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M. and F.

N. tristis

G. tristis

D. tristi

A. tristěm

V. tristis

A. tristi

152. ADJECTIVES OF TWO ENDINGS are declined as

follows:

Tristis, sad.

Tristior, more sad.

N. tristes

G. tristiùm

D. tristibus

A. tristes

V. tristes

A. tristibus

M. and F.

N. felix

G. felicis

D. felici

A. felicem
V. felix

A. felice, or I

Neut.

tristě

tristis

tristi

tristě

tristě

tristi;

N. felices
G. felicium

D. felicibus

A. felices

V. felices
A. felicibus.

tristiǎ

tristiŭm

tristĭbús

tristiǎ

tristiǎ

tristìbùs.

Neut.

felix

felicis

felici

felix

felix

felice, or I;

feliciă

felicium

felicibus

SINGULAR.

feliciǎ

feliciă
felicibus.

M. and F.

N. tristior

G. tristioris

D. tristiōrī

A. tristiōrěm

V. tristior

A. tristiōrě (1)

X

153. ADJECTIVES OF ONE ENDING generally end in s or x, sometimes in 7 or r, and are declined in the main like nouns of the same endings. The following are examples:

Felix, happy.

Prūdens, prudent.

PLURAL.

N. tristiores

G. tristiōrum

D. tristioribus

A. tristiōrēs

V. tristiōrēs

A. tristioribus

SINGULAR.

Neut.

tristiŭs

PLURAL.

tristiōris

tristiōrī

tristiŭs

tristiŭs

tristiōrě (I);

tristiōră

tristiōrum

tristiōrĭbus tristiōră

tristiōră tristiōrĭbus.

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ABLATIVE SINGULAR.

153. 3. Some adjectives have only e in general use, as the ending of the ablative singular-(1) Pauper, paupère, poor; pūbes, pubère, mature;— (2) those in es, G. ĭtis or ĭdis: āles, dēses, dīves, sospes, superstes ;—(3) caelebs, compos, impos, princeps.

NOMINATIVE, ACCUSATIVE, AND VOCATIVE PLURAL OF NEUTERS.

157. I. ENDING:-iǎ in positives: acriă, tristiă. II. ENDING:-ǎ in comparatives: tristiōră.

1. Větus, old, has vetĕră; complūres, several, compluriă or complūră.

2. The neuter plural is wanting in most adjectives of one ending, except those in as, ns, rs, ax, ix, ox, and numerals in plex.

GENITIVE PLURAL.

158. I. ENDING:-ium in positives: acrium, tristium. II. ENDING:-um in comparatives: tristiorum.

1. Some adjectives want the genitive plural.

2. Plures, more, and complures, several, have ium.

3. The following have um:

1) Adjectives of one ending with only e in the ablative singular (156, 3): pauper, paupĕrum.

2) Those with the genitive in ĕris, ŏris, ŭris: větus, vetěrum, old; měmor, memòrum, mindful; cicur, cicărum, tame.

3) Those in ceps: anceps, ancipitum, doubtful.

4) Those compounded with substantives which have um: inops (ops, ŏpum), inopum, helpless.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

160. Adjectives have three forms to denote different degrees of quality. They are usually called the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative degree: altus, altior, altissimus, high, higher, highest.

Comparatives and superlatives are sometimes best rendered into English by too and very, instead of more and most: doctus, learned; doctior, more learned, or too learned; doctissimus, most learned, or very learned.

162. Adjectives are regularly compared by adding to the stem of the positive the endings:

Superlative.

M.

F.

N.

issimus, issimă, issimum: Altus, altior, altissimus: high, higher, highest.

Comparative.
M. F.

N.

ior, iŏr, iùs.

163. IRREGULAR SUPERLATIVES.-Many adjectives with regular comparatives have irregular superlatives. Thus 1. Adjectives in er add rimus to the positive: acer, acrior, acerrimus, sharp.

2. Six in ĭlis add lĭmus to the stem:

Facilis, difficilis; easy, difficult.
similis, dissimilis; like, unlike.
gracilis, humilis ; slender, low;

thus: facilis, facilior, facillimus. Imbecillis has imbecillimus.

3. Four in rus have two irregular superlatives:

Extĕrus, exterior, extrēmus and extimus,
infĕrus, inferior, infĭmus and imus,
supĕrus, superior, supremus and summus,
postěrus, posterior, postrēmus and postumus, next.

upper.

Maledicus,
munificus,
benevŏlus,

164. Compounds in dicus, ficus, and volus are compared with the

endings entior and entissimus, as if from forms in ens:

maledicentior,
munificentior,
benevolentior, benevolentissimus,

165. SPECIAL IRREGULARITIES OF COMPARISON.

maledicentissimus,
munificentissimus,

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Citerior, citĭmus, nearer. deterrimus, worse.

deterior,

interior,

intimus, inner.
ocissimus,

ocior,

swifter.

minĭmus,
plurimus,

outward.

lower.

great.
small.

much.

slanderous.

liberal.
benevolent.

1. Plus is neuter, and has in the singular only N. and A. plus, and G. plūris. In the plural it has N. and A. plūres (m. and f.), plūra (n.), G. plurium, D. and A. pluribus.

166. POSITIVE WANTING:

prior, primus, former.
propior, proximus, nearer.
ulterior, ultimus, farther.

167. COMPARATIVE WANTING.-The comparative is wanting 1. In a few participles used adjectively: meritus, deserving.

2. In these adjectives:

Diversus, diversissimus, different. novus, novissĭmus, falsus, falsissimus, false. sǎcer, sacerrimus, inclytus, inclytissimus, renowned. větus, veterrimus,

Adolescens,

juvěnis,
senex,

168. SUPERLATIVE WANTING.-The superlative is wanting 1. In most verbals in ĭlis and bilis: docilis, docilior, docile. 2. In many adjectives in älis and îlis: capitālis, capitalior, capital. 3. Three adjectives supply the superlative thus:

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169. WITHOUT COMPARISON.-Many adjectives, from the nature of their signification, admit no comparison: aureus, golden; paternus, paternal.

4. quattuor,
5. quinque,

6. sex,
7. septem,

8. octo,

9. novem,

170. Many adjectives form the comparative and superlative by prefixing the adverbs măgis, more, and maxime, most, to the positive: Arduus, măgis arduus, maxime arduus, arduous.

NUMERALS.

new.

sacred.

old.

171. Numerals comprise numeral adjectives and numeral adverbs.

172. Numeral adjectives comprise three principal classes:

tertius, third,

quartus, fourth,
quintus, fifth,

sextus,

young.

young.

old.

1. CARDINAL NUMBERS: ūnus, one; duo, two.

2. ORDINAL NUMBERS: primus, first; secundus, second. 3. DISTRIBUTIVES: singuli, one by one; bini, two by two, two each, two apiece.

174. TABLE OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.

CARDINALS.

ORDINALS.

1. ūnus, una, unum,
2. duo, duae, duo,

primus, first,
secundus, second,

3. tres, tria,

septimus,

octavus,

nōnus,

quaterni.

quini.

sēni.

DISTRIBUTIVES.

singuli, one by one.

bīni, two by two.
terni (trini).

septēni.

octōni.

novēni.

1 Smallest or youngest in age. Natu is sometimes omitted.

2 Prior is used in speaking of two, and alter is often used for secundus.

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Singular.

N. ūnus, ūnă,

G. unius,

uniŭs,

D. uni,

uni,

unăm,

A. unům, V. uně, A. unō,

ună,

unā,

2. Distributives are used instead of Cardinals, with nouns plural in form, but singular in sense: bīna castra, two camps. Here for singuli and terni, ūni and trīni are used: trinae litterae, three letters.

ūnům,

unius,

DECLENSION OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.

175. On the declension of cardinals observe

1. That the units, unus, duo, and tres, are declined.

2. That the other units, all the tens, and centum are indeclinable.

unī,

unum,

unům,

unō

;

3. That the hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus.

4. That mille is sometimes declined.

176. The first three cardinals are declined as follows:

1. Unus, one.

2. Duo, two.

N. duo,
duae, duo,
G. duōrum, duārům, duōrům,2
D. duobus, duabus, duōbůs,
A. duōs, duo, duas, duo,
A. duobus, duabus, duobus.

DISTRIBUTIVES.

dēni.

undēni.

duodēni.

vicēni.

vicēni singuli.

singuli et vicēni

tricēni.

unis,

unōs,

unis,

centēni.

ducēni.

singula millia.
bīna millia.

trēs,

tribus,

Plural.

ūnī, ūnae, ünă,
unōrum, unārům, unōrům,

unis,

ună,

unīs.

unis, unās,

trēs, m. and f.

trium,

trìbus,

unis,

3. Tres, three.

triă, n.
trium,

tribus,

triă,

trìbus.

1 Sometimes bina millia or bis mille.

2 Duorum and duārum are sometimes shortened to duum.

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