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N. sōl

G. sōlis

D. sōli

A. sōlěm

V. sōl

A. sõlě

51. CLASS II.—WITHOUT NOMINATIVE ENDING.

I. Nouns in 1 and r:—with stem unchanged in nomi

native.

Sol, m.

sun.

N. sōlēs

G.

D. solibus

A. sōlēs

V. sōlēs

A. solibus.

Leo, m.

lion.

N. leo
G. leōnĭs

D. leōni

A. leōněm

V. leo
A. levně

N. leōnēs
G. leōnům

D. leonibus

A. leōnēs

V. leōnēs

A, leonibus.

Consul, m. Passer, m.

consul.

sparrow.

consul

consulis

consuli

consulěm

consul

consulě

consules

consŭlum

consulibus

consulēs

consulēs

consulibus.

Virgo, f.
maiden.

virgo

virginis

virgini

virginěm

virgo

virgině

virginēs
virginăm

virginibus

SINGULAR.

virginės

virginēs
virginibus.

passer

passĕris

passĕri

passĕrěm

passěr

passĕrě

PLURAL.

II. Nouns in o and r-with stem changed in nomina

tive.

passĕrēs

passěrům

passĕribus

passĕrēs

passĕrēs

passeribus.

Pater, m.

father.

SINGULAR.

pătěr

pǎtris

patrī

patrăm

patěr

patrě

PLURAL.

patrēs
patrum

patribus

Vultur, m.
vulture.

patrēs

patrēs
patribus.

vultur

vulturis

vulturI

vulturěm

vultur

vulturě

vultūrēs

vulturum

vulturibus

vultūrēs

vultures

vulturibus.

Pastor, m.

shepherd.

pastor

pastōrĭs

pastōrī

pastōrěm

pastor

pastōrě

pastōrēs
pastōrum

pastoribus

pastōrēs

pastūrēs
pastoribus.

III. Nouns in en, us, and ut:-with stem changed in nominative.

Carmen, n. song.

N. carměn

G. carminis

D. carmini

A. carměn

V. carměn

A. carmině

Opus, n.
work.

ŏpůs

opĕris

opĕri

opůs

opůs

opěrě

N. carmină

opěră
opěrům

G. carminum

D. carminibus operibus

A. carmină opěră

V. carmină

opěrǎ A. carminibus. operibus.

Corpus, n.
body.

SINGULAR.

corpus

corporis

corpori

corpus

corpus

corporě

PLURAL.

corporǎ

corporum

corporibus

corporă

corporǎ
corporibus.

Caput, n.

head.

căpăt
capitis

capiti

caput

caput

capĭtě

capĭtă capĭtům

capitibus

capită

capită

capitibus.

ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR.

85. ENDING:-like Nom., ěm, ĭm.

I. ENDING:-like nom. in neuters: măre, mare, sea.

II. ENDING:—ěm, in most masculines and feminines: urbs, urbem. III. ENDING:-ĭm, in the following:

1. In names of rivers and places in is not increasing in the genitive: Tiběris, Tiběrim; Hispălis, Hispălim; also in Arar, Arărim.

2. In amussis, rule; būris, plough-tail; rāvis, hoarseness; sitis, thirst; tussis, cough; vis, force.

3. Generally in: febris, puppis, secūris, turris; sometimes in: clāvis, messis, nāvis, pars.

4. In Greek nouns, the endings im, in, en, and a occur.

VOCATIVE SINGULAR.

86. Some Greek nouns drops: Pallas, Palla.

ABLATIVE SINGULAR.

87. ENDING:-ě, I.

I. ENDING:-ě, in most nouns; urbs, urbe, city.

II. ENDING:-1, in the following classes of words:

1. In most neuters in e, al, and ar: sedile, sedili, seat.

2. In most adjectives in er and is used substantively: September, Septembri, September.

3. In nouns in is with im in the acc. (85); Tiběris, Tiběrim, Tibĕri. III. ENDING:-ě or î; in nouns with em or im in the Acc.: turris, turrem or turrim, turre or turri.

3. Some other nouns occasionally form the Abl. in i.

NOMINATIVE, ACCUSATIVE, AND VOCATIVE

PLURAL.

88. ENDING:-ēs, ă, iă.

I. ENDING:-es in masculines and feminines: urbs, urbes.

II. ENDING:-ă, iă in neuters:

1. a in most neuters: carmen, carmina.

2. ia in neuters which admit i in the ablative (87, II.): măre, maria.

III. GREEK ENDINGS:-ěs, ǎs, is, ē.

3. Vis, force, has Plur.: vīres, virium, viribus, vires, vires, viribus.

GENITIVE PLURAL.

89. ENDING:-ŭm, iŭm.

I. ENDING:-um in most nouns: lco, leōnum.

II. ENDING:-ium in the following classes of words:

1. In neuters with ia in the plural: măre, maria, marium.

2. In most nouns of more than one syllable in ns and rs: cliens, clientium, client; cohors, cohortium, cohort.

3. In many nouns not increasing in the genitive: nubes, nubium.

4. In monosyllables in s and x preceded by a consonant, and in a few in s and x preceded by a vowel: urbs, urbium, city; arx, arcium, citadel; nox, noctium, night.

5. In many nouns in as and is (Plur. ātes and ītes): Arpīnas, Arpinatium; Samnis, Samnitium.

III. RARE ENDINGS:-on, in a few Greek words. Bos has boum.

DATIVE AND ABLATIVE PLURAL.

90. RARE ENDINGS are:

1. Is (or îbŭs)—in neuters in a: poēma; D. and A., poemătis, or poematibus, poem.

2. ubŭs—in bos, būbus, ox; sus, subus, swine.

GREEK GENITIVE SINGULAR.

92. ENDING:-sometimes os or i for is: Daphnis, Daphnidos for Daphnidis; Xerxes, Xerxi for Xerxis.

3. Greek feminines in o have regularly us in the Gen. and the Greek ending o in the other cases: Dido, Didus, Dido, etc.

EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER.

100. EXCEPTIONS IN O.-Feminine, viz. :

1. Nouns in o, Gen. inis, except cardo, ordo, turbo, masc., cupido and margo, masc. or fem.

2. Căro, flesh, and the Greek Argo, echo, an echo.

3. Most abstract and collective nouns in io; ratio, reason; concio, an

assembly.

101. EXCEPTIONS IN OR:

1. Feminine:-arbor, tree.

2. Neuter :-ădor, spelt; aequor, sea; cor, heart; marmor, marble.

102. EXCEPTIONS IN OS:

1. Feminine:—arbos, tree; cos, whetstone; dos, dowry; eos, dawn. 2, Neuter :-os, mouth; os, bone; and a few Greek words: chaos.

103. EXCEPTIONS IN ER:

1. Feminine:-linter, boat (sometimes masc.).

2. Neuter :-(1) cadăver, corpse; iter, way; tūber, tumor; über, udder; ver, spring; verber, scourge,—(2) botanical names in er, Gen. ĕris acer, maple-tree.

104. EXCEPTIONS IN ES:

1. Feminine:-compes, fetter; merces, reward; merges, sheaf; quies, rest (with its compounds); seges, crop, and a few others.

2. Neuter:-aes, copper.

105. EXCEPTIONS IN AS:

1. Masculine:-as, an as (a coin), vas, surety, and Greek nouns in as, G. antis.

2. Neuter :-vas, vessel, and Greek nouns in as, G. ătis.

106. EXCEPTIONS IN IS.-Masculine:

1. Nouns in alis, ollis, cis, mis, nis, guis, quis: natalis, birthday; ignis, fire; sanguis, blood. But a few of these are occasionally feminine.

2. Axis, axle; ensis, sword; lapis, stone; mensis, month; orbis, circle; pulvis, dust, and a few others.

108. EXCEPTIONS IN X.-Masculine:

1. Greek masculines: corax, raven.

2. Nouns in ex and unx; except the feminines: faex, lex, nex, (prex,)

supellex.

3. Călix, cup; fornix, arch; trādux, vine-layer.

6. Sometimes: calx, heel; calx, lime; lynx, a lynx.

110. EXCEPTIONS IN S PRECEDED BY A CONSONANT.-Masculine : 1. Dens, tooth, fons, fountain, mons, mountain, pons, bridge; generally ădeps, fat, and rudens, cable.

2. Some nouns in ns, originally adjectives or participles with a masc. noun understood: oriens (sol), east; confluens (amnis), confluence.

3. Chălybs, steel, and a few Greek words.

4. Sometimes: forceps, forceps; serpens, serpent; stirps, stock. Animans, animal, is masc., fem., or neuter.

112. EXCEPTIONS IN L.-Masculine: mūgil, mullet; sal (also neut. in sing.), salt; sol, sun.

113. EXCEPTIONS IN N:

1. Masculine:—pecten, comb, and Greek masculines in an, en, in, on. 2. Feminine:-aēdon, nightingale; alcyon (halcyon), kingfisher.

114. EXCEPTIONS IN UR.-Masculine: turtur, turtle-dove; vultur, vulture.

115. EXCEPTIONS IN US:

1. Masculine:—lěpus, hare; mus, mouse; and Greek nouns in pus. 2. Feminine:-tellus, earth; fraus, fraud; laus, praise; and nouns in us, Gen. utis or udis: virtus, virtue; pălus, marsh.

FOURTH DECLENSION.

116. Nouns of the fourth declension end in us,-masculine; u,—neuter.

They are declined as follows:

Fructus, fruit.

Cornu, horn.

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