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I. CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 343. SYNTAX treats of the construction of sentences. 344. A sentence is thought expressed in language. 345. In their STRUCTURE, sentences are either Simple, Complex, or Compound:

I. A SIMPLE SENTENCE expresses but a single thought: Deus mundum aedificavit, God made the world. Cic.

II. A COMPLEX SENTENCE expresses two (or more) thoughts so related that one is dependent upon the other:

Dōnec ĕris fèlix, multos nŭměrābis ămicos: So long as you are prosperous, you will number many friends. Ovid.

2. The part of the complex sentence which makes complete sense of itself-multos numerabis amicos-is called the Principal Clause; and the part which is dependent upon it—donec eris felix-is called the Subordinate Clause.

III. A COMPOUND SENTENCE expresses two or more independent thoughts:

Sol ruit et montes umbrantur, The sun descends and the mountains are shaded. Virg.

346. In their USE, sentences are either Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative, or Exclamatory.


A DECLARATIVE SENTENCE has the form of an asser

Miltiades accusatus est, Miltiades was accused. Nep.

II. An INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE has the form of a question:

Quis non paupertatem extimescit, Who does not fear poverty? Cic.

1. INTERROGATIVE WORDS.-Interrogative sentences generally contain some interrogative word—either an interrogative pronoun, adjective, or adverb, or one of the interrogative particles, ne, nonne, num:

1) Questions with ne ask for information: Scribitne, Is he writing? Ne is always thus appended to some other word.

2) Questions with nonne expect the answer yes: Nonne scribit, Is he not writing?

3) Questions with num expect the answer no: Num scribit, Is he writing? 2. DOUBLE QUESTIONS.-Double or disjunctive questions offer a choice or alternative:

Utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est, Is that your fault or ours? Cic. The first clause generally has utrum, num, or ne, and the second an or ne, but the particle is often omitted in the first.

3. ANSWERS.-In answers the verb or some emphatic word is usually repeated:

Dixitne causam? Dixit. Did he state the cause? He stated it. Cic. III. An IMPERATIVE SENTENCE has the form of a command, exhortation, or entreaty:

Justitiam cole, Cultivate justice. Cic.

IV. An EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE has the form of an exclamation:

Reliquit quos viros, What heroes he has left! Cic.


347. The simple sentence in its most simple form consists of two distinct parts, expressed or implied:

1. The SUBJECT, or that of which it speaks.

2. The PREDICATE, or that which is said of the subject: Cluilius moritur, Cluilius dies. Liv.

Here Cluilius is the subject, and moritur the predicate.

348. The simple sentence in its most expanded form consists only of these same parts with their various modifiers:

In his castris Cluilius, Albānus rex, moritur; Cluilius, the Alban king, dies in this camp. Liv.

Here Cluilius, Albānus rex, is the subject in its enlarged or modified form, and in his castris moritur, the predicate.

349. The subject and predicate, being essential to the structure of every sentence, are called the Principal or

Essential elements; but their modifiers, being subordinate to these, are called the Subordinate elements.

350. The elements, whether principal or subordinate, may be either simple or complex:

1. Simple, when not modified by other words.

2. Complex, when thus modified.

351. The simple subject of a sentence, expressed or implied, must be a noun or some word or words used as a


Rex decrevit, The king decreed. Nep. Ego scribo, I write. Cic.

353. The simple predicate must be either a verb or the copula sum with a noun or adjective:

Miltiades est accūsātus, Miltiades was accused. Nep. Tu es testis, You are a witness. Cic. Fortūna caeca est, Fortune is blind. Cic.

1. Like Sum several other verbs sometimes unite with a noun or adjective to form the predicate. A noun or adjective thus used is called a Predicate Noun or Predicate Adjective.




RULE I.-Predicate Nouns.

362. A Predicate Noun denoting the same person or thing as its Subject agrees with it in CASE:


Ego sum nuntius, I am a messenger. Liv. Servius rex est dēclārātus, Servius was declared king. Liv. Orestem se esse dixit, He said that he was Orestes. Cic. See 353.

1. In GENDER AND NUMBER Agreement either may or may not take place. But

1) If the Predicate Noun has different forms for different genders, it must agree with its subject in gender:

1 For Pred. Noun denoting a different person or thing from its subject, see 401.

Usus măgister est, Experience is an instructor. Cic. Historia est măgistra (not magister), History is an instructress. Cic.

RULE II.-Appositives.

363. An Appositive agrees with its Subject in CASE: Cluilius rex moritur, Cluilius the king dies. Liv.

atque Numantia, the cities Carthage and Numantia. Cic.


Urbes Carthago

1. In GENDER and NUMBER the appositive conforms to the same rule as the predicate noun. See 362, 1.


RULE III-Subject Nominative.

367. The Subject of a Finite Verb is put in the Nominative:"

Servius regnavit, Servius reigned. Liv. Pătent portae, The gates are open. Cic. Rex vicit, The king conquered. Liv. See 351.

2. SUBJECT OMITTED.-The subject is generally omitted when it is a Personal Pronoun, unless expressed for contrast or emphasis, and when it can be readily supplied from the context:

Discípulos moneo, ut studia ǎment, I instruct pupils to love their studies. Quint.

3. VERB OMITTED.-The verb is sometimes omitted, when it can be readily supplied, especially est and sunt:

Ecce tuae litterae, Lo your letter (comes). Cic. Tot sententiae, There are (sunt) so many opinions. Ter.

NOTE. For the Predicate Nominative, see 362 and 547.


RULE IV.-Case of Address.

369. The Name of the person or thing addressed is put in the Vocative :

Perge, Laeli, Proceed, Laelius. Cic. Quid est, Cătilīna, Why is it, Catiline? Cic.

1 A noun, or pronoun, used to explain or identify another noun, or pronoun, denoting the same person or thing, is called an appositive, and the noun, or pronoun, thus explained is called the subject of the appositive. In the first example, Cluilius is the subject, and rex the appositive.

2 For the subject of the Infinitive, see 545. For the agreement of the verb with its subject, see 460.


RULE V.-Direct Object.

371. The Direct Object of an action is put in the Accusative:

Deus mundum aedificavit, God made the world. Cic. Lībĕra rem publicam, Free the republic. Cic.

1. Many verbs, generally intransitive, sometimes admit an accusative of cognate or kindred meaning:

Eam vitam vivere, to live that life. Cic. Mirum somniare somnium, to dream a wonderful dream. Plaut.

2. The direct object may be used with all transitive verbs, whether with or without other cases. See 384, 410, 419.

3. Many verbs transitive in English are intransitive in Latin. See 385. Conversely, some verbs intransitive in English are transitive in Latin, or at least are often so used, especially verbs denoting

1) Feeling or Mental State: despēro, to despair of; děleo, to grieve for; rideo, to laugh at; sitio, to thirst for, etc.

Honōres desperat, He despairs of honors. Cic.

2) Taste or Smell: čleo, săpio, and their compounds, both literally and figuratively:

Olet unguenta, He smells of perfumes. Ter. Oratio redolet antiquĭtātem, The oration smacks of antiquity. Cic.

4. Many compounds of intransitive verbs with prepositions admit the accusative:

Murmur concionem pervāsit, A murmur went through the assembly. Liv. Rhenum transierunt, They crossed (went across) the Rhine. Caes.

6. PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION.-When a verb takes the passive construction


1) The direct object of the active becomes the subject of the passive,

2) The subject of the active becomes the Ablative of Cause (414) or the Ablative of Agent with a or ab (414, 5).

Thēbāni Lysandrum occiderunt, The Thebans slew Lysander. Passive: Lysander occisus est a Thēbānis, Lysander was slain by the Thebans. Nep.

RULE VI.-Two Accusatives-Same Person.

373. Verbs of MAKING, CHOOSING, CALLING, REGARDING, SHOWING, and the like, admit two Accusatives of the same person or thing:

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