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3. In all accented syllables before one or more consonants, except the penultimate: dom'-i-nus, pat'-ri-bus. But
1) A, e, or o, before a single consonant (or a mute with 7 or r) followed by e, i, or y, before another vowel, has the long sound: a'-ci-es, a'-cri-a, me'-re-o, do'-ce-o.
2) U, in any syllable not final, before a single consonant or a mute with l or r, except bl, has the long sound: Pu'-ni-cus, sa-lu'-bri-tas.
9. DIPHTHONGS.-Ae and oe are pronounced like e:
Eu, neuter: neu'-ter.
1. Ei is seldom a diphthong, but when so used it is pronounced as in height; hei.
3. Ui, as a diphthong with the long sound of i, occurs in cui, hui, huic.
10. CONSONANTS.-The consonants are pronounced in general as in English, but a few directions may aid the learner.
11. C, G, S, T, and X are generally pronounced with their ordinary English sounds.
1. Cand g are soft (like s and j) before e, i, y, ae, and oe, and hard in other situations: ce'-do (sedo), a'-ge (a-je), a'gi; ca'-do (ka'-do).
1) Ch is hard like k: Chi'-os (Ki'-os).
12. Before i, preceded by an accented syllable and followed by a vowel, c, s, t and x are aspirated-c, s, and t taking the sound of sh, x that of ksh: so'-ci-us (so'-she-us), anx'-i-us (ank'she-us). C has also the sound of sh before eu and yo preceded by an accented syllable.
2. Tloses the aspirate-(1) after 8, t, or x; (2) in old infinitives in ier; (3) generally in proper names in tion (tyon).
13. An initial consonant, with or without the aspirate h, is sometimes silent.
CONTINENTAL METHOD OF PRONUNCIATION.
14. Each vowel has in the main one uniform sound, but the length or duration of the sound depends upon the quantity of the vowel. See 20.
The vowel sounds are as follows:
a like ä in father: a'-ra.
15. He and oe are pronounced like a in made, and au like ou in noun: ae'-tas, coe'-lum, au'-rum.
16. The pronunciation of the consonants is similar to that of the English method.
17. In the pronunciation of Latin, every word has as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs.
20. QUANTITY.-Syllables are in quantity or length either long, short, or common.'
21. LONG.-A syllable is long in quantity,
1. If it contains a diphthong: haec.
2. If its vowel is followed by j, x, z, or any two consonants, except a mute with 7 or r: rex, mons.
22. SHORT.-A syllable is short, if its vowel is followed by another vowel or a diphthong: di'-es, vi'-ae, ni'-hil.*
23. COMMON.-A syllable is common, if its vowel, naturally short, is followed by a mute with l or r: a'-gri.
24. The signs,,, denote respectively that the syllables over which they are placed are long, short, or common: ǎ-grō-răm.
25. ACCENTUATION.-Monosyllables are treated as accented syllables: mons, nos.
26. Other words are accented as follows:
1. Words of two syllables-always on the first: men'-sa. 2. Words of more than two syllables-on the penult if that is long in quantity, otherwise on the antepenult: hono'-ris, con'-sú-lis.
1 Common, i. e. sometimes long and sometimes short.
2 No account is taken of the breathing h (2, 2).
3 Penult, last syllable but one; antepenult, the last but two.
27. A second accent is placed on the second or third syllable before the primary accent,-on the second, if that is the first syllable of the word, or is long in quantity, otherwise on the third: mon'-u-e'-runt ; mon'u-e-ra'-mus; in-stau'-ra-ve'-runt.
28. In the same way, a third accent is placed on the second or third syllable before the second accent: hon'-o-rif-i-cen-tis'-si-mus.
29. ETYMOLOGY treats of the classification, inflection, and derivation of words.
30. The Parts of Speech are-Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections.
31. A Noun or Substantive is a name, as of a person, place, or thing: Cicero, Cicero; Roma, Rome; domus, house.
1. A PROPER NOUN is a proper name, as of a person or place: Cicero; Rōma.
2. A COMMON NOUN is a name common to all the members of a class of objects: vir, a man; equus, horse. Common nouns include
1) Collective Nouns-designating a collection of objects: populus, people; exercitus, army.
2) Abstract Nouns-designating properties or qualities: virtus, virtue; justitia, justice.
32. Nouns have Gender, Number, Person, and Case.
33. There are three genders'-Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
1 In English, Gender denotes sex. Accordingly, masculine nouns denote males; feminine nouns, females; and neuter nouns, objects which are neither
34. In some nouns, gender is determined by signification; in others, by endings.
35. GENERAL RULES FOR GENDER.
1. Names of Males: Cicero; vir, man; rex, king.
2. Names of Rivers, Winds, and Months: Rhenus, Rhine; Notus, south wind; Aprīlis, April.
1. Names of Females: mulier, woman; leaena, lioness. 2. Names of Countries, Towns, Islands, and Trees: Aegyptus, Egypt; Roma, Rome; Dēlos, Delos; pirus, pear-tree.
1. Indeclinable Nouns: fas, right; nihil, nothing. 2. Words and Clauses used as indeclinable nouns.
36. REMARKS ON GENDER.
1. The ENDINGS1 of nouns sometimes give them a gender at variance with these rules.
2. A few personal appellatives applicable to both sexes and a few names of animals are sometimes masculine and sometimes feminine: civis, citizen (man or woman).
4. Epicene Nouns have but one gender, but are used for both sexes. They apply only to the inferior animals, and usually take the gender of their endings: anser, goose (male or female), masculine; aquila, eagle, feminine.
II. PERSON AND
37. The Latin, like the English, has three persons and two numbers. The first person denotes the speaker; the second, the person spoken to; the third, the person spoken of. The singular number denotes one, the plural more than
male nor female. In Latin, however, this natural distinction of gender is applied only to the names of males and females; while, in all other nouns, gender depends upon an artificial distinction, according to grammatical rules.
1 Gender as determined by the endings of nouns will be noticed in connection with the several declensions.
38. The Latin has six cases:
1. OBLIQUE CASES.-In distinction from the Nominative and Vocative (casus recti, right cases), the other cases are called oblique (casus obliqui).
2. CASE ENDINGS.-In form the several cases are in general distinguished from each other by certain terminations called case-endings: Nom. mensa, Gen. mensae, &c.
3. CASES ALIKE.—But certain cases are not distinguished in form.
1) The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative in neuters are alike, and in the plural end in a.
2) The Nominative and Vocative are alike in all pure Latin nouns, except those in us of the second declension (45).
3) The Dative and Ablative Plural are alike.
Possessive, or Objective with of.
Objective with from, by, in, with.
39. The formation of the several cases is called Declension.
40. FIVE DECLENSIONS.-In Latin there are five declensions, distinguished from each other by the following
41. STEM AND ENDINGS.-In any noun, of whatever declension,
1. The stem may be found by dropping the ending of the genitive singular.
2. The several cases may be formed by adding to this stem the case-endings.
1 The case of a noun shows the relation which that noun sustains to other