« ZurückWeiter »
son of Tantalus;
daughter of Tantalus.
317. DESIGNATIONS OF PLACE are often formed with
318. DERIVATIVES are also formed with several other endings, especially with
diligence, friendship, goodness,
1. Arius and io generally designate one's occupation.
3. Tus designates some characteristic or condition.
4. Atus denotes rank, office, collection.
II. NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES.
319. From Adjectives are formed various Abstract Nouns with the endings
ia, ĭtia, ĭtas, ĭtūdo,
III. NOUNS FROM VERBS.
320. From the Present stem are formed Verbal Nouns with various endings, especially with
or; ium; men, mentum; bŭlum, culum, brum, crum, trum.
1. Or designates the action or state denoted by the verb.
2. Ium has nearly the same force, but sometimes designates the thing done: aedificium, edifice, from aedifico.
3. Men and mentum generally designate the means of an action.
4. Bălum, călum, brum, crum, trum designate the instrument or the place of the action.
321. From the Supine stem are formed Verbal Nouns with the endings
1. Or denotes the agent or doer. When t precedes, corresponding feminine nouns are generally formed by changing tor into trix: victor, victrix.
2. Io, us, and ura form abstract nouns, and denote the act itself.
DERIVATION OF ADJECTIVES.
322. Derivative adjectives are formed from Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, and Adverbs.
I. ADJECTIVES FROM NOUNS. 323. FULNESS.-Adjectives denoting fulness, abundance, supply, generally end in
full of courage, from
324. MATERIAL.-Adjectives designating the material of which anything is made generally end in
325. CHARACTERISTIC.-Adjectives signifying belonging to, derived from, generally end in
icus, flis, Inus, ius; ālis, ānus, āris, ārius, ensis.
326. Adjectives from Proper Nouns generally end in
1. Olus, ellus, and illus also occur as in nouns.
II. ADJECTIVES FROM ADJECTIVES. 327. DIMINUTIVES from other Adjectives generally end like diminutive nouns (315) in
328. Verbal Adjectives generally end in
of this day,
III. ADJECTIVES FROM VERBS.
bundus, cundus ; ĭdus, ĭlis, bilis, ax. mir-a-bundus, wondering, from miror.
worthy of love,
3. Ilis and bilis denote capability, generally in a passive sense. 4. Ax denotes inclination, generally a faulty one.
IV. ADJECTIVES FROM PARTICLES. 329. A few Adjectives are formed from Adverbs and Prepositions :
DERIVATION OF VERBS.
330. Derivative Verbs are formed from Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.
I. VERBS FROM NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.
331. Verbs formed from Nouns and Adjectives end in
1. Asco and esco occur in Inceptives. See 332, II.
II. VERBS FROM VERBS.
332. I. FREQUENTATIVES denote repeated or continued action. They are of the first conjugation, and are formed 1. From Supines in atum by changing ātum into ito: clam-ito, to exclaim, from clamo, clamatum. 2. From other Supines by changing um into o, sometimes ĭto:
habit-o, to have often, from habeo, habitum.
II. INCEPTIVES, or INCHOATIVES, denote the beginning of the action. They are of the third conjugation, and end in
to begin to freeze,
to begin to tremble,
1. Asco is used in inceptives from verbs of Conj. I., and in a few from nouns and adjectives: puer, puerasco, to become a boy.
2. Esco is used in inceptives from verbs of Conj. II., and in many from nouns and adjectives: dūrus, dūresco, to grow hard.
III. DESIDERATIVES denote a desire to perform the action. They are of the fourth conjugation, and are formed from the Supine by changing um into ǎrio:
to desire to eat, from ĕdo,
és-ŭrio, IV. DIMINUTIVES denote a feeble action. They are of the first conjugation, and are formed from the Present by changing the ending into illo:
to sing feebly,
DERIVATION OF ADVERBS.
333. Adverbs are formed from Nouns, Adjectives, Participles, Pronouns, and Prepositions.
334. Adverbs are formed from Nouns
1. By simply taking a case-ending, especially that of the ablative :
tempore, tempori, in time; forte, by chance; jure, with right, rightly.
2. By taking special endings:
1) atim, tim, denoting MANNER: grex, gregātim, by herds.
2) ĭtus, denoting ORIGIN, SOURCE: coelum, coelitus, from heaven.
335. Adverbs from Adjectives and Participles generally end in
doctus, docte, learnedly; elegans, eleganter, elegantly; celer, celeriter, quickly.
336. Various Adverbs are formed from Pronouns : thus from hic, ille, and iste are formed
337. A few Adverbs are formed from Prepositions, or are at least related to them:
intra, intro, within; ultra, ultro, beyond; in, intus, within.
COMPOSITION OF WORDS.
338. The elements of a compound may unite in three distinct ways:
I. The two elements unite without change of form: decem-viri, the decemvirs, ten men; ab-eo, to go away.
II. One element, generally the first, is put in an oblique case, generally the genitive, dependent upon the other: legis-lātor, legislator, from lex, legis, and lator.
III. The stem of the first element unites with the second element, either with or without a connecting vowel-generally bell-i-gero, to wage war, from bellum and gero, with connecting vowel; magn-animus, magnanimous, from magnus and animus, without connecting vowel.