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4.-IRREGULAR CASE-ENDINGS. The following occur:
1) Ubės for ībūs, used regularly in the Dat. and Abl. Plur. of

Acus, needle; arcus, bow; artus, joint; lăcus, lake; partus, birth ; pěcu, cattle; quercus, oak; spěcus, den; tribus, tribe; věru, spit: occasionally in a few other words, as portus, sinus, and tonitrus.

2) Uis, the uncontracted form for us, in the Gen. : fructuis for fructus.
3) U for ui, in the Dat. by contraction: equitātu for equitatui, cavalry.
117. Dõmus, house, is declined as follows:
SINGULAR.

PLURAL
N. domús

domüs
G. domūs, domi

domuŭm, domórům D. domui (domo)

domībūs A. domům

domās, domūs V. domūs

domūs A. domā (domū)

domībės. The Gen. domus, means of a house ; domi, at home : A. Pl. domus, nouses ; domos, often, homeward, to homes.

118. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER.--Feminine:

1. Acus, needle; cõlus, distaff; dõmus, house; mănus, hand; porticus portico; tribus, tribe.

2. Idus, ides; rarely spěcus, den.

FIFTH DECLENSION.

119. Nouns of the fifth declension end in es,-feminine, and are declined as follows: Dies, day.

Res, thing.

SINGULAR.

N. diēs G. diel D. diel A. diem V. dies A. diē

rēs rěl rồi rem rēs rē

PLURAL,

N. dies
G. diērům
D. diēbūs
A. dies
V. diēs
A. diēbús

rēs
rērům
rēbūs
rēs
rēs
rēbús.

4. IRREGULAR ENDINGS:—ē or î for ei in the Gen, and Datı: acie for aciệi.

5. DEFECTIVE.-Nouns of this declension, except dies and res, want the Gen., Dat., and Abl. Plur., and many admit no plural whatever.

120. EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER.- Masculine :—dies (sometimes fem. in Sing.), day, and meridies, midday.

COMPOUND NOUNS. 125. Compounds present in general no peculiarities of declension. But

1. If two nominatives unite, they are both declined: respublica (=res publica), reipublicae, republic; jusjurandum (= jus jurandum), jūrisjurandi, oath.

2. If a nominative unites with an oblique case, only the nominative is declined: păterfamilias (= păter familias (42, 3), or păter familiae), patrisfamilias, the father of a family,

IRREGULAR NOUNS. 128. INDECLINABLE.—The Latin has but few indeclinable nouns: fas, right; réfas, wrong; instar, equality; nihil, nothing.

130. DEFECTIVE.—Many nouns, from the nature of their signification, want the plural: Roma, Rome; justitia, justice; aurum, gold.

131., Many nouns want the singular, especially personal appellatives applicable to classes, and many names of cities : majores, forefathers; liběri, children; Athēnae, Athens ; Thebae, Thebes.

132. Some nouns have one signification in the singular and another in the plural: Thus

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Aedes, temple ;

aedes, (1) temples, (2) a house. Auxilium, help;

auxilia, auxiliaries. Castrum, castle, hut ;

castra, camp. Copia, plenty, force ;

copiae, (1) stores, (2) troops. Fīnis, end ;

fines, borders, territory. Gratia, gratitude, favor ;

gratiae, thanks. Impedimentum, hindrance ;

impedimenta, (1) hindrances, (2) bag

gage. Littěra, letter of alphabet ;

litterae, (1) letters of alphabet, (2)

epistle, writing, letters, literature. Mos, custom ;

mores, manners, character. 133. Some nouns are defective in case. Thus

1. Some want the nom., dat., and voc. sing. : (Ops), opis, help; (vix or vicis), vicis, change.

1 The Gen., Dat., and Abl. Plur. are wanting.

2. Some want the nom. and voc. sing.: (Daps), dăpis, food ; (ditio), ditionis, sway ; (frux), frūgis, fruit; (internecio), interneciānis, destruc. tion ; (pollis), pollinis, flour ; (prex), dat. prěci, prayer, wants also the gen. sing.

3. Some want the gen., dat., and abl. plur. See 119, 6.

So also many neuters : far, fel, mel, pus, rus, tus ; especially Greek neuters in os, which want these cases in the singular also : épos, mělos.

4. Some want the gen. plur. : thus many nouns otherwise entire, espe. cially monosyllables : nex, paz, pix; cor, cos, ros; sal, sol, luz.

134. Some nouns want one entire number and certain cases of the other: fors, chance, has only fors and forte. Many verbal nouns in u have only the abl. sing. : jussu, by order; mandātu, by command; rogātu, by request.

136. Heteroclites are partly of one declension and partly of another:

1. Jugěrum, an acre; regularly of the second Decl., except in the Gen. Plur., which is jugěrum, according to the third.

2. Vas, a vessel; of the third Decl. in the Sing., and of the second in the Plur. : vas, vāsis ; plural, vāsa, vasõrum.

3. Requies, rest; regularly of the third Decl., but with the forms requiem and requie of the fifth.

141. Heterogeneous nouns are partly of one gender and partly of another: Jocus, m. jest,

plural joci, m. joca, n. Locus, m. place,

loci, m. topics, loca, n. places. Coelum, n. heaven,

coeli, m. Epůlum, n. public feast,

epulae, f. banquet.

CHAPTER II.

ADJECTIVES.

146. The adjective is that part of speech which is used to qualify nouns: bonus, good; magnus, great.

The form of the adjective in Latin depends in part upon the gender of the noun which it qualifies : bonus puer, a good boy; bona puella, a good girl; bonum tectum, a good house. Thus bonus is the form of the adjective when used with masculine nouns, bona with feminine, and bonum with neuter.

147. Some adjectives are partly of the first declension and partly of the second, while all the rest are entirely of the third declension.

148. Adjectives of the FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS are declined as follows:

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SINGULAR.

Nomlīběr
Gen. liběr1
Dat. libero
Acc. liběrům
Voc.

liběr Abl. libero

līběră
liběrae
liběrae
libẹrăm
liberă
liběrā

līběrům liběrı libero liběrům liběrům liběr);

PLURAL,

Nom. liběrī
Gen. liberörům
Dat. liběrīs
Acc. liběros
Voc. liběrī
Abl. liberis

liběrae
liberārům
liběrīs
liběrās
liběrae
liběris

liběră
liberörům
liberis
liběră
liběră
liberis.

Aeger, sick.

SINGULAR.
Masc.
Fem.

Neut.
Nom. aegěr

aegră

aegrèm Gen. aegri

aegrae

aegri
Dat.
aegro
aegrae

aegro
Acc.
aegrům
aegrăm

aegrèm
Voc. aeger

aegră

aegrům
Abl.
aegro
aegrā

aegro;

PLURAL.
Nom. aegri

aegrae

aegră Gen. aegrörăm

aegrārům

aegrorům
Dat.
aegrīs
aegris

aegris
Acc.
aegros
aegrās

aegră
Voc. aegri

aegrae

aegră Abl. . aegris

aegris

aegrīs. 149. IRREGULARITIES.-These nine adjectives have in the singular īus in the genitive and I in the dative:

Alius, a, ud, another; nullus, no one; sölus, alone; tõtus, whole; ullus, any; ūnus, one; alter, -těra, -těrum, the other; ŭter; -tra, -trum, which (of two); neuter, -tra, -trum, neither.

2. I in ius is sometimes short; generally so in alterius. 3. Alius contracts the genitive aliius into alius.

151. THIRD DECLENSION.-Adjectives of THREE ENDINGS of the third declension are declined as follows:

Acer, sharp.

Masc.
N. ācěr
G. acris
D. acri
A. acrom
V. acěr
A. acrt

SINGULAR.

Fem. ācris acris acri acrěm acris acrī

Neut.
acro
acris
acri
acrě
acrē
acri;

N. acrēs
G. acriŭm
D. acribús
A. acrēs
V. acrēs
A. acrìbús

PLURAL.
acrés
acriům
acribůs
acrēs
acrēs
acržbús

acriă acriŭm acrìbús acriă acriă acribûs.

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