Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

Tantal-ides,
Thes-ides,
Laert-iădes,
Thest-iǎdes, son of Thestius;

son of Tantalus;
son of Theseus;
son of Laertes;

Tantǎl-is,
Thes-eis,
Laert-ias,

daughter of Tantalus.
daughter of Theseus.
daughter of Laertes.
daughter of Thestius.

Thesti-as,

317. DESIGNATIONS OF PLACE are often formed with

the endings

[blocks in formation]

diligent-ia,

amic-itia,

bon-ĭtas,

sol-itūdo,

acr-imonia,

ium,

a statuary,
a player,
servitude,

virtue,
consulship,

318. DERIVATIVES are also formed with several other endings, especially with

ārius,

io,

am-or,
gaud-ium,

ĭtium,

diligence, friendship, goodness,

solitude,

sharpness,

statu-ārius,
lud-io,
serv-itium,

vir-tus,
consul-atus,

1. Arius and io generally designate one's occupation.
2. Ium and itium denote office, condition, or collection.

3. Tus designates some characteristic or condition.

4. Atus denotes rank, office, collection.

love,

joy,
orn-a-mentum, ornament,
voc-a-bulum, appellation,
simul-a-crum, image,

from

66

66

[ocr errors]

ile.

from

66

[ocr errors]

from

66

66

66

II. NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES.

319. From Adjectives are formed various Abstract Nouns with the endings

ia, ĭtia, ĭtas, ĭtūdo,

columba.

quercus.

ovis.

[ocr errors]

from

66

(6

(6

66

tus, ātus.

statua. ludus.

servus.

vir.

consul.

imōnia.

diligens.
amicus.

III. NOUNS FROM VERBS.

320. From the Present stem are formed Verbal Nouns with various endings, especially with

or; ium; men, mentum; bŭlum, culum, brum, crum, trum.

bonus.

solus.

acer.

amo.

gaudeo.

orno.

VOCO.
simulo.

1. Or designates the action or state denoted by the verb.

2. Ium has nearly the same force, but sometimes designates the thing done: aedificium, edifice, from aedifico.

3. Men and mentum generally designate the means of an action.

4. Bălum, călum, brum, crum, trum designate the instrument or the place of the action.

321. From the Supine stem are formed Verbal Nouns with the endings

audit-or,
audit-io,

or,

io,

hearer,

hearing,
singing,

painting,

anim-ōsus,
op-u-lentus,

al-atus,

turr-itus,
corn-ūtus,

us,

cant-us,

pict-ūra,

1. Or denotes the agent or doer. When t precedes, corresponding feminine nouns are generally formed by changing tor into trix: victor, victrix.

2. Io, us, and ura form abstract nouns, and denote the act itself.

from

66

66

<<

aur-eus,
cedr-inus,
popul-nus,
popul-neus,

DERIVATION OF ADJECTIVES.

322. Derivative adjectives are formed from Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, and Adverbs.

I. ADJECTIVES FROM NOUNS. 323. FULNESS.-Adjectives denoting fulness, abundance, supply, generally end in

ōsus,

lentus,

ātus,

full of courage, from
opulent,

<3

winged,
turreted,

horned,

golden,
cedar,

ūra.

[ocr errors]

audio.
audio.

Itus,

cano.

pingo.

from

xx

<<

<<

324. MATERIAL.-Adjectives designating the material of which anything is made generally end in

eus,

inus,

nus,

neus.

ütus.

animus.

opes.

ala.

turris.

cornu.

aurum.
cedrus.

of poplar,
of poplar,

325. CHARACTERISTIC.-Adjectives signifying belonging to, derived from, generally end in

icus, flis, Inus, ius; ālis, ānus, āris, ārius, ensis.

populus.

populus.

[blocks in formation]

from

66

66

66

68

66

326. Adjectives from Proper Nouns generally end in
ānus, iānus, īnus; iăcus, icus, ius; ensis, iensis; as, aeus, ĕus.
Rom-ānus, Roman,
Lat-inus, Latin,
Corinth-ius, Corinthian,
Britann-icus, British,
Athen-iensis, Athenian,
Pythagor-eus, Pythagorean,

ŭlus, ǎla,
long-ŭlus, a, um,
pauper-culus, a, um,

rather long,
rather poor,

1. Olus, ellus, and illus also occur as in nouns.

doc-ilis,

am-a-bilis,

aud-ax,

VERBS.

from

66

from civis.

(6

civis.

("

rex.

66

mors.

66

"C

II. ADJECTIVES FROM ADJECTIVES. 327. DIMINUTIVES from other Adjectives generally end like diminutive nouns (315) in

ǎlum, călus,

328. Verbal Adjectives generally end in

of this day,
contrary,

auxilium.

forum.

cùla, culum.

longus.
pauper.

III. ADJECTIVES FROM VERBS.

"

[ocr errors]

Roma.
Latium.

bundus, cundus ; ĭdus, ĭlis, bilis, ax. mir-a-bundus, wondering, from miror.

66

ver-e-cundus,

diffident,

docile,

worthy of love,
daring,

[ocr errors]

Corinthus.

Britannus.

Athenae.

Pythagoras.

vereor.
doceo.

amo.

audeo.

3. Ilis and bilis denote capability, generally in a passive sense. 4. Ax denotes inclination, generally a faulty one.

75

IV. ADJECTIVES FROM PARTICLES. 329. A few Adjectives are formed from Adverbs and Prepositions :

hodiernus,

contrarius,

from hodie.

"C

contra.

DERIVATION OF VERBS.

330. Derivative Verbs are formed from Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.

I. VERBS FROM NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.

331. Verbs formed from Nouns and Adjectives end in

Conj. I.

Conj. II.
eo,

Conj. IV.
io.

nomino,
libĕro,

to name,
to liberate,

to shine,

to finish,

1. Asco and esco occur in Inceptives. See 332, II.

lūceo,

finio,

from

66

gel-asco,
rub-esco,

trĕm-isco,

[ocr errors]

66

II. VERBS FROM VERBS.

332. I. FREQUENTATIVES denote repeated or continued action. They are of the first conjugation, and are formed 1. From Supines in atum by changing ātum into ito: clam-ito, to exclaim, from clamo, clamatum. 2. From other Supines by changing um into o, sometimes ĭto:

from

66

66

habit-o, to have often, from habeo, habitum.
lect-ito,
to read often,

66

lego,

lectum.

II. INCEPTIVES, or INCHOATIVES, denote the beginning of the action. They are of the third conjugation, and end in

asco,

esco,

isco.

to begin to freeze,
to grow red,

to begin to tremble,

nomen.

liber.

lux.

finis.

gělo,

rubeo,

trăm,

âre.
ère.

ĕre.

1. Asco is used in inceptives from verbs of Conj. I., and in a few from nouns and adjectives: puer, puerasco, to become a boy.

2. Esco is used in inceptives from verbs of Conj. II., and in many from nouns and adjectives: dūrus, dūresco, to grow hard.

from

III. DESIDERATIVES denote a desire to perform the action. They are of the fourth conjugation, and are formed from the Supine by changing um into ǎrio:

to desire to eat, from ĕdo,

ēsum.

és-ŭrio, IV. DIMINUTIVES denote a feeble action. They are of the first conjugation, and are formed from the Present by changing the ending into illo:

cant-illo,

to sing feebly,

canto.

DERIVATION OF ADVERBS.

333. Adverbs are formed from Nouns, Adjectives, Participles, Pronouns, and Prepositions.

334. Adverbs are formed from Nouns

1. By simply taking a case-ending, especially that of the ablative :

tempore, tempori, in time; forte, by chance; jure, with right, rightly.

2. By taking special endings:

1) atim, tim, denoting MANNER: grex, gregātim, by herds.

2) ĭtus, denoting ORIGIN, SOURCE: coelum, coelitus, from heaven.

335. Adverbs from Adjectives and Participles generally end in

e,

er,

ĭter.

doctus, docte, learnedly; elegans, eleganter, elegantly; celer, celeriter, quickly.

336. Various Adverbs are formed from Pronouns : thus from hic, ille, and iste are formed

hic,

here;

huc,
illuc,

illic,

there;

istic, *there;

istūc,

hither; hinc,
thither; illinc,

thither; istinc,

hence. thence.

thence.

337. A few Adverbs are formed from Prepositions, or are at least related to them:

intra, intro, within; ultra, ultro, beyond; in, intus, within.

COMPOSITION OF WORDS.

338. The elements of a compound may unite in three distinct ways:

I. The two elements unite without change of form: decem-viri, the decemvirs, ten men; ab-eo, to go away.

II. One element, generally the first, is put in an oblique case, generally the genitive, dependent upon the other: legis-lātor, legislator, from lex, legis, and lator.

III. The stem of the first element unites with the second element, either with or without a connecting vowel-generally bell-i-gero, to wage war, from bellum and gero, with connecting vowel; magn-animus, magnanimous, from magnus and animus, without connecting vowel.

« ZurückWeiter »