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51. CLASS II.-WITHOUT NOMINATIVE ENDING.

I. Nouns in 1 and r:—with stem unchanged in nominative. Sol, m. Consul, m. Passer, m. Vultur, m.

consul.
sparrow.

vulture.

Sun.

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N. sõlēs

consúlēs passeres vultūrēs G.

consúlům passěrům vultúrům D. solibús consulibús passérsbůs vultựribůs A. sölēs

consúlēs passérēs vultūrēs V. sõlēs

consúlēs passērēs vultŭrēs A. solibús. consullbůs. passerîbús. vulturibŭs.

II. Nouns in o and rith stem changed in nomina tive. Leo, m. Virgo, f. Pater, m. Pastor, m.

lion. maiden. father. shepherd.

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III. Nouns in en, us, and ut :-with stem changed in nominative. Carmen, n. Opus, n. Corpus, n. Caput, n. song. work. body.

head.

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ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. 85. ENDING:like Nom., ěm, îm. I. ENDING:,like nom. in neuters : măre, mare, sea. II. ENDING:—ěm, in most masculines and feminines : urbs, urbem. III. ENDING :—im, in the following:

1. In names of rivers and places in is not increasing in the genitive: Tibēris, Tibërim ; Hispălis, Hispălim ; also in Arar, Arărim.

2. In amussis, rule; būris, plough-tail; rāvis, hoarseness; sitis, thirst; tussis, cough ; vis, force.

3. Generally in: febris, puppis, secūris, turris ; sometimes in: clāvis, messis, nāvis, pars.

4. In Greek nouns, the endings im, in, en, and a occur.

VOCATIVE SINGULAR. 86. Some Greek nouns drops : Pallas, Palla.

A BLATIVE SINGULAR. 87. ENDING:, 1. I. ENDING :-ě, in most nouns; urbs, urbe, city. II. ENDING :-1, in the following classes of words: 1. In most neuters in e, al, and ar: sedile, sedili, seat.

2. In most adjectives in er and is used substantively: September, Septembri, September.

3. In nouns in is with im in the acc. (85); Tibēris, Tiběrim, Tibèri.

III. ENDING:-ě or i; in nouns with em or im in the Acc.: turris, turrem or turrim, turre or turri.

3. Some other nouns occasionally form the Abl. in i.

NOMINATIVE, ACCUSATIVE, AND VOCATIVE

PLURAL. 88. ENDING :- ēs, &, iă. I. ENDING:—ēs in masculines and feminines : urbs, urbes. II. ENDING:-, iš in neuters : 1. a in most neuters : carmen, carmina. 2. ia in neuters which admit i in the ablative (87, II.): măre, maria. III. GREEK ENDINGS :-ěs, as, is, ē. 3. Vis, force, has Plur.: vīres, virium, viribus, vires, vires, viribus.

GENITIVE PLURAL.

89. ENDING:–ăm, tăm.
I. ENDING:—úm in most nouns: Ico, leonum.
II. ENDING :-iúm in the following classes of words:
1. In neuters with ia in the plural: măre, maria, marium.

2. In most nouns of more than one syllable in ns and rs: cliens, clientium, client; cohors, cohortium, cohort.

3. In many nouns not increasing in the genitive: nūbes, nubium.

4. In monosyllables in s and x preceded by a consonant, and in a few in s and x preceded by a vowel : urbs; urbium, city; art, arcium, citadel ; nox, noctium, night.

5. In many nouns in as and is (Plur. ātes and ātes): Arpīnas, Arpinatium ; Samnis, Samnitium.

III. RARE ENDINGS :-on, in a few Greek words. Bos has boum.

DATIVE AND ABLATIVE PLURAL.

90. RARE ENDINGS are: 1. Is (or ibús)-in neuters in a : poēma; D. and A., poemălis, or poe

matibus, poem. 2. ubús—in bos, būbus, ox; sus, sūbus, swine.

GREEK GENITIVE SINGULAR. 92. ENDING :-sometimes os or i for is : Daphnis, Daphnědos for Daphnidis; Xerxes, derxi for Xerxis.

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3. Greek feminines in o have regularly us in the Gen, and the Greek ending o in the other cases : Dido, Didus, Dido, etc.

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EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. 100. EXCEPTIONS IN O.-Feminine, viz. : 1. Nouns in o, Gen. inis, except cardo, ordo, turbo, masc., cupido and

margo, masc. or fem. 2. Căro, flesh, and the Greek Argo, écho, an echo. 3. Most abstract and collective nouns in io; ratio, reason; concio, an

assembly. 101. EXCEPTIONS IN OR: 1. Feminine :-arbor, tree. 2. Neuter :—ădor, spelt; aequor, sea ; cor, heart; marmor, marble. 102. EXCEPTIONS IN OS: 1. Feminine :-arbos, tree; cos, whetstone; dos, dowry; eos, dawn. 2, Neuter :-08, mouth; os, bone; and a few Greek words: chaos. 103. EXCEPTIONS IN ER: 1. Feminine :-linter, boat (sometimes masc.). 2. Neuter :-(1) cadāver, corpse; iter, way; tūber, tumor; über, udder;

ver, spring; verber, scourge,-(2) botanical names in er, Gen.

èris : ăcer, maple-tree. 104. EXCEPTIONS IN ES: 1. Feminine :-compes, fetter; mercus, reward ; merges, sheaf; quies,

rest (with its compounds); séges, crop, and a few others. 2. Neuter :-aes, copper. 105. EXCEPTIONS IN AS: 1. Masculine:—as, an as (a coin), vas, surety, and Greek nouns in as,

G. antis. 2. Neuter :-vas, vessel, and Greek nouns in as, G. ātis. 106. EXCEPTIONS IN IS.-Masculine : 1. Nouns in ālis, ollis, cis, mis, nis, guis, quis: natālis, birthday;

ignis, fire; sanguis, blood. But a few of these are occasionally

feminine. 2. Axis, axle; ensis, sword; lăpis, stone; mensis, month; orbis, circle;

pulvis, dust, and a few others. 108. EXCEPTIONS IN X.-Masculine: 1. Greek masculines : corax, raven. 2. Nouns in ex and uns; except the feminines : faex, lex, nex, (prex,)

supellex. 3. Călix, cup; fornix, arch; trādux, vine-layer. 6. Sometimes: calx, heel; calx, lime; lynx, a lynx.

110. EXCEPTIONS IN S PRECEDED BY A CONSONANT.-Masculine : 1. Dens, tooth, fons, fountain, mons, mountain, pons, bridge; generally

ădeps, fat, and rūdens, cable. 2. Some nouns in ns, originally adjectives or participles with a masc.

noun understood: oriens (sol), east; confluens (amnis), con

fluence. 3. Chălybs, steel, and a few Greek words. 4. Sometimes : forceps, forceps; serpens, serpent; stirps, stock. Anž.

mans, animal, is masc., fem., or neuter. 112. EXCEPTIONS IN L.-Masculine : mūgil, mullet; sal (also neut. in sing.), salt; sol, sun.

113. EXCEPTIONS IN N: 1. Masculine :-—pecten, comb, and Greek masculines in an, en, in, on. 2. Feminine :-aēdon, nightingale; alcyon (halcyon), kingfisher.

114. EXCEPTIONS IN UR.-Masculine: turtur, turtle-dove; vultur, vulture.

115. EXCEPTIONS IN US: 1. Masculine :—lēpus, hare; mus, mouse; and Greek nouns in pus. 2. Feminine :—tellus, earth; fraus, fraud; laus, praise; and nouns in

us, Gen. utis or udis: virtus, virtue; pălus, marsh.

FOURTH DECLENSION.

116. Nouns of the fourth declension end in

us,-masculine; u-neuter. They are declined as follows: Fructus, fruit.

Cornu, horn.

SINGULAR.

N. fructůs
G. fructüs
D. fructul
A. fructům
V. fructůs
A. fructü

cornú
cornūs
cornữ
cornu
cornū

cornu

PLURAL,

N. fructus
G. fructuŭm
D. fructibús
A. fructüs
V. fructos
A. fructibús.

cornuă
cornuŭm
cornibús
cornuā
cornuă
cornibús.

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