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INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.
PRES. īrē.

PRES. iens. Gen. euntis.
PERF. īvissě.
FUT. stūrūs esse.

Fut. îtūrūs.
GERUND.

SUPINE.
Gen. eundi.
Dat.

eundõ. Acc. eundúm.

Acc, Ităm. Abl. eundo.

Abl. stū. 296. Queo, quire, quīvi, quitum, to be able, and Nequeo, nequire, nequīvi (ii), nequitum, to be unable, are conjugated like eo, but they want the Imperative and Gerund, and are rare, except in the Present tense.

DEFECTIVE VERBS. 297. Defective Verbs want certain parts: we specify the following:

I. PRESENT SYSTEM WANTING. Coepi, I have begun. Memini, I remember. Odi,

Odi, I hate. INDICATIVE. PERF. cocpi. . měmini.

ādī. PLUP. coeperăm.

mềminerăm.

oděrăm. Fut. Perr. coepěrð.

měmìněro.

öděro. SUBJUNCTIVE. PERF. сосреrim.

mminỸrim.

öderim. Plur. coepissēm.

měminissēm.

ūdissem. IMPERATIVE.

S. měmentě.

P. měmentötě.

INFINITIVE. PERF. coepisso.

měminisse.

õdisse. Fut. coeptūrès essē.

Ösūrús essē.

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PARTICIPLE. PERT. coeptės.

õsús.1 FUT. coeptūrės.

Ösūrūs. 1 Osus is active in sense, hating, but is rare except in compounds: exosus, perosus.

1. PASSIVE FORM.-With passive infinitives coepi generally takes the passive form: coeptus sum, ěram, etc. The Part. coeptus is passive in sense.

2. PRESENT IN SENSE.-Memini and õdi are present in sense; hence in the Pluperf. and Fut. Perf. they have the sense of the Imperf. and Fut.--Nori, I know, Perf. of nosco, to learn, and consuevi, I am wont, Perf, of consuesco, to accustom one's self, are also present in sense.

• II. PARTS OF EACH SYSTEM WANTING.

ast; -ēbăt;

ast;

āiăt;

1. Aio, I say, say yes.' INDIC. Pres. Wio, ais,

âiunt. Imp. āiēbăm, -ēbās,

-ēbāmės, -ēbātis, -ēbant. Perf. SUBJ. Pres. āiās,

āiant. IMPER. Pres. ai (rare). Part. Pres. āiens (as adjective).

2 Inquam, I say: INDIC. Pres. inquăm, inquis, inquit; inquimŭs, inquitis, inquiunt. Imp.

inquiēbăt;? Fut.

inquiēs, inquit; Perf.

inquistī, inquit; IMPER. Pres. inquě. Fut. inquito.

3. Fari, to speak. INDIC. Pres.

fātůr; Fut. fābõr,

fābitŭr; Perf. fātės sům, és,

est;

fāti súmŭs, estis, sunt. Plup. fātūs ērăm, erās, erăt; fāti erāmės, erātis, ērant. SUBJ. Perf. fātès sim, sīs, sỉt; fātī sīmŭs, sītis, sint.

Plup. fātės essěm, essēs, essět; fāti essēmŭs, essētřs, essent. IMPER. Pres. fārē. INFIN. Pres. fari. Part. Pres. (fans) fantis, Perf. fātės, Fut. fandŭs. GERUND, Gen. and Abl. fandi, dố. SUPINE, Abl. fātū.

III. IMPERATIVES AND ISOLATED FORMS.

1. IMPERATIVES.—ăvē, avētě; avēt;

salvē, salvētě; salvēto;

Inf. avērě, hail.

salvērē, hail.

1 In this verb a and i do not form a diphthong; before a vowel the i bas the sound of y: a-yo, a'-is. See 9, 2.

? Also written inquibat.

2. ISOLATED FORMS. INDIC. Pres. Fut. SUB. Pres. Imp. confit,

confīăt, confiěrět, döfit, defiunt, defiet, defīăt, infît, infíunt,

INFIN. confiěrī, to be done. defièrī, to be wanting.

to begin.

IMPERSONAL VERBS.

298. Impersonal Verbs never admit a personal subject. They correspond to the English Impersonal with it: licet, it is lawful, oportet, it behooves.' They are conjugated like other verbs, but are used only in the third person singular of the Indicative and Subjunctive, and in the Present and Perfect Infinitive.

Lýbět

, liburt

causes

re

299. Strictly Impersonal are only : Docět, děcuit, ét becomes. ?

Pigot,
piguit,

it grieves.
it pleases."

pîgîtúm est, lībitům est,

Poenitět, poenituit, it Licēt, lịcuit, it is lawful.?

gret; poenitet me, I repent. lịcītům est,

,

it shames. Liquět, licuit, it is evident."

půdstèm est, Misěrět, misērstům est, it excites pity; Taedět, it wearics ; pertaedět, per. me miséret, I pity.

taesům est. Oportēt, oportuit, it behooves,

Pūdět

, { põduit,

301. Many other verbs are often used impersonally, especially in the Passive Periphrastic conjugation (231). The participle is then neuter: Mihi scribendum est, I must write ; illi scribendum est, he must write ; tibi creditur, you are believed ; certātur, it is contended; curritur, there is run. ning, people run.

OHAPTER V.

PARTICLES.

302. The Latin has four parts of speech sometimes called Particles : the Adverb, the Preposition, the Conjunction, and the Interjection.

1 The real subject is generally an infinitive or clause. ? These four occur in the third person plural, but without a personal subject.

303. The ADVERB is the part of speech which is used to qualify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs : celeriter currere, to run swiftly; tam celer, so swift; tam celeriter, so swiftly.

305. Most adverbs are derived from adjectives, and are dependent upon them for their comparison. The comparative is the neuter singular of the adjective, and the superlative changes the ending us of the adjective into ē: altus, altior,

altissimus, lofty.
alte,
altius,

altissime, loftily. 1. When the adjective is compared with măgis and maxime, the adverb is compared in the same way:

egregius, măgis egregius, maxime egregius, excellent.

egregie, măgis egregie, maxime egregie, excellently. 4. A few not derived from adjectives are compared : diū, diutius,

diutissime, for a long time. saepě, saepius, saepissime,

often.
sătis,
satius,

sufficiently.
nūper,

nuperrime, recently. 306. The PREPOSITION is the part of speech which shows the relations of objects to each other: in Italia esse, to be in Italy; ante me, before me. See 433-435.

307. Ambi, amb, around, about; dis, di, asunder; re, red, back; se, aside, apart; ne and ve, not, are called inseparable prepositions, because they are used only in composition.

308. CONJUNCTIONS are mere connectives : pater ET filius, the father and son; pater aut filius, the father or

son,

309. Conjunctions are divided, according to their use, into two classes :

I. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS,—which connect similar constructions : labor voluptasque, labor and pleasure; Carthaginem cepit ac diruit, he took and destroyed Carthage.

II. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS,—which connect subordinate with principal constructions : haec dum colligunt, effugit, while they collect these things, he escapes.

312. INTERJECTIONS are certain particles used as expressions of feeling, or as mere marks of address :

Ah, ēheu, heu, hei, alas ! ēn, eccě, lo, behold !

CHAPTER VI.

FORMATION OF WORDS.

313. WORDS may be formed in two ways:

I. By DERIVATION; i. e., by the addition of certain endings to the stems of other words : amor, love, from amo, to love.

II. By COMPOSITION; i. e., by the union of two or more words or their stems: benevolens, well-wishing, from bene, well, and volens, wishing.

1. SIMPLE and ComPOUND.—Words formed by composition are called Compounds ; those not thus formed are called Simple Words.

2. PRIMITIVE and DERIVATIVE.—Simple words formed by derivation are called Derivatives ; those not thus formed are called Primitives.

DERIVATION OF NOUNS.

314. Nouns are derived from other Nouns, from Adjectives, and from Verbs.

I. NOUNS FROM NOUNS. 315. DIMINUTIVES generally end in

ůlus, úla, úlum, cŭlus, cŭla, cŭlum.
hort-ŭlus, a small garden, from hortus, garden.
virg-ŭla,
a small branch,

virga,

branch.
oppid-ŭlum,
small town,

oppidum, town.
flos-cŭlus,
a small flower,

flos, flower.
part-i-cŭla,
a small part,

pars, part.
munus-cŭlum, a small present,

munus, present. 2. Olus, õla, olum are used for ŭlus, ŭla, úlum, when a vowel precedes: filiðlus, little son, from filius ; filiola, little daughter, from filia.

4. Ellus, ella, ellum; illus, illa, illum, are sometimes used : ocellus, small eye, from ocủlus.

316. PATRONYMICS, or names of descent, generally end in ides, īdes, iades, ades,

masculine, is, ēis, ias, as, feminine.

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