a or ab, to designate simply the agent of the action :

Non intelligor ulli, I am not understood by any one. Ovid.

389. Ethical Dative.-A Dative of the person to whom the thought is of special interest is often introduced into the Latin sentence when it cannot be imitated in English:

At tibi věnit ad me, But lo, he comes to me. Cic. Quid mihi Celsus ăgit? What is my Celsus doing? Hor. Avārītia quid sõbi vult, What does avarice mean, or what object can it have? Cic. Hei mihi, ah me. Virg.

1. The ETHICAL Dative is always a personal pronoun.

RULE XIII.-Two Datives.-To which and For which.

390. Two Datives—the OBJECT TO WHICH and the OBJECT FOR WHICH-occur with a few verbs:


Mălo est hominibus švārịtia, Avarice is an evil to men (lit. is to men for an evil). Cic. Domus dõděcări dòmino fit, The house becomes a disgrace. to its owner. Cic. Hoc illi trībuēbātur ignāviae, This was imputed · to him as cowardice (for cowardice). Cic.

II. With TRANSITIVE Verbs in connection with the AcCUSATIVE:

Quinque cohortes castris praesidio rělīquit, He left five cohorts for the defence of the camp (lit. to the camp for a defence). Caes. Péricles agros suos dono rei publịcae dědit, Pericles gave his lands to the republic as a present (lit. for a present). Just.

RULE XIV.-Dative with Adjectives. 391. With Adjectives the OBJECT TO WHICH the quality is directed is put in the Dative:

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